Special Issue "Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hadis Morkoc
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Founders Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering West Hall, Room 338, Richmond, VA, USA
Interests: Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and related electronic and optical devices
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Fujioka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 504 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Interests: universal heteroepitaxial growth optoelectronic functional thin films; semiconductor devices; epitaxial growth; large area devices; flexible devices; low cost devices
Prof. Dr. Takeuchi Tetsuya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan
Interests: epitaxial growths of III-V semiconductors; Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs); lasers; Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs); tunnel junctions
Prof. Dr. Jung Han
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
William Norton Professor of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Interests: wide bandgap semiconductor materials; optoelectronic and microelectronic devices; nanoscale materials and devices; semiconductor epitaxy; lasers and microcavities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

GaN-based optical and electronic devices have experienced a rapid development in the recent past to the point where commercial edge emitting lasers, LEDs, including those for standard illimunation purposes, and high-power amplifiers and switches are available. This Special Issue will focus on the next generation of emitters based on microcavities, such as surface emitting lasers, to some extent thresholdless polariton lasers, and micro LEDs for display applications.

Papers are solicited for a Special Issue of Applied Sciences, an open access journal, on any aspect of GaN-based microcavities and microemitters.

 

Prof. Dr. Hadis Morkoc
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Fujioka
Prof. Dr. Takeuchi Tetsuya
Prof. Dr. Jung Han
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microcavities
  • Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
  • Micro LEDs and arrays
  • Displays
  • Polariton emitters
  • GaN
  • AlGaN
  • InGaN
  • Resonant Cavities
  • Distributed Bragg Reflectors
  • Photonics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Analysis of Quality Factor Enhancement in the Monolithic InGaN/GaN Nanorod Array
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071295 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers and resonators are key building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The quality factor and resonant wavelength are strong functions of the cavity size. Nanoscale WGM cavities suffer from a low-quality factor due to prominent scattering loss. However, the [...] Read more.
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers and resonators are key building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The quality factor and resonant wavelength are strong functions of the cavity size. Nanoscale WGM cavities suffer from a low-quality factor due to prominent scattering loss. However, the quality factor could be enhanced by forming an optically-coupled rod array or photonic molecules. Through simulations, we revealed how rod-to-rod optical coupling influenced the threshold pumping level and dominant mode selection, where the trend showed good agreement with the experimental observation. According to the simulation, the quality factor could be enhanced by up to eight times by forming a six-rod photonic molecule. The quality factor and effective mode were both superior to the single rods with the same wafer device footprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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Article
High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030416 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
High-efficiency and high-power operation have been demonstrated for blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors. The high-efficiency performance was achieved by introducing a novel SiO2-buried lateral index guide and adjusting the front mirror reflectivity. Lateral optical confinement [...] Read more.
High-efficiency and high-power operation have been demonstrated for blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors. The high-efficiency performance was achieved by introducing a novel SiO2-buried lateral index guide and adjusting the front mirror reflectivity. Lateral optical confinement has been shown to greatly lower the otherwise significant loss of transverse radiation exhibited by typical VCSELs based on GaN. Employing a long (10λ) cavity can also enhance the output power, by lowering the thermal resistance of the VCSEL and increasing the operating current associated with thermal rollover. This modification, in conjunction with optimized front mirror reflectivity and a buried SiO2 lateral index guide, results in a blue VCSEL (in the continuous wave mode with an 8 μm aperture at 20 °C) having a superior differential quantum efficiency value of 31% and an enhanced 15.7 mW output power. This unit also exhibits a relatively high output power of 2.7 mW at temperatures as high as 110 °C. Finally, a 5.5 μm aperture VCSEL was found to generate a narrow divergence (5.1°) single-lobe far field pattern when operating at an output power of approximately 5 mW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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Review

