Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 13879

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Forest, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: food processing optimization and effectiveness; breathable packaging design; food safety; post-harvest and storage technology; food waste recovery; lay-out and design of food-industry processing plants (pilot and industrial); quality control and assurance in food processing

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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Forest, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: energy saving and process analysis; cold storage room; automated systems of storage and packing; computer application in all agricultural activities and food processing; post-harvest and storage technology; packaging systems; food loss

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The focus of this Special Issue is technological innovation in food analysis and processing, with particular emphasis on effectiveness and sustainability in terms of usable resources, time, energy and cost savings.

Anthropogenic pressure on the earth’s finite resources has generated serious concerns about the resilience of the contemporary food chains. By gathering your input, we aim to provide cost-effective and reliable solutions to scholars, researchers and stakeholders in the field of sustainable food production, and to promote the adoption of alternative approaches and/or ingredients in the current food-manufacturing system.

Original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following topics:

  • tech and biotech approaches to improving overall food quality;
  • technologies for reducing or recovering water, food waste and energy in factories;
  • exploitation of novel technologies for quality assessment or traceability of food;
  • energetic characterization of food processes through modelling and in situ trials;
  • alternative protein sources and production methods both for animal feed and food production;
  • alternative packaging solutions and methods for extending shelf life;
  • characterization and testing (using conventional or mild technologies, etc.) of alternative and local ingredients for healthier and more sustainable food production;
  • food distribution and logistics; policies and laws regarding sustainable food processing.

