Special Issue "Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Claudio Guarnaccia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil Engineering Department, University of Salerno, 4084 Fisciano SA, Italy
Interests: acoustics; environmental acoustics; room acoustics; field measurements; modeling and simulation; data analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Lamberto Tronchin
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Eng. Massimo Viscardi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Napoli, 80138 Napoli NA, Italy
Interests: acoustic; vibration; aircraft/train/automotive noise emission and control; environmental and interior acoustics; experimental testing methods; computational vibroacoustic; passive noise control; active noise control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modelling and simulation in acoustics problems are gathering more and more importance. In fact, with the development and improvement of innovative computational techniques, and with the growing need for predictive models, an impressive boost has been observed in this domain. The design of a model needs a proper conversion of reality to functions and parameters. On the other hand, once a model has been designed, an adequate simulation must be run, in terms of modelling and computational parameters. Keeping in mind the limitations and the approximations of any model, data analysis, both online and offline, is the last step of this process and can be extremely important to extract the required output from the process. This Special Issue is aimed at the collection of original research papers on theoretical and applicative studies on acoustics modelling, simulation, and data analysis. An interdisciplinary approach is encouraged. Research topics to be considered for a valid submission are all the issues related to the above description. Authors are invited to submit their work related to the following topics (but not limited to them):

  • Modelling and Simulation in Environmental Acoustics

  • Modelling and Simulation in Room Acoustics

  • Modelling and Simulation in Musical Acoustics

  • Online and offline data analysis

  • Predictive model implementation and validation

  • Residuals and Error evaluation and statistics

  • Signal analysis and parameters evaluation

  • etc.

Prof. Dr. Claudio Guarnaccia
Prof. Dr. Lamberto Tronchin
Prof. Eng. Massimo Viscardi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Acoustics

