Special Issue "Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 18 August 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ting-Chung Poon

Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: digital holography specializing on optical scanning holography; 3-D optical image processing and holographic display; computer-generated holography; holographic remote sensing; holographic microscopy
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yaping Zhang

Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, No. 727, Jingming South Road, Chenggong District, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, P. R. China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: digital holography; 3-D optical image display
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Liangcai Cao

Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua UniversityBeijing, 100084, P. R. China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 86-10-62781204
Interests: holography and information optics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Yoshikawa

Department of Computer Engineering, Nihon University, Chiba 2748501, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: computer-generated hologram; holographic printer; holographic video display; 3D display

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern holographic techniques have been successfully applied in many important areas, such as 3D inspection, 3D microscopy, metrology and profilometry, augmented reality, and industrial informatics. This Special Issue covers selected pieces of cutting-edge research works, ranging from low-level acquisition, to the high-level analysis, processing, and manipulation of holographic information. The Special Issue also serves as a comprehensive review on the existing state-of-the-art techniques in 3D imaging and 3D display, as well as a broad insight into the future development of these disciplines. Your contributions toward the issue are greatly appreciated. If you have any questions regarding the Special Issue, please feel free to contact us. 

Prof. Dr. Ting-Chung Poon
Prof. Dr. Yaping Zhang
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Liangcai Cao
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Yoshikawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Holography in industrial sensing and inspection
  • Digital holography for augmented reality applications
  • Computer-generated holography
  • Compressive holography
  • Optical scanning holography
  • Holographic microscopy
  • Fast algorithm, hardware and software in digital holography
  • Novel and advance applications of holography
  • Holographic tomography
  • Hologrpahy with various sources such as infared laser, terahertz wave and X-ray
  • Plasmonic holography
  • Spatial light modulators
  • Holographic recording materials and techniques
  • 3D imaging and processing
  • 3D display
  • Integral imaging

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Holographic Three-Dimensional Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Display Based on 4K-Spatial Light Modulators
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061182
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a holographic three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display based on 4K-spatial light modulators (SLMs). This work is to overcome the limitation of stereoscopic 3D virtual reality and augmented reality head-mounted display. We build and compare two systems using 2K and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a holographic three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display based on 4K-spatial light modulators (SLMs). This work is to overcome the limitation of stereoscopic 3D virtual reality and augmented reality head-mounted display. We build and compare two systems using 2K and 4K SLMs with pixel pitches 8.1 μm and 3.74 μm, respectively. One is a monocular system for each eye, and the other is a binocular system using two tiled SLMs for two eyes. The viewing angle of the holographic head-mounted 3D display is enlarged from 3.8 to 16.4 by SLM tiling, which demonstrates potential applications of true 3D displays in virtual reality and augmented reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Holographic Element-Based Effective Perspective Image Segmentation and Mosaicking Holographic Stereogram Printing
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050920
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Effective perspective image segmentation and mosaicking (EPISM) method is an effective holographic stereogram printing method, but a mosaic misplacement of reconstruction image occurred when focusing away from the reconstruction image plane. In this paper, a method known as holographic element-based effective perspective image [...] Read more.