Papers including the study and application of advanced ICT (nanosensors, IoT, blockchain) to the food industry are especially welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. ‪Attilio Matera
Dr. Francesco Genovese
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • by-products
  • energy demand
  • non-destructive food analyses
  • food quality
  • alternative ingredients
  • food waste
  • food processing
  • energetic efficiency
  • food packaging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2391 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Pre-Harvest Biocontrol Agent and Post-Harvest Massive Modified Atmosphere Packaging Application on Organic Table Grape (cv. ‘Allison’) Quality during Storage
by Attilio Matera, Giuseppe Altieri, Francesco Genovese, Luciano Scarano, Giuseppe Genovese, Paola Pinto, Mahdi Rashvand, Hazem S. Elshafie, Antonio Ippolito, Annamaria Mincuzzi and Giovanni Carlo Di Renzo
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072871 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The marketing value of table grapes is contingent upon several quality requirements, mostly related to microbial decay, sugar/acidity ratio, and colour. This research explores the impact of combining organic-cultured compatible techniques to delay disorders along with organic grape distribution in post-harvest. Aurebasidum pullulans [...] Read more.
The marketing value of table grapes is contingent upon several quality requirements, mostly related to microbial decay, sugar/acidity ratio, and colour. This research explores the impact of combining organic-cultured compatible techniques to delay disorders along with organic grape distribution in post-harvest. Aurebasidum pullulans in-field application on grape bunches at three growing stages as a biocontrol agent against grey mould growth coupled with massive modified atmosphere packaging (MMAP; 20% CO2, 10% O2) equipped with a breathable valve was tested. The in-field treatment had a significant impact on the colour and sugar content of the grapes at harvest and the mould count evolution during storage, whilst the trend of the other parameters was mainly affected by the interaction of the variables tested. The untreated batch experienced the worst behaviour and the packaging was paramount in preserving the moisture content and appearance of the bunches. The findings of this study may contribute to developing novel practices for setting a smart distribution of organic table grapes and reducing food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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18 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Heat- and Salt Treatment on the Stability and Rheological Properties of Chickpea Protein-Stabilized Emulsions
by Diana Mańko-Jurkowska and Ewa Domian
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2698; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072698 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of heat- (95 °C) and/or salt (0.1 M NaCl) treatment on the physical stability and rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with chickpea protein concentrates (CPCs) for various purposes. Thus, the particle size [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of heat- (95 °C) and/or salt (0.1 M NaCl) treatment on the physical stability and rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with chickpea protein concentrates (CPCs) for various purposes. Thus, the particle size distribution (PSD), shear behavior, and long-term Turbiscan stability of the prepared emulsions were examined. The oscillatory (dynamic) measurements were also performed to obtain information on the viscoelasticity of tested fluids during thermal treatment. The obtained results indicated that the emulsion stabilized with gelling CPC (eCg) was Newtonian fluid with a homogeneous structure, but susceptible to creaming. Heat-treated eCg exhibited a sol–gel transition at 86 °C and formed fine-stranded aggregates without affecting stability. In turn, heat-induced gelation of eCg in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl resulted in the formation of an aggregated, spatial gel network, stabilization of the system, and a significant change in both shear rheological properties and PSD. Contrariwise, emulsions stabilized with standard CPC (eCs) were unstable heterogeneous systems containing both fine particles < 1 μm and coarse particles of about 100 μm, exhibiting shear-thinning and yield stress. The heat-induced viscoelasticity of eCs was reversible, while heat- and salt-treated emulsions did not form a gel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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9 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Effects of Packaging Material Type, Storage Time and Lipid Content on Phthalate Migration in Smoked Fish Meat
by Boban Đurić, Brankica Kartalović, Kristina Habschied, Nikolina Novakov, Jelena Vranešević, Boris Brkić and Krešimir Mastanjević
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041660 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The objective of this study is an investigation of the influence of six different plastic packages (polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, biodegradable high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamide polyethylene) on the migration of phthalate residues in smoked carp, trout and salmon stored at [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is an investigation of the influence of six different plastic packages (polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, biodegradable high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamide polyethylene) on the migration of phthalate residues in smoked carp, trout and salmon stored at −18 °C for three and six months. Six phthalate residues concentrations were determined using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) migrated the most into salmon meat from PAPE packaging after six months of storage, reaching 73.77 μg/kg and 78.45 μg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) after six months of storage were present in salmon meat packed in polyamide polyethylene (253.56 μg/kg) and the lowest in carp meat packages in polypropylene (157.72 μg/kg). Phthalate residues in all the samples showed higher levels after three and six months of storage compared to the control sample. Among the investigated phthalates, polypropylene was the material with the lowest migration into fish meat. A further amount of DEHP migration in the fish was detected with a higher fat content. We acknowledge that levels of phthalates should be monitored, and research in this field should be continued, especially since there are no legal restrictions regarding the maximum level of phthalates in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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14 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Effects of Milking System Operating Conditions on the Milk-Fat-Percentage Measuring Accuracy of an Inline Light-Scattering Sensor
by Artyom R. Khakimov, Aleksei S. Dorokhov, Dmitriy Y. Pavkin, Sergey S. Yurochka, Alexey V. Shkirin, Maxim E. Astashev, Dmitry N. Ignatenko, Andrey Yu. Izmailov and Sergey V. Gudkov
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11836; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111836 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Contamination of the inner surface of milk hoses of milking systems with milk residues, water residues and pathogenic microflora has a negative impact on milk quality and can affect the accuracy of light-scattering sensors measuring milk quality parameters. A three-stage study of the [...] Read more.
Contamination of the inner surface of milk hoses of milking systems with milk residues, water residues and pathogenic microflora has a negative impact on milk quality and can affect the accuracy of light-scattering sensors measuring milk quality parameters. A three-stage study of the influence of milking system operating conditions on the accuracy of a light-scattering sensor is presented. The growth of pathogenic microflora on the inner surface of milk hoses was studied, the flow of milk and milk hoses rinsing was simulated and the accuracy of the light-scattering sensor was tested under conditions of low-quality rinsing of the milking system. A significant difference in the total microbial count was detected between the milk residues of healthy animals and the milk residues of animals with subclinical mastitis (1.2 × 104 CFU/mL and 9.2 × 104 CFU/mL). The presence of Staphylococcus (aureus and epidermidis) was detected in quantities much lower than those that could interfere with the analysis of milk quality parameters. Simulation modeling allowed us to prove that even when rinsing with hot water (80 °C) without chemical solutions, pathogenic microflora in milk hoses of the milking system will be suppressed. Modeling of the milk flow in the measuring chamber of the device showed the stable replacement of milk in the measuring chamber and provided actual measurements of milk quality parameters. It has been determined that low-quality rinsing and water residues in milk hoses lead to a significant increase in measurement error up to 15–20% during the first 30–40 s after the milking system starts operating. The study results confirm that the light-scattering sensors are resistant to such factors of the milking system operation as contamination by pathogenic microflora (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and low-quality rinsing of milk hoses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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19 pages, 7639 KiB  
