Novel Ideas on Experimental, Numerical and Data-Driven Approaches in Sustainable Ground Improvement

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 3725

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Environment and Technology, Department of Engineering, Design and Mathematics, Civil Engineering Cluster, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Interests: geotechnical engineering; machine learning; artificial intelligence; data science; sustainable soil stabilization
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Guest Editor
Centre for Architecture and Built Environment Research (CABER), University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Interests: sustainable geotechnics; expansive soils; stabilisation of expansive clay; cementitious materials; geopolymer; ground improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue seeks articles that address recent developments in experimental, numerical and data-driven techniques applicable to sustainable ground improvement.

Sustainable methods of ground improvement have gathered tremendous pace in the last three decades, thus rendering practices that rely on energy-intensive methods and environmentally non-friendly techniques very unattractive. Unique experimental research (laboratory trial batching, instrumentation and testing) validated by robust numerical analysis and vice versa, adopting soil-mixing stabilizing agents (polymers, metakaolin, agro-based materials, organics, industrial waste, silica, lignosulphates, etc), ground freezing, geosynthetics, grouting, electrical stabilisation, vibro stone and rigid columns etc., are currently being applied to address the stability of geo-infrastructural systems, including but not limited to:

  • Static and dynamic response systems with 2D and 3D simulations;
  • Numerical analysis of shallow and deep improved tunnel systems;
  • Embankment and slope stability analysis (including probabilistic analysis with spatial variability);
  • Reinforcement of constructed layers;
  • Ground remediation;

Additionally, in recent times, enviable data-driven techniques have begun to emerge to prepare geotechnical engineering and ground improvement in particular for the digital transformation age. Data-centric geotechnics adopted in this way can aid better decision making throughout the lifecycle of a ground improvement project from design to construction. Hence, articles leveraging “big data”, machine learning, digital twin paradigms, etc., in the context of the sustainable reinforcement of weak ground are also welcomed.  

Dr. Eyo Umo Eyo
Dr. Samuel Abbey
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2848 KiB  
Article
Stress-Strain Characteristics and Mineralogy of an Expansive Soil Stabilized Using Lime and Phosphogypsum
by Jijo James, Sivapriya Vijayasimhan and Eyo Eyo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010123 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
The study involved the utilization of an industrial waste product, Phosphogypsum (PG) as an additive to lime for the stabilization of soil. Three lime dosages, viz. initial consumption of lime (ICL), optimum lime content (OLC) and less than ICL (LICL) were adopted for [...] Read more.
The study involved the utilization of an industrial waste product, Phosphogypsum (PG) as an additive to lime for the stabilization of soil. Three lime dosages, viz. initial consumption of lime (ICL), optimum lime content (OLC) and less than ICL (LICL) were adopted for stabilizing the soil. The study investigated the stress-strain characteristics of soil composites stabilized with these three lime contents modified with optimum dosages of PG. Mineralogical studies were performed on the spent samples used for a series of determinations of unconfined compression strength tests with various combinations of lime and optimum PG content. The addition of an optimum dosage of PG resulted in an early strength gain of 8.8%, 14.1% and 13.9% and a delayed strength gain of 9.9%, 19% and 19.7% for 3%, 5.5% and 7% for the lime-stabilized soil, respectively. It was found that the addition of PG to the lime resulted in enhanced stiffness, residual strength and reduced brittleness due to the PG amendment of the stabilization reactions. However, in terms of the overall improvement of soil properties, the most favorable benefit was obtained by optimal PG modification of ICL rather than OLC. Microanalysis of the X-ray diffraction scatter also supported the results revealed through stress-strain characteristics. ICL with its optimal PG dosage showed a better progression of pozzolanic reactions when compared to the other two in terms of reduction of peaks of soil minerals and increase in peaks of CSH. Full article
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17 pages, 3947 KiB  
Article
Shear Response of Lime/GGBS-Stabilised High-Sulphate-Bearing Clay under Consolidated-Undrained Conditions
by Eyo Eyo and Samuel Abbey
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10639; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010639 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
This study investigated the consolidated undrained shear behaviour of a stabilised high-sulphate soil system. Lime was used to stabilise the soil with the inclusion of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as an ettringite suppressor. Both volumetric changes and shear strength responses of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the consolidated undrained shear behaviour of a stabilised high-sulphate soil system. Lime was used to stabilise the soil with the inclusion of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as an ettringite suppressor. Both volumetric changes and shear strength responses of the stabilised soil containing various proportions (10%, 20%, and 30%) of sulphates were examined with corresponding pore pressure developments and stress path changes using a modern computer-controlled stress-path triaxial system. Results indicated greater volume change for the non-stabilised soils containing lower amounts of sulphates. This shows that calcium sulphate, which is a soluble salt with relatively less alkalinity, is capable of binding particles of soils together. The amount of volume change increased with the quantity of sulphates in the stabilised soil even though the quantity of GGBS utilised as an ettringite suppressor was twice more than that of the lime. This was attributed to the unreacted gypsum (calcium sulphate) used, which resulted in a decrease in the overall specific weight, thus affecting the texture of the stabilised mix and causing an increment in pore sizes. Generally, the stabilised sulphate soils showed some initial ductile responses with the yielding followed by an almost perfectly plastic behaviour up to about 6–8% of the strain before finally undergoing small amounts of strain-softening. Lastly, higher levels of plastic failure were achieved and at higher constant effective stress for the stabilised soils containing lower percentages of sulphates. Full article
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