Effective perspective image segmentation and mosaicking (EPISM) method is an effective holographic stereogram printing method, but a mosaic misplacement of reconstruction image occurred when focusing away from the reconstruction image plane. In this paper, a method known as holographic element-based effective perspective image segmentation and mosaicking is proposed. Holographic element (hogel) correspondence is used in EPISM method as pixel correspondence is used in direct-writing digital holography (DWDH) method to generate effective perspective images segments. The synthetic perspective image for holographic stereogram printing is obtained by mosaicking all the effective perspective images segments. Optical experiments verified that the holographic stereogram printed by the proposed method can provide high-quality reconstruction imagery and solve the mosaic misplacement inherent in the EPISM method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Design for Novel Glasses-Type 3D Wearable Ophthalmoscope
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040717
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper proposes a new optical design that will cooperate with 3D image technology, infrared spectrum technology, future medical diagnostics, the cloud, and big data analysis. We first conducted image recognition experiments to compare the pros and cons of 2D and 3D frameworks [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new optical design that will cooperate with 3D image technology, infrared spectrum technology, future medical diagnostics, the cloud, and big data analysis. We first conducted image recognition experiments to compare the pros and cons of 2D and 3D frameworks in order to make sure that the optical and mechanical framework of a glasses-type 3D ophthalmoscope would be a better choice. The experimental results showed that a 3D image recognition rate (90%) was higher than a 2D image recognition rate (84%), and hence the 3D mechanism design was selected. The glasses-type 3D ophthalmoscope design is primarily based on the specification of indirect ophthalmoscope requirements and two working spectrums: a near infrared and a visible spectrum. The design is a 2.5x magnification fixed focal telecentric relay system with a right-angle prism, which uses a large aperture to increase the amount of incident light (F/# = 2.0). As the infrared spectrums that have better transmittance towards human eye tissue are 965 nm and 985 nm, so that we took account of the visible spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum simultaneously to increase the basis of the physician’s diagnosis. In this research, we conclude that a wearable ophthalmoscope can be designed optically and mechanically with 3D technology, an infrared and a visible working spectrum and further, possibly in cooperation with the cloud and big data analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Electronic Tabletop Holographic Display: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040705
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Most of the previously-tried prototype systems of digital holographic display are of front viewing flat panel-type systems having narrow viewing angle, which do not meet expectations towards holographic displays having more volumetric and realistic 3-dimensional image rendering capability. We have developed a tabletop [...] Read more.
Most of the previously-tried prototype systems of digital holographic display are of front viewing flat panel-type systems having narrow viewing angle, which do not meet expectations towards holographic displays having more volumetric and realistic 3-dimensional image rendering capability. We have developed a tabletop holographic display system which is capable of 360° rendering of volumetric color hologram moving image, looking much like a real object. Multiple viewers around the display can see the image and perceive very natural binocular as well as motion parallax. We have previously published implementation details of a mono color version of the system, which was the first prototype. In this work, we present requirements, design methods, and the implementation result of a full parallax color tabletop holographic display system, with some recapitulation of motivation and a high-level design concept. We also address the important issue of performance measure and evaluation of a holographic display system and image, with initial results of experiments on our system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Static Structures in Leaky Mode Waveguides
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020247
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we suggest a new method of expanding the field of view in bottom-exit, leaky mode devices for transparent, monolithic, holographic, near-eye display. In this approach, we propose the use of static, laser-induced, grating structures within the device substrate to break [...] Read more.
In this work, we suggest a new method of expanding the field of view in bottom-exit, leaky mode devices for transparent, monolithic, holographic, near-eye display. In this approach, we propose the use of static, laser-induced, grating structures within the device substrate to break the leaky mode light into diffracted orders. We then propose to use carefully timed illumination pulses to select which diffracted order is visible to the eye at every display refresh interval (up to 100 kHz). Each of these orders becomes a view for a different image point. To describe this new method, we use K-vector analysis. We give the relevant equations and a list of parameters which lead to a near-eye geometry with little or no overlap in higher-order view zones. We conclude that it should be possible to increase the field of view of our bottom-exit, leaky mode devices by as much as one order of magnitude by simply adding a laser-induced grating structure to the substrate and by carefully timing the device illumination. If successful, this method would make possible a transparent, holographic, near-eye display that is simple to fabricate, relative to pixelated approaches, and which has a wide field-of-view relative to our current bottom-exit displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Absolute Phase Retrieval Using One Coded Pattern and Geometric Constraints of Fringe Projection System
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2673; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122673
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Fringe projection technologies have been widely used for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. One of the critical issues is absolute phase recovery, especially for measuring multiple isolated objects. This paper proposes a method for absolute phase retrieval using only one coded pattern. A total [...] Read more.