  • Vibration

  • Environmental acoustics

  • Room Acoustics

  • Modelling

  • Simulation

  • Data Analysis

  • Error evaluation and metrics

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5261; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235261 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
Modelling and simulation in acoustics is gathering more and more importance nowadays [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth in Mooring Chains
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112187 - 28 May 2019
Abstract
Offshore installations are subject to perpetual fatigue loading and are usually very hard to inspect. Close visual inspection from the turret is usually too hazardous for divers and is not possible with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) because of the limited access. Conventional nondestructive [...] Read more.
Offshore installations are subject to perpetual fatigue loading and are usually very hard to inspect. Close visual inspection from the turret is usually too hazardous for divers and is not possible with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) because of the limited access. Conventional nondestructive techniques (NDTs) have been used in the past to carry out inspections of mooring chains, floating production storage and offloading systems (FPSOs), and other platforms. Although these have been successful at detecting and assessing fatigue cracks, the hazardous nature of the operations calls for remote techniques that could be applied continuously to identify damage initiation and progress. The aim of the present work is to study the capabilities of acoustic emission (AE) as a monitoring tool to detect fatigue crack initiation and propagation in mooring chains. A 72-day large-scale experiment was designed for this purpose. A detailed analysis of the different AE signal time domain features was not conclusive, possibly due to the high level of noise. However, the frequency content of the AE signals offers a promising indication of fatigue crack growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Using ANN and SVM for the Detection of Acoustic Emission Signals Accompanying Epoxy Resin Electrical Treeing
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081523 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Electrical treeing is one of the effects of partial discharges in the solid insulation of high-voltage electrical insulating systems. The process involves the formation of conductive channels inside the dielectric. Acoustic emission (AE) is a method of partial discharge detection and measurement, which [...] Read more.
Electrical treeing is one of the effects of partial discharges in the solid insulation of high-voltage electrical insulating systems. The process involves the formation of conductive channels inside the dielectric. Acoustic emission (AE) is a method of partial discharge detection and measurement, which belongs to the group of non-destructive methods. If electrical treeing is detected, the measurement, recording, and analysis of signals, which accompany the phenomenon, become difficult due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and possible multiple signal reflections from the boundaries of the object. That is why only selected signal parameters are used for the detection and analysis of the phenomenon. A detailed analysis of various acoustic emission signals is a complex and time-consuming process. It has inspired the search for new methods of identifying the symptoms related to partial discharge in the recorded signal. Bearing in mind that a similar signal is searched, denoting a signal with similar characteristics, the use of artificial neural networks seems pertinent. The paper presents an effort to automate the process of insulation material condition identification based on neural classifiers. An attempt was made to develop a neural classifier that enables the detection of the symptoms in the recorded acoustic emission signals, which are evidence of treeing. The performed studies assessed the efficiency with which different artificial neural networks (ANN) are able to detect treeing-related signals and the appropriate selection of such input parameters as statistical indicators or analysis windows. The feedforward network revealed the highest classification efficiency among all analyzed networks. Moreover, the use of primary component analysis helps to reduce the teaching data to one variable at a classification efficiency of up to 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Mode Selection and Excitation Method in Rail Defect Detection
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061170 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Different guided wave mode has different sensitivity to the defects of rail head, rail web and rail base in the detection of rail defects using ultrasonic guided wave. A novel guided wave mode selection and excitation method is proposed, which is effective for [...] Read more.
Different guided wave mode has different sensitivity to the defects of rail head, rail web and rail base in the detection of rail defects using ultrasonic guided wave. A novel guided wave mode selection and excitation method is proposed, which is effective for detection and positioning of the three parts of rail defects. Firstly, the mode shape data in a CHN60 rail is obtained at the frequency of 35 kHz based on SAFE method. The guided wave modes are selected, combining the strain energy distribution diagrams with the phase velocity dispersion curves of modes, which are sensitive to the defects of the rail head, rail web and rail base. Then, the optimal excitation direction and excitation node of the modes are calculated with the mode shape matrix. Phase control and time delay technology are employed to achieve the expected modes enhancement and interferential modes suppression. Finally, ANSYS is used to excite the specific modes and detect defects in different rail parts to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the expected modes are well acquired. The selected specific modes are sensitive to the defects of different positions and the positioning error is small enough for the maintenance staff to accept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Vibroacoustic Stochastic Finite Element Prediction Tool for a CLT Floor
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061106 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Low frequency impact sound insulation is a challenging task in wooden buildings. Low frequency prediction tools are needed to access the dynamic behavior of a wooden floor in an early design phase to ultimately reduce the low frequency impact noise. However, due to [...] Read more.
Low frequency impact sound insulation is a challenging task in wooden buildings. Low frequency prediction tools are needed to access the dynamic behavior of a wooden floor in an early design phase to ultimately reduce the low frequency impact noise. However, due to the complexity of wood and different structural details, accurate vibration predictions of wood structures are difficult to attain. Meanwhile, a deterministic model cannot properly represent the real case due to the uncertainties coming from the material properties and geometrical changes. The stochastic approach introduced in this paper aims at quantifying the uncertainties induced by material properties and proposing an alternative calibration method to obtain a relative accurate result instead of the conventional manual calibration. In addition, 100 simulations were calculated in different excitation positions to assess the uncertainties induced by material properties of cross-laminated-timber A comparison between the simulated and measured results was made in order to extract the best combination of Young’s moduli and shear moduli in different directions of the CLT panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonuniform Bessel-Based Radiation Distributions on A Spherically Curved Boundary for Modeling the Acoustic Field of Focused Ultrasound Transducers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050911 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