Article
RecipeIS—Recipe Recommendation System Based on Recognition of Food Ingredients
by Miguel Simões Rodrigues, Filipe Fidalgo and Ângela Oliveira
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7880; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137880 - 05 Jul 2023
Viewed by 6118
Abstract
Currently, food waste is a global concern, a problem that arises mainly at the consumption level and generates environmental, economic, and social impacts. One way to reduce the food waste problem is to use the food we already have at home. However, this [...] Read more.
Currently, food waste is a global concern, a problem that arises mainly at the consumption level and generates environmental, economic, and social impacts. One way to reduce the food waste problem is to use the food we already have at home. However, this causes another concern, which is what to cook with certain foods. Sometimes we do not know what recipes can be made. Knowing which ingredients can be mixed and how to mix them can be a difficult task for a beginner cook, so selecting the right ingredients for a recipe is essential. Therefore, it is proposed to develop a recipe recommendation system through image recognition of food ingredients. Presently, the system is a web application that recognizes an image given by the user and recommends recipes containing the recognized ingredient. For this, a convolutional neural network model, the ResNet-50, was built to perform image recognition and trained with a dataset that contains about 36 classes of vegetables and fruits. Through this training, the model reached 96% accuracy in classifying the dataset images. The recommendation system uses the label of the recognized ingredient to obtain the recipes, which are searched through the Edamam API. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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23 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Freezing Raw Material on the Quality Changes and Safety of Salted Anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) at Cold Storage Conditions
by Serkan Koral, Sevim Köse, Matevž Pompe and Drago Kočar
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6200; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106200 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
This study demonstrates the effects of the freezing and frozen storage of anchovies prior to brining and dry-salting on quality changes and food safety during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C). Fresh anchovies were divided into two groups, one of which was used [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the effects of the freezing and frozen storage of anchovies prior to brining and dry-salting on quality changes and food safety during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C). Fresh anchovies were divided into two groups, one of which was used as a control representing fresh raw material; the other was the experimental group and consisted of frozen and thawed anchovies stored at −18 °C for a year. Five different salt concentrations were used for brining (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%) in addition to the dry-salting method. Microbiological, chemical, physical and sensory analyses were carried out during storage. Salt concentration and salting method had significant effects on the shelf-life of salted anchovy products, with the highest shelf-life corresponding to dry-salted anchovies (p < 0.05). The effect of using frozen and thawed raw materials for salting on the shelf-life depended on the processing method since the experimental dry-salted group had a shelf-life one month longer than that of the control group, while the opposite situation occurred for the brined samples, with one exception. Strong correlations were usually found between sensory values and chemical quality parameters (R2: 0.83–0.99 for the control group and 0.63–0.99 for the experimental group). The results demonstrated that the experimental group, with some exceptions, had better values for most quality and food safety parameters in comparison to the control group, indicating the advantage of using frozen and thawed raw materials before salting to prevent spoilage and enhance food safety. Considering that the experimental group was produced from one-year-stored raw material compared to the control group, the advantage of the freezing and frozen storage of anchovies can be accepted as much higher versus when freezing is not implemented. The positive effect is due to the fact that frozen anchovies absorb salt faster after thawing, especially in groups with high salt concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that frozen salted anchovies can be utilized for longer as they have a longer shelf-life, particularly when using either the 30% brining or dry-salting method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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15 pages, 4439 KiB  
Article
False Positive Identification of Pesticides in Food Using the European Standard Method and LC-MS/MS Determination: Examples and Solutions from Routine Applications
by Edgár Tóth, Mária Bálint and Ádám Tölgyesi
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12005; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312005 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
The latest standard method for pesticides in food and feed (EN 15662:2018) is now generally used in control laboratories. However, routine analyses of the combination of hundreds of compounds and food matrices highlighted that false positive identification of pesticides in particular food matrices [...] Read more.
The latest standard method for pesticides in food and feed (EN 15662:2018) is now generally used in control laboratories. However, routine analyses of the combination of hundreds of compounds and food matrices highlighted that false positive identification of pesticides in particular food matrices does occur. The aim of the study was to show relevant precedents when thorough investigation was necessary to make a decision on possibly compliant/non-compliant samples. Examples include the pesticide/commodity combination of atrazine-desethyl in date seed coffee, mepanipyrim in parsley root, myclobutanil in white peppercorn, primisulfuron-methyl in herb extract, propham in elderberry, quinoclamine in fennel and tebufenpyrad in dried ginger. These examples, which were presented for the first time, indicated that the identification criteria for some pesticides in certain food matrices, according to the SANTE/11312/2021 guideline, might fail: the general criteria as stable retention time and ion ratio could lead to an incorrect qualification of pesticides. Standard addition was useful not only in compensating for the background during mass spectrometric detection under the confirmatory analysis, but also in the identification process when negligible retention time difference was observed between the analytes and the interfering matrix compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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14 pages, 2250 KiB  
Article
High Efficiency and New Potential of RSLDE: A Green Technique for the Extraction of Bioactive Molecules from Not Completely Exhausted Plant Biomass and Organic Industrial Processing Waste
by Daniele Naviglio, Viviana Nebbioso, Alessandro Savastano, Domenico Montesano, Paolo Trucillo and Monica Gallo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11726; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211726 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
A product is characterized by low environmental impact if, during the whole process (from extraction of raw materials from solid natural matter to disposal), its negative contribution to environment modification is significantly reduced or eliminated. According to circular economy, it is important to [...] Read more.
A product is characterized by low environmental impact if, during the whole process (from extraction of raw materials from solid natural matter to disposal), its negative contribution to environment modification is significantly reduced or eliminated. According to circular economy, it is important to take into consideration other aspects, such as the possibility to improve the efficiency of extraction process by modifying the principle on which it is based and allowing the recovery of not completely exhausted waste, obtaining other active ingredients, and favoring the recycling of normally eliminated materials. The purpose of this work was to propose more efficient and greener alternatives to conventional solid–liquid extraction processes. Major features are the rapidity of the process, extraction at room temperature and high yields. Rapid Solid–Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE) represents an innovative solid–liquid extraction technology that allows the solid matrices containing extractable substances in an organic or inorganic solvent and their mixtures to be exhausted in shorter time than current techniques. The principle at the basis of this novel process consists of the generation of a negative pressure gradient between the inside and the outside of the solid matrix, which induces the extraction of compounds not chemically linked to the solid matter, being insoluble in the extractant liquid. Therefore, this work focuses on how RSLDE can potentially bring several improvements in the field of solid–liquid extraction, especially for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Food Analysis and Processing)
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