Fringe projection technologies have been widely used for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. One of the critical issues is absolute phase recovery, especially for measuring multiple isolated objects. This paper proposes a method for absolute phase retrieval using only one coded pattern. A total of four patterns including one coded pattern and three phase-shift patterns are projected, captured, and processed. The wrapped phase, as well as average intensity and intensity modulation, are calculated from three phase-shift patterns. A code word encrypted into the coded pattern can be calculated using the average intensity and intensity modulation. Based on geometric constraints of fringe projection system, the minimum fringe order map can be created, upon which the fringe order can be calculated from the code word. Compared with the conventional method, the measurement depth range is significantly improved. Finally, the wrapped phase can be unwrapped for absolute phase map. Since only four patterns are required, the proposed method is suitable for real-time measurement. Simulations and experiments have been conducted, and their results have verified the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Wavelength-Selective Phase-Shifting Digital Holography: Color Three-Dimensional Imaging Ability in Relation to Bit Depth of Wavelength-Multiplexed Holograms
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122410
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
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Abstract
The quality of reconstructed images in relation to the bit depth of holograms formed by wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography was investigated. Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography is a technique to obtain multiwavelength three-dimensional (3D) images with a full space-bandwidth product of an image sensor [...] Read more.
The quality of reconstructed images in relation to the bit depth of holograms formed by wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography was investigated. Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography is a technique to obtain multiwavelength three-dimensional (3D) images with a full space-bandwidth product of an image sensor from wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted holograms and has been proposed since 2013. The bit resolution required to obtain a multiwavelength holographic image was quantitatively and experimentally evaluated, and the relationship between wavelength resolution and dynamic range of an image sensor was numerically simulated. The results indicate that two-bit resolution per wavelength is required to conduct color 3D imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle High Resolution Computer-Generated Rainbow Hologram
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101955
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
We have developed an output device for a computer-generated hologram (CGH) named a fringe printer, which can output a 0.35-μm plane-type hologram. We also proposed several CGH with a fringe printer. A computer-generated rainbow hologram (CGRH), which can reconstruct a full [...] Read more.
We have developed an output device for a computer-generated hologram (CGH) named a fringe printer, which can output a 0.35- μ m plane-type hologram. We also proposed several CGH with a fringe printer. A computer-generated rainbow hologram (CGRH), which can reconstruct a full color 3D image, is one of our proposed CGH. The resolution of CGRH becomes huge (over 50 Gpixels) due to improvement of the fringe printer. In the calculation, it is difficult to calculate the whole fringe pattern of CGRH at the same time by a general PC. Furthermore, since the fine pixel pitch provides a wide viewing angle in CGRH, object data, which are used in fringe calculation, should be created from many viewpoints to provide a proper hidden surface removal process. The fringe pattern of CGRH is calculated in each horizontal block. Therefore, the object data from several view points should be organized for efficient computation. This paper describes the calculation algorithm for huge resolution CGRH and its output results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Neural Network for Shape from Focus with Weight Passing Method
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091648
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we suggest an efficient neural network model for shape from focus along with weight passing (WP) method. The neural network model is simplified by reducing the input data dimensions and eliminating the redundancies in the conventional model. It helps for [...] Read more.
In this paper, we suggest an efficient neural network model for shape from focus along with weight passing (WP) method. The neural network model is simplified by reducing the input data dimensions and eliminating the redundancies in the conventional model. It helps for decreasing computational complexity without compromising on accuracy. In order to increase the convergence rate and efficiency, WP method is suggested. It selects appropriate initial weights for the first pixel randomly from the neighborhood of the reference depth and it chooses the initial weights for the next pixel by passing the updated weights from the present pixel. WP method not only expedites the convergence rate, but also is effective in avoiding the local minimization problem. Moreover, this proposed method may also be applied to neural networks with diverse configurations for better depth maps. The proposed system is evaluated using image sequences of synthetic and real objects. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is considerably efficient and is able to improve the convergence rate significantly while the accuracy is comparable with the existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Compression of Phase-Only Holograms with JPEG Standard and Deep Learning
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081258
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
It is a critical issue to reduce the enormous amount of data in the processing, storage and transmission of a hologram in digital format. In photograph compression, the JPEG standard is commonly supported by almost every system and device. It will be favorable [...] Read more.