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Review
Distributed Bragg Reflectors for GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081593 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2874
Abstract
A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is a key building block in the formation of semiconductor microcavities and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The success in epitaxial GaAs DBR mirrors paved the way for the ubiquitous deployment of III-V VCSELs in communication and [...] Read more.
A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is a key building block in the formation of semiconductor microcavities and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The success in epitaxial GaAs DBR mirrors paved the way for the ubiquitous deployment of III-V VCSELs in communication and mobile applications. However, a similar development of GaN-based blue VCSELs has been hindered by challenges in preparing DBRs that are mass producible. In this article, we provide a review of the history and current status of forming DBRs for GaN VCSELs. In general, the preparation of DBRs requires an optimization of epitaxy/fabrication processes, together with trading off parameters in optical, electrical, and thermal properties. The effort of epitaxial DBRs commenced in the 1990s and has evolved from using AlGaN, AlN, to using lattice-matched AlInN with GaN for DBRs. In parallel, dielectric DBRs have been studied since 2000 and have gone through a few design variations including epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL). A recent trend is the use of selective etching to incorporate airgap or nanoporous GaN as low-index media in an epitaxial GaN DBR structure. The nanoporous GaN DBR represents an offshoot from the traditional epitaxial approach and may provide the needed flexibility in forming manufacturable GaN VCSELs. The trade-offs and limitations of each approach are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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Review
Micro-LEDs, a Manufacturability Perspective
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061206 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 87 | Viewed by 5057
Abstract
Compared with conventional display technologies, liquid crystal display (LCD), and organic light emitting diode (OLED), micro-LED displays possess potential advantages such as high contrast, fast response, and relatively wide color gamut, low power consumption, and long lifetime. Therefore, micro-LED displays are deemed as [...] Read more.
Compared with conventional display technologies, liquid crystal display (LCD), and organic light emitting diode (OLED), micro-LED displays possess potential advantages such as high contrast, fast response, and relatively wide color gamut, low power consumption, and long lifetime. Therefore, micro-LED displays are deemed as a promising technology that could replace LCD and OLED at least in some applications. While the prospects are bright, there are still some technological challenges that have not yet been fully resolved in order to realize the high volume commercialization, which include efficient and reliable assembly of individual LED dies into addressable arrays, full-color schemes, defect and yield management, repair technology and cost control. In this article, we review the recent technological developments of micro-LEDs from various aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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Review
GaN-based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Incorporating Dielectric Distributed Bragg Reflectors
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040733 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
This paper reviews past research and the current state-of-the-art concerning gallium nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (GaN-VCSELs) incorporating distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). This paper reviews structures developed during the early stages of research into these devices, covering both major categories of GaN-based VCSELs: hybrid-DBR [...] Read more.
This paper reviews past research and the current state-of-the-art concerning gallium nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (GaN-VCSELs) incorporating distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). This paper reviews structures developed during the early stages of research into these devices, covering both major categories of GaN-based VCSELs: hybrid-DBR and all-dielectric-DBR. Although both types exhibited satisfactory performance during continuous-wave (CW) operation in conjunction with current injection as early as 2008, GaN-VCSELs have not yet been mass produced for several reasons. These include the difficulty in controlling the thicknesses of nitride semiconductor layers in hybrid-DBR type devices and issues related to the cavity dimensions in all-dielectric-DBR units. Two novel all-dielectric GaN-based VCSEL concepts based on different structures are examined herein. In one, the device incorporates dielectric DBRs at both ends of the cavity, with one DBR embedded in n-type GaN grown using the epitaxial lateral overgrowth technique. The other concept incorporates a curved mirror fabricated on (000-1) GaN. Both designs are intended to mitigate challenges regarding industrial-scale processing that are related to the difficulty in controlling the cavity length, which have thus far prevented practical applications of all-dielectric GaN-based VCSELs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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Review
Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091557 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 208 | Viewed by 14542
Abstract
Displays based on inorganic light-emitting diodes (LED) are considered as the most promising one among the display technologies for the next-generation. The chip for LED display bears similar features to those currently in use for general lighting, but it size is shrunk to [...] Read more.
Displays based on inorganic light-emitting diodes (LED) are considered as the most promising one among the display technologies for the next-generation. The chip for LED display bears similar features to those currently in use for general lighting, but it size is shrunk to below 200 microns. Thus, the advantages of high efficiency and long life span of conventional LED chips are inherited by miniaturized ones. As the size gets smaller, the resolution enhances, but at the expense of elevating the complexity of fabrication. In this review, we introduce two sorts of inorganic LED displays, namely relatively large and small varieties. The mini-LEDs with chip sizes ranging from 100 to 200 μm have already been commercialized for backlight sources in consumer electronics applications. The realized local diming can greatly improve the contrast ratio at relatively low energy consumptions. The micro-LEDs with chip size less than 100 μm, still remain in the laboratory. The full-color solution, one of the key technologies along with its three main components, red, green, and blue chips, as well color conversion, and optical lens synthesis, are introduced in detail. Moreover, this review provides an account for contemporary technologies as well as a clear view of inorganic and miniaturized LED displays for the display community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group III-V Nitride Semiconductor Microcavities and Microemitters)
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