Special Issue "Extreme Sciences and Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Interests: impact engineering; structural dynamics; extreme conditions; mechanics; railways; nonlinear sciences; rail infrastructure; transport infrastructure; sustainability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Xinzheng Lu
Website
Guest Editor
Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: Extreme events, multi-hazards, accidents, disaster, resilience, critical infrastructure, numerical methods
Prof. Dr. Alex M. Remennikov
Website
Guest Editor
University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: blast; physical threats; extreme loading; impact engineering; structural engineering; buildings; infrastructure design
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Disruptions in the operation of our countries’ infrastructure may put at risk the functioning of our societies and their economies. Such disruptions may result from many kinds of hazards and physical and/or cyber-attacks on installations and systems. Recent events demonstrate the increased interconnection among the impact of hazards, of the two kinds of attacks and, conversely, the usefulness for operators to combine cyber and physical security-solutions to protect installations of the critical infrastructure globally. New ideas and innovation for comprehensive, yet installation-specific approach are necessary to secure the integrity of existing or future, public or private, connected and interdependent assets, installations and infrastructure systems.

This special issue ‘Extreme Sciences and Engineering’ enables transparent, fair, rapid communication of research that highlights the role of mechanics, sciences and engineering in multi-disciplinary areas across materials science, physics, and engineering. Emphasis is on the impact, depth and originality of new concepts, methods and observations at the forefront of applied sciences.

Among the topical areas of interest are, but not limited to:

  • Materials and components of extreme properties
  • Materials and structures under extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high loading rate, natural or man-made hazards, etc.
  • Resilience of assets, components, installations and infrastructure systems
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Instability, large deformation and large-amplitude vibration in nature and engineering systems
  • Interfacial phenomena in interactions between fluids and solids, deformation and failure of materials and structures
  • Self-assembly of materials, components and structural systems
  • Mechanics of 3D printing
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Digital built environments supporting crisis management, resilience recovery, and sustainability of critical infrastructures (Airport, Rail, Port, Energy, Gas, etc.)
  • Advanced numerical methods for extreme conditions

Dr. Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Prof. Dr. Alex M Remennikov
Prof. Dr. Xinzheng Lu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Extreme conditions
  • Hazards
  • Resilience
  • Reliability
  • Engineering design
  • Mechanics
  • Numerical methods
  • Digital built environment