It is a critical issue to reduce the enormous amount of data in the processing, storage and transmission of a hologram in digital format. In photograph compression, the JPEG standard is commonly supported by almost every system and device. It will be favorable if JPEG standard is applicable to hologram compression, with advantages of universal compatibility. However, the reconstructed image from a JPEG compressed hologram suffers from severe quality degradation since some high frequency features in the hologram will be lost during the compression process. In this work, we employ a deep convolutional neural network to reduce the artifacts in a JPEG compressed hologram. Simulation and experimental results reveal that our proposed “JPEG + deep learning” hologram compression scheme can achieve satisfactory reconstruction results for a computer-generated phase-only hologram after compression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Spatial Light Modulator Based on the Phase in Fourier Domain of the Hologram and Its Applications in Coherent Imaging
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071146
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Although digital holography is used widely at present, the information contained in the digital hologram is still underutilized. For example, the phase values of the Fourier spectra of the hologram are seldom used directly. In this paper, we take full advantage of them [...] Read more.
Although digital holography is used widely at present, the information contained in the digital hologram is still underutilized. For example, the phase values of the Fourier spectra of the hologram are seldom used directly. In this paper, we take full advantage of them for characterizing the phase modulation of a spatial light modulator (SLM). Incident plane light beam is divided into two beams, one of which passes the SLM and interferes with the other one. If an image with a single grey scale loads on the SLM, theoretical analysis proves that the phase of the Fourier spectra of the obtained hologram contains the added phase and a constant part relative to the optical distance. By subtracting the phase for the image with the grey scale of 0 from that for the image with other grey scales, the phase modulation can be characterized. Simulative and experimental results validate that the method is effective. The SLM after characterization is successfully used for coherent imaging, which reconfirms that this method is exact in practice. When compared to the traditional method, the new method is much faster and more convenient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle An Early Study on Imaging 3D Objects Hidden Behind Highly Scattering Media: a Round-Trip Optical Transmission Matrix Method
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071036
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Imaging an object hidden behind a highly scattering medium is difficult since the wave has gone through a round-trip distortion: On the way in for the illumination and on the way out for the detection. Although various approaches have recently been proposed to [...] Read more.
Imaging an object hidden behind a highly scattering medium is difficult since the wave has gone through a round-trip distortion: On the way in for the illumination and on the way out for the detection. Although various approaches have recently been proposed to overcome this seemingly intractable problem, they are limited to two-dimensional (2D) intensity imaging because the phase information of the object is lost. In such a case, the morphological features of the object cannot be recovered. Here, based on the round-trip optical transmission matrix of the scattering medium, we propose an imaging method to recover the complex amplitude (both the amplitude and the phase) information of the object. In this way, it is possible to achieve the three-dimensional (3D) complex amplitude imaging. To preliminarily verify the effectiveness of our method, a simple virtual complex amplitude object has been tested. The experiment results show that not only the amplitude but also the phase information of the object can be recovered directly from the distorted output optical field. Our method is effective to the thick scattering medium and does not involve scanning during the imaging process. We believe it probably has potential applications in some new fields, for example, using the scattering medium itself as an imaging sensor, instead of a barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessArticle Fast Extended Depth-of-Field Reconstruction for Complex Holograms Using Block Partitioned Entropy Minimization
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050830
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a powerful and effective method for capturing the complex hologram of a three-dimensional (3-D) scene. Such captured complex hologram is called optical scanned hologram. However, reconstructing a focused image from an optical scanned hologram is a difficult issue, [...] Read more.
Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a powerful and effective method for capturing the complex hologram of a three-dimensional (3-D) scene. Such captured complex hologram is called optical scanned hologram. However, reconstructing a focused image from an optical scanned hologram is a difficult issue, as OSH technique can be applied to acquire holograms of wide-view and complicated object scenes. Solutions developed to date are mostly computationally intensive, and in so far only reconstruction of simple object scenes have been demonstrated. In this paper we report a low complexity method for reconstructing a focused image from an optical scanned hologram that is representing a 3-D object scene. Briefly, a complex hologram is back-propagated onto regular spaced images along the axial direction, and from which a crude, blocky depth map of the object scene is computed according to non-overlapping block partitioned entropy minimization. Subsequently, the depth map is low-pass filtered to decrease the blocky distribution, and employed to reconstruct a single focused image of the object scene for extended depth of field. The method proposed here can be applied to any complex holograms such as those obtained from standard phase-shifting holography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review of 3D Imaging by Coded Aperture Correlation Holography (COACH)
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030605
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Coded aperture correlation holography (COACH) is a relatively new technique to record holograms of incoherently illuminated scenes. In this review, we survey the main milestones in the COACH topic from two main points of view. First, we review the prime architectures of optical [...] Read more.
Coded aperture correlation holography (COACH) is a relatively new technique to record holograms of incoherently illuminated scenes. In this review, we survey the main milestones in the COACH topic from two main points of view. First, we review the prime architectures of optical hologram recorders in the family of COACH systems. Second, we discuss some of the key applications of these recorders in the field of imaging in general, and for 3D super-resolution imaging, partial aperture imaging, and seeing through scattering medium, in particular. We summarize this overview with a general perspective on this research topic and its prospective directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessReview Volume Holographic Optical Elements as Solar Concentrators: An Overview
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010193
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Generally, to reduce the area of a photovoltaic cell, which is typically very expensive, solar concentrators based on a set of mirrors or mechanical structures are used. However, such solar concentrators have some drawbacks, as they need a tracking system to track the [...] Read more.
Generally, to reduce the area of a photovoltaic cell, which is typically very expensive, solar concentrators based on a set of mirrors or mechanical structures are used. However, such solar concentrators have some drawbacks, as they need a tracking system to track the sun’s position and also they suffer for the overheat due to the concentration of both light and heat on the solar cell. The fundamental advantages of volume holographic optical elements are very appealing for lightweight and cheap solar concentrators applications and can become a valuable asset that can be integrated into solar panels. In this paper, a review of volume holographic-based solar concentrators recorded on different holographic materials is presented. The physical principles and main advantages and disadvantages, such as their cool light concentration, selective wavelength concentrations and the possibility to implement passive solar tracking, are discussed. Different configurations and strategies are illustrated and the state-of-the-art is presented including commercially available systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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Open AccessReview Progress in the Synthetic Holographic Stereogram Printing Technique
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060851
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
The synthetic holographic stereogram printing technique can achieve a three-dimensional (3D) display of a scene. The development and research status of the synthetic holographic stereogram printing technique is introduced in this paper. We propose a two-step method, an infinite viewpoint camera method, a [...] Read more.
The synthetic holographic stereogram printing technique can achieve a three-dimensional (3D) display of a scene. The development and research status of the synthetic holographic stereogram printing technique is introduced in this paper. We propose a two-step method, an infinite viewpoint camera method, a single-step Lippmann method, a direct-write digital holography (DWDH) method and an effective perspective images’ segmentation and mosaicking (EPISM) method. The synthetic holographic stereogram printing technique is described, including the holographic display with large format, the large field of view with no distortion, the printing efficiency, the color reproduction characteristics, the imaging quality, the diffraction efficiency, the development of a holographic recording medium, the noise reduction, and the frequency response analysis of holographic stereograms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
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