Therapeutic focused ultrasound is a technique that can be used with different intensities depending on the application. For instance, low intensities are required in nonthermal therapies, such as drug delivering, gene therapy, etc.; high intensity ultrasound is used for either thermal therapy or [...] Read more.
Therapeutic focused ultrasound is a technique that can be used with different intensities depending on the application. For instance, low intensities are required in nonthermal therapies, such as drug delivering, gene therapy, etc.; high intensity ultrasound is used for either thermal therapy or instantaneous tissue destruction, for example, in oncologic therapy with hyperthermia and tumor ablation. When an adequate therapy planning is desired, the acoustic field models of curve radiators should be improved in terms of simplicity and congruence at the prefocal zone. Traditional ideal models using uniform vibration distributions usually do not produce adequate results for clamped unbacked curved radiators. In this paper, it is proposed the use of a Bessel-based nonuniform radiation distribution at the surface of a curved radiator to model the field produced by real focused transducers. This proposal is based on the observed complex vibration of curved transducers modified by Lamb waves, which have a non-negligible effect in the acoustic field. The use of Bessel-based functions to approximate the measured vibration instead of using plain measurements simplifies the rationale and expands the applicability of this modeling approach, for example, when the determination of the effects of ultrasound in tissues is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Multi-Physical Coupling Analysis of a Balanced Armature Receiver between the Lumped Parameter Method and the Finite Element/Boundary Element Method
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050839 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The balanced armature receiver (BAR) is a product based on multiphysics that enables coupling between the electromagnetic, mechanical, and acoustic domains. The three domains were modeled using the lumped parameter method (LPM) that takes advantage of an equivalent circuit. In addition, the combined [...] Read more.
The balanced armature receiver (BAR) is a product based on multiphysics that enables coupling between the electromagnetic, mechanical, and acoustic domains. The three domains were modeled using the lumped parameter method (LPM) that takes advantage of an equivalent circuit. In addition, the combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) was also applied to analyze the BAR. Both simulation results were verified against experimental results. The proposed LPM can predict the sound pressure level (SPL) by making use of the BAR parts dimension and material property. In addition, the previous analysis method, FEM/BEM, took 36 h, while the proposed LPM takes 1 h. So the proposed LPM can be used to check the BAR parts’ dimension and material property influence on the SPL and develop the BAR product efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison for the Effect of Different Attachment of Point Masses on Vibroacoustic Behavior of Parabolic Tapered Annular Circular Plate
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040745 - 20 Feb 2019
Abstract
In this paper, a comparison for the effect of different arrangement of point masses on vibroacoustic behavior of parabolic tapered annular circular plate with different taper ratios are analyzed by keeping the total mass of the plate plus point masses constant. Three different [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comparison for the effect of different arrangement of point masses on vibroacoustic behavior of parabolic tapered annular circular plate with different taper ratios are analyzed by keeping the total mass of the plate plus point masses constant. Three different arrangement of thickness variation are considered. The mathematical tool FEM using ANSYS is used to determine the vibration characteristic and both FEM and Rayleigh integral is used to determine the acoustic behavior of the plate. Further, Case II plate (parabolic decreasing increasing thickness variation) for all combination of point masses is found to have reduction in natural frequency parameter in comparison to other cases of parabolic tapered plate. In terms of acoustic behavior, sound power levels of different cases of plate with different point mass combination are observed. It is observed that the Case II plate with two point masses combination shows the highest sound power and the Case III plate for all cases of point mass combination is least prone to acoustic behavior. Furthermore, It is observed that at low forcing frequency average radiation efficiency of parabolic tapered plate for different arrangement of point masses is almost same, but at high forcing frequency average radiation increases for higher taper ratio. Finally, a brief discussion of peak sound power reduction and actuation for different arrangement of point masses with different taper ratios are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of a Sensorized Prodder for Landmine Detection by Using Its Vibrational Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040744 - 20 Feb 2019
Abstract
Prodders are widely used devices in landmine detection. A sensorized prodder has been developed to detect shallow buried landmines by their vibrational characteristics. However, the influencing mechanisms of prodder’s components on the measured vibrational characteristics are not clear, and the vibration intensity of [...] Read more.
Prodders are widely used devices in landmine detection. A sensorized prodder has been developed to detect shallow buried landmines by their vibrational characteristics. However, the influencing mechanisms of prodder’s components on the measured vibrational characteristics are not clear, and the vibration intensity of the buried landmine decreases with burial depth. A numerical analysis method is proposed to investigate the effects of parameters of prodder-object coupling system on the measured vibrational characteristics. The calculated main resonance frequency is 109.2 Hz, which corresponds well with the published analogy result of 110 Hz, and the mathematical method is also validated by the previous experimental results. Based on the proposed analysis method, an optimized prodder is designed, whereby the signal strength can theoretically increase 122.78%, which means that a greater depth of detection can be acquired. This optimal design is verified by the simulation experiment that was conducted with the optimization function of Adams software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Hearing in Noise: The Importance of Coding Strategies—Normal-Hearing Subjects and Cochlear Implant Users
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040734 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Two schemes are mainly used for coding sounds in cochlear implants: Fixed-Channel and Channel-Picking. This study aims to determine the speech audiometry scores in noise of people using either type of sound coding scheme. Twenty normal-hearing and 45 cochlear implant subjects participated in [...] Read more.
Two schemes are mainly used for coding sounds in cochlear implants: Fixed-Channel and Channel-Picking. This study aims to determine the speech audiometry scores in noise of people using either type of sound coding scheme. Twenty normal-hearing and 45 cochlear implant subjects participated in this experiment. Both populations were tested by using dissyllabic words mixed with cocktail-party noise. A cochlear implant simulator was used to test the normal-hearing subjects. This simulator separated the sound into 20 spectral channels and the eight most energetic were selected to simulate the Channel-Picking strategy. For normal-hearing subjects, we noticed higher scores with the Fixed-Channel strategy than with the Channel-Picking strategy in the mid-range signal-to-noise ratios (0 to +6 dB). For cochlear implant users, no differences were found between the two coding schemes but we could see a slight advantage for the Fixed-Channel strategies over the Channel-Picking strategies. For both populations, a difference was observed for the signal-to-noise ratios at 50% of the maximum recognition plateau in favour of the Fixed-Channel strategy. To conclude, in the most common signal-to-noise ratio conditions, a Fixed-Channel coding strategy may lead to better recognition percentages than a Channel-Picking strategy. Further studies are indicated to confirm this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