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Unsupported Sleepers/Bearers on Dynamic Phenomena of a Railway Turnout System under Impact Loads
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072320 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Track settlement is a common problem observed in ballasted railway tracks. The ballast bed and the material layers underneath it, deform under repeated trainloads and create uneven support conditions along the track. In some cases, the ballast settlement could be detrimental and the [...] Read more.
Track settlement is a common problem observed in ballasted railway tracks. The ballast bed and the material layers underneath it, deform under repeated trainloads and create uneven support conditions along the track. In some cases, the ballast settlement could be detrimental and the sleepers lose contact with the ballast bed partially or completely, resulting in higher contact forces and load distributions over the supported sleepers. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the phenomenon for normal tracks. Nevertheless, railway turnouts are somehow neglected. As a consequence, this study focuses on the relation between unsupported sleepers/bearers (particular name for turnouts) and a railway turnout system to develop the understanding of the response of turnout system under dynamic loadings. A 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) model is inherited from previous study and adopted to reflect the cases with unsupported bearer configurations. It is noteworthy that inherited model is capable of reflecting the impact forces, which is an inherent and fundamental characteristic of a railway turnout. Model verification is done with the parent model that was verified by field measurements. Three different support conditions (i.e., one, two, three unsupported bearers), five different velocities and six different positions of unsupported bearers are simulated. The results show that the performance of ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane’ (FFU) bearers are promising and more, unsupported bearers carry significant loads at particular locations, which is contrary to the sleepers on normal track that are subjected to insignificant loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Saturated Ground Vibration Analysis Based on a Three-Dimensional Coupled Train-Track-Soil Interaction Model
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 4991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9234991 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A novel three-dimensional (3D) coupled train-track-soil interaction model is developed based on the multi-body simulation (MBS) principle and finite element modeling (FEM) theory using LS-DYNA. The novel model is capable of determining the highspeed effects of trains on track and foundation. The soils [...] Read more.
A novel three-dimensional (3D) coupled train-track-soil interaction model is developed based on the multi-body simulation (MBS) principle and finite element modeling (FEM) theory using LS-DYNA. The novel model is capable of determining the highspeed effects of trains on track and foundation. The soils in this model are treated as saturated media. The wheel-rail dynamic interactions under the track irregularity are developed based on the Hertz contact theory. This model was validated by comparing its numerical results with experimental results obtained from field measurements and a good agreement was established. The one-layered saturated soil model is firstly developed to investigate the vibration responses of pore water pressures, effective and total stresses, and displacements of soils under different train speeds and soil moduli. The multi-layered soils with and without piles are then developed to highlight the influences of multi-layered soils and piles on the ground vibration responses. The effects of water on the train-track dynamic interactions are also presented. The original insight from this study provides a new and better understanding into saturated ground vibration responses in high-speed railway systems using slab tracks in practice. This insight will help track engineers to inspect, maintain, and improve soil conditions effectively, resulting in a seamless railway operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Rib-To-Deck Joints Using Test Data and In-Situ Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4820; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224820 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the fatigue performance of rib-to-deck joints in orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) using thickened edge U-ribs (TEUs) and the OSD using conventional U-ribs (CUs) are investigated based on the fatigue test result and in-situ monitoring data. Firstly, comparative fatigue tests were [...] Read more.
In this paper, the fatigue performance of rib-to-deck joints in orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) using thickened edge U-ribs (TEUs) and the OSD using conventional U-ribs (CUs) are investigated based on the fatigue test result and in-situ monitoring data. Firstly, comparative fatigue tests were carried out with full-scale rib-to-deck specimens. Probability–stress–life (P–S–N) curves were derived through the test data measured from a total of 18 specimens, including 7 CU specimens and 11 TEU specimens. According to the results, the TEU can lead to a notable enhancement in the fatigue strength of rib-to-deck joints, i.e., 21.4% in terms of nominal stress and 21.1% in terms of hot spot stress. After that, a typical OSD steel bridge was selected as the prototype to investigate the fatigue performance of rib-to-decks in the OSD using TEUs under actual applications. In the analysis, the uncertainty in both fatigue strength, and vehicle loads were considered. A multi-scale finite element model of the prototype bridge was established, and numerical analysis conducted to derive the vehicle-induced stress spectra of the rib-to-deck joints in critical positions. In the derivation, a stochastic traffic model was employed, through which the in-situ measurement was incorporated. Finally, fatigue reliability analysis was carried out for the prototype bridge based on the above works. The result showed that a notably higher fatigue reliability can be expected in the rib-to-deck joint in OSDs using TEUs when compared with the joints in OSDs using CUs, which in turn can lead to notable improvement in fatigue life. For instance, under the target reliability of 2.3, the fatigue life of the two critical rib-to-deck joints were, respectively, increased by 153% and 155% when using TEUs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insights from Multibody Dynamic Analyses of a Turnout System under Impact Loads
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4080; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194080 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
A railway turnout is an essential infrastructure for managing railway traffic flexibility. In contrast, it imposes restrictions on train operations such as lower operational speeds through the turnout due to the complex movements of trains over the turnout. This results in the large-amplitude [...] Read more.
A railway turnout is an essential infrastructure for managing railway traffic flexibility. In contrast, it imposes restrictions on train operations such as lower operational speeds through the turnout due to the complex movements of trains over the turnout. This results in the large-amplitude dynamic responses of the train-turnout interaction. Previous studies have focused on the train-turnout interactions entailing the wheel-rail contact forces and stresses. Very few of the studies considered the effects of the contact forces on the turnout structure and its components such as sleepers and bearers. Those previous studies neglected the dynamic forces and estimated the behavior of train-turnout interactions based on quasi-static calculations. In reality, turnouts are subjected to high impact forces, which can be higher than the permissible track forces. Consequently, a numerical model capable of determining impact forces was developed here, to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of a railway turnout and their effects on such turnout components as bearers, ballast, and so on. The model consists of a structured beam grillage laying on an elastic foundation with rigid wheelsets and a bogie. The model was verified by field measurements. The new insight stemmed from this study shows that neglecting the contribution of dynamic forces can result in the unsafe underestimation of train turnout behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time City-Scale Time-History Analysis and Its Application in Resilience-Oriented Earthquake Emergency Responses