In-Depth Exploration of Signal Self-Cancellation Phenomenon to Achieve DOA Estimation of Underwater Acoustic Sources
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030570 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the ocean environment, the minimum variance distortionless response beamformer usually has the problem of signal self-cancellation, that is, the acoustic signal of interest is erroneously suppressed as interference. By exploring the useful information behind the signal self-cancellation phenomenon, a high-precision direction estimation [...] Read more.
In the ocean environment, the minimum variance distortionless response beamformer usually has the problem of signal self-cancellation, that is, the acoustic signal of interest is erroneously suppressed as interference. By exploring the useful information behind the signal self-cancellation phenomenon, a high-precision direction estimation method for underwater acoustic sources is proposed. First, a pseudo spatial power spectrum is obtained by performing unit circle mapping on the beam response in the direction interval. Second, the online calculation process is given for reducing the computational complexity. The computer simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain satisfactory direction estimation accuracy under the conditions of low intensity of acoustic source, strong interference and noise, and less array snapshot data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Channel Modelling and Estimation for Shallow Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication via Simulation Platform
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030447 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication is heavily dependent on channel estimation, which is predominantly researched by simulating UWA channels modelled in complex and dynamic underwater environments. In UWA channels modelling, the measurement-based approach provides an accurate method. However, acquirement of environment [...] Read more.
The performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication is heavily dependent on channel estimation, which is predominantly researched by simulating UWA channels modelled in complex and dynamic underwater environments. In UWA channels modelling, the measurement-based approach provides an accurate method. However, acquirement of environment data and simulation processes are scenario-specific and thus not cost-effective. To overcome such restraints, this article proposes a comprehensive simulation platform that combines UWA channel modelling with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) channel estimation, allowing users to model UWA channels for different ocean environments and simulate channel estimation with configurable input parameters. Based on the simulation platform, three independent simulations are conducted to determine the impacts of receiving depth, sea bottom boundary, and sea surface boundary on channel estimation. The simulations show that UWA channel estimation is greatly affected by underwater environments. The effect can be mainly attributed to changing acoustic rays tracing which result in fluctuating time delay and amplitude. With 10 m receiving depth and flat sea bottom, the channel estimation achieves optimal performance. Further study indicates that the sea surface has stochastic effects on channel estimation. As the significant wave height (SWH) increases, the average performance of channel estimation shows improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Acoustic Propagation Characteristics in a Fluid-Filled Polyethylene Pipeline
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020213 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fluid-filled polyethylene (PE) pipelines have a wide range of applications in, for example, water supply and gas distribution systems, and it is therefore important to understand the characteristics of acoustic propagation in such pipelines in order to detect and prevent pipe ruptures caused [...] Read more.
Fluid-filled polyethylene (PE) pipelines have a wide range of applications in, for example, water supply and gas distribution systems, and it is therefore important to understand the characteristics of acoustic propagation in such pipelines in order to detect and prevent pipe ruptures caused by vibration and noise. In this paper, using the appropriate wall parameters, the frequencies of normal waves in a fluid-filled PE pipeline are calculated, and the axial and radial dependences of sound fields are analyzed. An experimental system for investigating acoustic propagation in a fluid-filled PE pipeline is constructed and is used to verify the theoretical results. Both acoustic and mechanical excitation methods are used. According to the numerical calculation, the first-, second-, and third-order cutoff frequencies are 4.6, 10.4, and 16.3 kHz, which are close to the experimentally determined values of 4.7, 10.6, and 16 kHz. Sound above a cutoff frequency is able to propagate in the axial direction, whereas sound below this frequency is attenuated exponentially in the axial direction but can propagate along the wall in the form of vibrations. The results presented here can provide some basis for noise control in fluid-filled PE pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Regularization Factor Selection Method for l1-Regularized RLS and Its Modification against Uncertainty in the Regularization Factor
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010202 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a new l1-RLS method to estimate a sparse impulse response estimation. A new regularization factor calculation method is proposed for l1-RLS that requires no information of the true channel response in advance. In addition, we also [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new l1-RLS method to estimate a sparse impulse response estimation. A new regularization factor calculation method is proposed for l1-RLS that requires no information of the true channel response in advance. In addition, we also derive a new model to compensate for uncertainty in the regularization factor. The results of the estimation for many different kinds of sparse impulse responses show that the proposed method without a priori channel information is comparable to the conventional method with a priori channel information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Cracks in Metallic Material Using a Self-Organized Data-Driven Model of Acoustic Echo-Signal
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010095 - 28 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Non-linear acoustic technique is an attractive approach in evaluating early fatigue as well as cracks in material. However, its accuracy is greatly restricted by external non-linearities of ultra-sonic measurement systems. In this work, an acoustical data-driven deviation detection method, called the consensus self-organizing [...] Read more.
Non-linear acoustic technique is an attractive approach in evaluating early fatigue as well as cracks in material. However, its accuracy is greatly restricted by external non-linearities of ultra-sonic measurement systems. In this work, an acoustical data-driven deviation detection method, called the consensus self-organizing models (COSMO) based on statistical probability models, was introduced to study the evolution of localized crack growth. By using pitch-catch technique, frequency spectra of acoustic echoes collected from different locations of a specimen were compared, resulting in a Hellinger distance matrix to construct statistical parameters such as z-score, p-value and T-value. It is shown that statistical significance p-value of COSMO method has a strong relationship with the crack growth. Particularly, T-values, logarithm transformed p-value, increases proportionally with the growth of cracks, which thus can be applied to locate the position of cracks and monitor the deterioration of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Piano Key Vibration Level on Players’ Perception and Performance in Piano Playing
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2697; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122697 - 19 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the influence of piano key vibration levels on players’ personal judgment of the instrument quality and on the dynamics and timing of the players’ performance of a music piece excerpt is examined. In an experiment four vibration levels were presented [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of piano key vibration levels on players’ personal judgment of the instrument quality and on the dynamics and timing of the players’ performance of a music piece excerpt is examined. In an experiment four vibration levels were presented to eleven pianists playing on a digital grand piano with grand piano-like key action. By evaluating the players’ judgment of the instrument quality, strong integration effects of auditory and tactile information were observed. Differences in the sound of the instrument were perceived by the players, when the vibration level in the keys was changed and the results indicate a sound-dependent optimum of the vibration levels. By analyzing the influence of the vibration levels on the timing and dynamics accuracy of the pianists’ musical performances, we could not observe systematic differences that depend on the vibration level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
MRI Compatible Planar Material Acoustic Lenses
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122634 - 15 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Zone plate lenses are used in many areas of physics where planar geometry is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of zone plate lenses, such as the well-known Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) or the more recent fractal and [...] Read more.
Zone plate lenses are used in many areas of physics where planar geometry is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of zone plate lenses, such as the well-known Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) or the more recent fractal and Fibonacci zone plates. The selection of the lens material plays a very important role in beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between FZPs made from different materials in the ultrasonic range in order to use them as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible materials. Three different MRI compatible polymers are considered: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polylactic acid (PLA). Numerical simulations based on finite elements method (FEM) and experimental results are shown. The focusing capabilities of brass lenses and polymer zone plate lenses are compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical and Numerical Estimation of Vibroacoustic Behavior of Clamped Free Parabolic Tapered Annular Circular Plate with Different Arrangement of Stiffener Patches
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122542 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper compares the vibroacoustic behavior of a tapered annular circular plate having different parabolic varying thickness with different combinations of rectangular and concentric stiffener patches keeping the mass of the plate and the patch constant for a clamped-free boundary condition. Both numerical [...] Read more.
This paper compares the vibroacoustic behavior of a tapered annular circular plate having different parabolic varying thickness with different combinations of rectangular and concentric stiffener patches keeping the mass of the plate and the patch constant for a clamped-free boundary condition. Both numerical and analytical methods are used to solve the plate. The finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the vibration characteristic and both Rayleigh integral and FEM is used to determine the acoustic behavior of the plate. It is observed that a Case II plate with parabolic decreasing–increasing thickness variation for a plate with different stiffener patches shows reduction in frequency parameter in comparison to other cases. For acoustic response, the variation of peak sound power level for different combinations of stiffener patches is investigated with different taper ratios. It is investigated that Case II plate with parabolic decreasing–increasing thickness variation for an unloaded tapered plate as well as case II plate with 2 rectangular and 4 concentric stiffeners patches shows the maximum sound power level among all variations. However, it is shown that the Case III plate with parabolically increasing–decreasing thickness variation with different combinations of rectangular and concentric stiffeners patches is least prone to acoustic radiation. Furthermore, it is shown that at low forcing frequency, average radiation efficiency with different combinations of stiffeners patches remains the same, but at higher forcing frequency a higher taper ratio causes higher radiation efficiency, and the radiation peak shifts towards the lower frequency and alters its stiffness as the taper ratio increases. Finally, the design options for peak sound power actuation and reduction for different combinations of stiffener patches with different taper ratios are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Domain Hydro-Elastic Analysis of a SFT (Submerged Floating Tunnel) with Mooring Lines under Extreme Wave and Seismic Excitations
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122386 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Global dynamic analysis of a 700-m-long SFT section considered in the South Sea of Korea is carried out for survival random wave and seismic excitations. To solve the tunnel-mooring coupled hydro-elastic responses, in-house time-domain-simulation computer program is developed. The hydro-elastic equation of motion [...] Read more.
Global dynamic analysis of a 700-m-long SFT section considered in the South Sea of Korea is carried out for survival random wave and seismic excitations. To solve the tunnel-mooring coupled hydro-elastic responses, in-house time-domain-simulation computer program is developed. The hydro-elastic equation of motion for the tunnel and mooring is based on rod-theory-based finite element formulation with Galerkin method with fully coupled full matrix. The dummy-connection-mass method is devised to conveniently connect objects and mooring lines with linear and rotational springs. Hydrodynamic forces on a submerged floating tunnel (SFT) are evaluated by the modified Morison equation for a moving object so that the hydrodynamic forces by wave or seismic excitations can be computed at its instantaneous positions at every time step. In the case of seabed earthquake, both the dynamic effect transferred through mooring lines and the seawater-fluctuation-induced seaquake effect are considered. For validation purposes, the hydro-elastic analysis results by the developed numerical simulation code is compared with those by a commercial program, OrcaFlex, which shows excellent agreement between them. For the given design condition, extreme storm waves cause higher hydro-elastic responses and mooring tensions than those of the severe seismic case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Dynamic Tissue Properties on HIFU Hyperthermia: A Numerical Simulation Study
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101933 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Accurate temperature and thermal dose prediction are crucial to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) hyperthermia, which has been used successfully for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumors. For the conventional method of prediction, the tissue properties are usually set as constants. However, the temperature [...] Read more.
Accurate temperature and thermal dose prediction are crucial to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) hyperthermia, which has been used successfully for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumors. For the conventional method of prediction, the tissue properties are usually set as constants. However, the temperature rise induced by HIFU irradiation in tissues will cause changes in the tissue properties that in turn affect the acoustic and temperature field. Herein, an acoustic–thermal coupling model is presented to predict the temperature and thermal damage zone in tissue in terms of the Westervelt equation and Pennes bioheat transfer equation, and the individual influence of each dynamic tissue property and the joint effect of all of the dynamic tissue properties are studied. The simulation results show that the dynamic acoustic absorption coefficient has the greatest influence on the temperature and thermal damage zone among all of the individual dynamic tissue properties. In addition, compared with the conventional method, the dynamic acoustic absorption coefficient leads to a higher focal temperature and a larger thermal damage zone; on the contrary, the dynamic blood perfusion leads to a lower focal temperature and a smaller thermal damage zone. Moreover, the conventional method underestimates the focal temperature and the thermal damage zone, compared with the simulation that was performed using all of the dynamic tissue properties. The results of this study will be helpful to guide the doctors to develop more accurate clinical protocols for HIFU treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Fingerprinting Acoustic Localization Indoor Based on Cluster Analysis and Iterative Interpolation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101862 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Fingerprinting acoustic localization usually requires tremendous time and effort for database construction in sampling phase and reference points (RPs) matching in positioning phase. To improve the efficiency of this acoustic localization process, an iterative interpolation method is proposed to reduce the initial RPs [...] Read more.
Fingerprinting acoustic localization usually requires tremendous time and effort for database construction in sampling phase and reference points (RPs) matching in positioning phase. To improve the efficiency of this acoustic localization process, an iterative interpolation method is proposed to reduce the initial RPs needed for the required positioning accuracy by generating virtual RPs in positioning phase. Meanwhile, a two-stage matching method based on cluster analysis is proposed for computation reduction of RPs matching. Results reported show that, on the premise of ensuring positioning accuracy, two-stage matching method based on feature clustering partition can reduce the average RPs matching amount to 30.14% of the global linear matching method taken. Meanwhile, the iterative interpolation method can guarantee the positioning accuracy with only 27.77% initial RPs of the traditional method needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Information on Voice Generation from a Multi-Channel Electroglottograph
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091560 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the acoustics of human voice, an important role is reserved for the study of larynx movements. One of the most important aspects of the physical behavior of the larynx is the proper description and simulation of swallowing and singing register changes, which [...] Read more.
In the acoustics of human voice, an important role is reserved for the study of larynx movements. One of the most important aspects of the physical behavior of the larynx is the proper description and simulation of swallowing and singing register changes, which require complex laryngeal manoeuvres. In order to describe (and solve, in some cases) these actions, it is fundamental to analyze the accurate synchronization of vocal fold adduction/abduction and the change of the larynx position. In the case of dysfunction, which often occurs for professional singers, this synchronization can be disturbed. The simultaneous assessment of glottal dynamics (typically electroglottograph, EGG signal) and larynx position might be useful for the diagnosis of disordered voice and swallowing. Currently, it is very difficult to instantaneously gather this information because of technology problems. In this work, we implemented a time-multiplex measurement approach of space-resolved transfer impedances through the larynx (Multi-Channel electroglottograph MC-EGG). For this purpose, we developed specific software (Labview code) for the visualization of the main waveforms in the study of the EGG signals. Moreover, the data acquired by the Labview code have been used to create a theoretical algorithm for deriving the position of the larynx inside the neck. Finally, we verified the results of the algorithm for the 3D larynx movement by comparing the data acquired with the values described in the literature. The paths of the larynx and the displacement on the sagittal and transverse plans matched the ones known for the emission of low/high notes and for swallowing. Besides, we have introduced the possibility to study the movement on the coronal (x) plan (so far, unexplored), which might be a starting point for further analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Target Speech Based on Nonlinear Soft Masking Using a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091436 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enhancing speech captured by distant microphones is a challenging task. In this study, we investigate the multichannel signal properties of the single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) to obtain the inter-sensor data ratio (ISDR) model in the time-frequency (TF) domain. Then, the monotone functions [...] Read more.
Enhancing speech captured by distant microphones is a challenging task. In this study, we investigate the multichannel signal properties of the single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) to obtain the inter-sensor data ratio (ISDR) model in the time-frequency (TF) domain. Then, the monotone functions describing the relationship between the ISDRs and the direction of arrival (DOA) of the target speaker are derived. For the target speech enhancement (SE) task, the DOA of the target speaker is given, and the ISDRs are calculated. Hence, the TF components dominated by the target speech are extracted with high probability using the established monotone functions, and then, a nonlinear soft mask of the target speech is generated. As a result, a masking-based speech enhancement method is developed, which is termed the AVS-SMASK method. Extensive experiments with simulated data and recorded data have been carried out to validate the effectiveness of our proposed AVS-SMASK method in terms of suppressing spatial speech interferences and reducing the adverse impact of the additive background noise while maintaining less speech distortion. Moreover, our AVS-SMASK method is computationally inexpensive, and the AVS is of a small physical size. These merits are favorable to many applications, such as robot auditory systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Accuracy of Predicted Acoustical Parameters in Ancient Open-Air Theatres: A Case Study in Syracusae
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081393 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Nowadays, ancient open-air theatres are often re-adapted as performance spaces for the additional historical value they can offer to the spectators’ experience. Therefore, there has been an increasing interest in the modelling and simulation of the acoustics of such spaces. These open-air performance [...] Read more.
Nowadays, ancient open-air theatres are often re-adapted as performance spaces for the additional historical value they can offer to the spectators’ experience. Therefore, there has been an increasing interest in the modelling and simulation of the acoustics of such spaces. These open-air performance facilities pose several methodological challenges to researchers and practitioners when it comes to precisely measure and predict acoustical parameters. Therefore this work investigates the accuracy of predicted acoustical parameters, that is, the Reverberation Time (T20), Clarity (C80) and Sound Strength (G), taking the ancient Syracusae open-air theatre in Italy as a case study. These parameters were derived from both measured and simulated Impulse Responses (IR). The accuracy of the acoustic parameters predicted with two different types of acoustic software, due to the input variability of the absorption and scattering coefficients, was assessed. All simulated and measured parameters were in good agreement, within the range of one “just noticeable difference” (JND), for the tested coefficient combinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Localization for a Moving Source Based on Cross Array Azimuth
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081281 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acoustic localization for a moving source plays a key role in engineering applications, such as wildlife conservation and health protection. Acoustic detection methods provide an alternative to traditional radar and infrared detection methods. Here, an acoustic locating method of array signal processing based [...] Read more.
Acoustic localization for a moving source plays a key role in engineering applications, such as wildlife conservation and health protection. Acoustic detection methods provide an alternative to traditional radar and infrared detection methods. Here, an acoustic locating method of array signal processing based on intersecting azimuth lines of two arrays is introduced. The locating algorithm and the precision simulation of a single array shows that such a single array has good azimuth precision and bad range estimation. Once another array of the same type is added, the moving acoustic source can be located precisely by intersecting azimuth lines. A low-speed vehicle is used as the simulated moving source for the locating experiments. The length selection of short correlation and moving path compensation are studied in the experiments. All results show that the proposed novel method locates the moving sound source with high precision (<5%), while requiring fewer instruments than current methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060999 - 19 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)s and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS) can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed [...] Read more.
Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)s and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS) can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Frame PCA-Based Stereo Audio Coding Method
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060967 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the increasing demand for high quality audio, stereo audio coding has become more and more important. In this paper, a multi-frame coding method based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed for the compression of audio signals, including both mono and stereo [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for high quality audio, stereo audio coding has become more and more important. In this paper, a multi-frame coding method based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed for the compression of audio signals, including both mono and stereo signals. The PCA-based method makes the input audio spectral coefficients into eigenvectors of covariance matrices and reduces coding bitrate by grouping such eigenvectors into fewer number of vectors. The multi-frame joint technique makes the PCA-based method more efficient and feasible. This paper also proposes a quantization method that utilizes Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) to quantize the PCA matrices proposed in this paper with few bits. Parametric coding algorithms are also employed with PCA to ensure the high efficiency of the proposed audio codec. Subjective listening tests with Multiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor (MUSHRA) have shown that the proposed PCA-based coding method is efficient at processing stereo audio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of HIFU Propagation in a Dispersive Medium via Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov Model Combined with a Fractional Order Derivative
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040609 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been proven to be promising in non-invasive therapies, in which precise prediction of the focused ultrasound field is crucial for its accurate and safe application. Although the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation has been widely used in the calculation [...] Read more.
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been proven to be promising in non-invasive therapies, in which precise prediction of the focused ultrasound field is crucial for its accurate and safe application. Although the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation has been widely used in the calculation of the nonlinear acoustic field of HIFU, some deviations still exist when it comes to dispersive medium. This problem also exists as an obstacle to the Westervelt model and the Spherical Beam Equation. Considering that the KZK equation is the most prevalent model in HIFU applications due to its accurate and simple simulation algorithms, there is an urgent need to improve its performance in dispersive medium. In this work, a modified KZK (mKZK) equation derived from a fractional order derivative is proposed to calculate the nonlinear acoustic field in a dispersive medium. By correcting the power index in the attenuation term, this model is capable of providing improved prediction accuracy, especially in the axial position of the focal area. Simulation results using the obtained model were further compared with the experimental results from a gel phantom. Good agreements were found, indicating the applicability of the proposed model. The findings of this work will be helpful in making more accurate treatment plans for HIFU therapies, as well as facilitating the application of ultrasound in acoustic hyperthermia therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Elastic Wave Velocity for Estimation of Soil Depth
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040600 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Because soil depth is a crucial factor for predicting the stability at landslide and debris flow sites, various techniques have been developed to determine soil depth. The objective of this study is to suggest the graphical bilinear method to estimate soil depth through [...] Read more.
Because soil depth is a crucial factor for predicting the stability at landslide and debris flow sites, various techniques have been developed to determine soil depth. The objective of this study is to suggest the graphical bilinear method to estimate soil depth through seismic wave velocity. Seismic wave velocity rapidly changes at the interface of two different layers due to the change in material type, packing type, and contact force of particles and thus, it is possible to pick the soil depth based on seismic wave velocity. An area, which is susceptible to debris flow, was selected, and an aerial survey was performed to obtain a topographic map and digital elevation model. In addition, a seismic survey and a dynamic cone penetration test were performed in this study. The comparison between the soil depth based on dynamic cone tests and the graphical bilinear method shows good agreement, indicating that the newly suggested soil depth estimating method may be usefully applied to predict soil depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
A CFD Results-Based Approach to Investigating Acoustic Attenuation Performance and Pressure Loss of Car Perforated Tube Silencers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040545 - 02 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper proposes an approach to investigating the effect of different temperatures and flow velocities on the acoustic performance of silencers in a more accurate and meticulous fashion, based on steady computational results of the flow field inside the silencer using computational fluid [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an approach to investigating the effect of different temperatures and flow velocities on the acoustic performance of silencers in a more accurate and meticulous fashion, based on steady computational results of the flow field inside the silencer using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This approach can transfer the CFD results—including temperature and flow velocity distribution—to acoustic meshes by mesh mapping. A numerical simulation on the sound field inside the silencer is then performed, using the CFD results as a boundary condition. This approach facilitates the analysis of complex silencer designs such as perforated tube silencers, and the numerical predictions are verified by a comparison with available experimental data. In the case of the three-pass perforated tube silencer of a car, the proposed approach is implemented to calculate the transmission loss (TL) of the silencer at different temperatures and flow velocities. We found that increasing the air temperature shifts the TL curve to a higher frequency and reduces the acoustic attenuation at most frequencies. As the air flow increases, the curve moves to a slightly lower frequency and the acoustic attenuation increases slightly. Additionally, the pressure loss of perforated tube silencers could be calculated according to the total pressure distribution of their inlet and outlet from the steady computational results using CFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Pseudo-3D Model for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs)
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030450 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Previous methods for modelling Rayleigh waves produced by a meander-line-coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) consisted mostly of two-dimensional (2D) simulations that focussed on the vertical plane of the material. This paper presents a pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) model that extends the simulation space to both [...] Read more.
Previous methods for modelling Rayleigh waves produced by a meander-line-coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) consisted mostly of two-dimensional (2D) simulations that focussed on the vertical plane of the material. This paper presents a pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) model that extends the simulation space to both vertical and horizontal planes. For the vertical plane, we combines analytical and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods to model Rayleigh waves’ propagation within an aluminium plate and their scattering behaviours by cracks. For the horizontal surface plane, we employ an analytical method to investigate the radiation pattern of Rayleigh waves at various depths. The experimental results suggest that the models and the modelling techniques are valid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Open AccessArticle
Calculation of Noise Barrier Insertion Loss Based on Varied Vehicle Frequencies
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010100 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A single frequency of 500 Hz is used as the equivalent frequency for traffic noise to calculate the approximate diffraction in current road barrier designs. However, the noise frequency changes according to the different types of vehicles moving at various speeds. The primary [...] Read more.
A single frequency of 500 Hz is used as the equivalent frequency for traffic noise to calculate the approximate diffraction in current road barrier designs. However, the noise frequency changes according to the different types of vehicles moving at various speeds. The primary objective of this study is the development of a method of calculating the insertion loss based on frequencies. First, the noise emissions of a large number of vehicles classified by speed and type were measured to obtain data the noise spectrum. The corresponding relation between vehicle type, speed, and noise frequency was obtained. Next, the impact of different frequencies on the insertion loss was analyzed and was verified to be reasonable in experiments with different propagation distances compared to the analysis of a pure 500 Hz sound. In addition, calculations were applied in a case with different traffic flows, and the effect of a road noise barrier with different types of constituents and flow speeds were analyzed. The results show that sound pressure levels behind a barrier of a heavy vehicle flow or with a high speed are notably elevated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Boundary Element Method in Acoustics: A Survey
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081642 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The boundary element method (BEM) in the context of acoustics or Helmholtz problems is reviewed in this paper. The basis of the BEM is initially developed for Laplace’s equation. The boundary integral equation formulations for the standard interior and exterior acoustic problems are [...] Read more.
The boundary element method (BEM) in the context of acoustics or Helmholtz problems is reviewed in this paper. The basis of the BEM is initially developed for Laplace’s equation. The boundary integral equation formulations for the standard interior and exterior acoustic problems are stated and the boundary element methods are derived through collocation. It is shown how interior modal analysis can be carried out via the boundary element method. Further extensions in the BEM in acoustics are also reviewed, including half-space problems and modelling the acoustic field surrounding thin screens. Current research in linking the boundary element method to other methods in order to solve coupled vibro-acoustic and aero-acoustic problems and methods for solving inverse problems via the BEM are surveyed. Applications of the BEM in each area of acoustics are referenced. The computational complexity of the problem is considered and methods for improving its general efficiency are reviewed. The significant maintenance issues of the standard exterior acoustic solution are considered, in particular the weighting parameter in combined formulations such as Burton and Miller’s equation. The commonality of the integral operators across formulations and hence the potential for development of a software library approach is emphasised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
Open AccessReview
The Role of Powered Surgical Instruments in Ear Surgery: An Acoustical Blessing or a Curse?
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040765 - 21 Feb 2019
Abstract
Ear surgery in many ways lagged behind other surgical fields because of the delicate anatomical structures within the ear which leave surgeons with little room for error. Thus, while surgical instruments have long been available, their use in the ear would most often [...] Read more.
Ear surgery in many ways lagged behind other surgical fields because of the delicate anatomical structures within the ear which leave surgeons with little room for error. Thus, while surgical instruments have long been available, their use in the ear would most often do more damage than good. This state of affairs remained the status quo well into the first half of the 20th century. However, the introduction of powered surgical instruments, specifically the electric drill used in conventional microscopic ear surgery (MES) and the ultrasonic aspirator, the Sonopet® Omni, in transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) marked major turning points. Yet, these breakthroughs have also raised concerns about whether the use of these powered surgical instruments within the confines of the ear generated so much noise and vibrations that patients could suffer sensorineural hearing loss as a result of the surgery itself. This paper reviews the intersection between the noise and vibrations generated during surgery; the history of surgical instruments, particularly powered surgical instruments, used in ear surgeries and the two main types of surgical procedures to determine whether these powered surgical instruments may pose a threat to postoperative hearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling, Simulation and Data Analysis in Acoustical Problems)
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