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173497 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The resilience of cities has received worldwide attention. An accurate and rapid assessment of seismic damage, economic loss, and post-event repair time can provide an important reference for emergency rescue and post-earthquake recovery. Based on city-scale nonlinear time-history analysis (THA) and regional seismic [...] Read more.
The resilience of cities has received worldwide attention. An accurate and rapid assessment of seismic damage, economic loss, and post-event repair time can provide an important reference for emergency rescue and post-earthquake recovery. Based on city-scale nonlinear time-history analysis (THA) and regional seismic loss prediction, a real-time city-scale time-history analysis method is proposed in this work. In this method, the actual ground motion records obtained from seismic stations are input into the building models of the earthquake-stricken area, and the nonlinear time-history analysis of these models is subsequently performed using a high-performance computing platform. The seismic damage to the buildings in the target region subjected to this earthquake is evaluated according to the analysis results. The economic loss and repair time of the earthquake-stricken areas are calculated using the engineering demand parameters obtained from the time-history analysis. A program named, “Real-time Earthquake Damage Assessment using City-scale Time-history analysis” (“RED-ACT” for short) was developed to automatically implement the above workflow. The method proposed in this work has been applied in many earthquake events, and provides a useful reference for scientific decision making for earthquake disaster relief, which is of great significance to enhancing the resilience of earthquake-stricken areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Virtual Scene Construction for Seismic Damage of Building Ceilings and Furniture
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3465; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173465 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
A valid seismic damage scene for indoor nonstructural components is critical for virtual earthquake safety drills which can teach occupants how to survive in earthquakes. A virtual scene construction method for the seismic damage of suspended ceilings and moveable furniture is proposed based [...] Read more.
A valid seismic damage scene for indoor nonstructural components is critical for virtual earthquake safety drills which can teach occupants how to survive in earthquakes. A virtual scene construction method for the seismic damage of suspended ceilings and moveable furniture is proposed based on FEMA P-58 and a physics engine. First, a modeling framework is designed based on building information modeling (BIM) to create consistent structural and scene models for the subsequent structural time-history analysis (THA) and scene construction. Subsequently, FEMA P-58 is employed to determine the damage states of nonstructural components based on the results of the THA. Finally, the physical models on the movements of the damaged components are designed using a physics engine and are also validated through the experiments such as an existing shaking table test. Considering a six-story building as a case study, a virtual earthquake scene of the indoor nonstructural components is constructed and applied in an earthquake safety drill. The outcome of this study provides well-founded scenes of the seismic damage to indoor nonstructural components for performing virtual earthquake safety drills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion-Fatigue Evaluation of Uncoated Weathering Steel Bridges
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173461 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Uncoated weathering steel (UWS) bridges have been extensively used to reduce the lifecycle cost since they are maintenance-free and eco-friendly. However, the fatigue issue becomes significant in UWS bridges due to the intended corrosion process utilized to form the corrodent-proof rust layer instead [...] Read more.
Uncoated weathering steel (UWS) bridges have been extensively used to reduce the lifecycle cost since they are maintenance-free and eco-friendly. However, the fatigue issue becomes significant in UWS bridges due to the intended corrosion process utilized to form the corrodent-proof rust layer instead of the coating process. In this paper, an innovative model is proposed to simulate the corrosion-fatigue (C-F) process in UWS bridges. Generally, the C-F process could be considered as two relatively independent stages in a time series, including the pitting process of flaw-initiation and the fatigue crack propagation of the critical pitting flaw. In the proposed C-F model, Faraday’s law has been employed at the critical flaw-initiation stage to describe the pitting process, in which the pitting current is applied to reflect the pitting rate in different corrosive environments. At the crack propagation stage, the influence of pitting corrosion is so small that it can be safely ignored. In simulating the crack propagation stage, the advanced NASGRO equation proposed by the NASA is employed instead of the classic Paris’ law, in which a modified fatigue limit is adopted. The fatigue limit is then used to determine the critical size of pitting flaws, above which the fatigue effect joins as a parallel driving force in crack propagation. The model is then validated through the experimental data from published articles at the initiation stage as well as the whole C-F process. Two types of structural steel, i.e., HPS 70W and 14MnNbq steel, have been selected to carry out a case study. The result shows that the C-F life can be notably prolonged in the HPS 70W due to the enhancement in fatigue strength and corrosion resistance. Besides, a sensitivity analysis has been made on the crucial parameters, including the stress range, stress ratio, corrosive environment and average daily truck traffic (ADTT). The result has revealed the different influence of the above parameters on the initiation life and propagation life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Assessment on Suspenders under Stochastic Wind and Traffic Loads Based on In-Situ Monitoring Data
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163405 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As a critical component of a suspension bridge, the integrity of the suspenders plays a critical role in the serviceability and reliability of the bridge during its life time. Despite the wide recognition of the importance of the suspenders, very few studies have [...] Read more.
As a critical component of a suspension bridge, the integrity of the suspenders plays a critical role in the serviceability and reliability of the bridge during its life time. Despite the wide recognition of the importance of the suspenders, very few studies have been devoted to the condition evaluation of suspenders in operation. The present study performs the fatigue assessment on the suspenders accounting for the stochastic wind and traffic loads using the in-situ monitoring data. To this end, a probabilistic numerical framework is proposed to predict the time-dependent fatigue reliability of the suspenders under stochastic wind and traffic loads during the bridge’s life time, based on the linear fatigue damage rule. As a demonstration, the proposed numerical framework is applied to a long-span suspension bridge located in a mountainous canyon. The results indicate that it is of paramount importance to consider both the wind and traffic load effects in the fatigue reliability evaluation of the suspenders. In addition, it was also found that among the suspenders under investigation, the short suspender at the bridge mid-span (S36) is more prone to the fatigue damage, while the long suspender at the end of the bridge girder (S2) is less prone to the fatigue damage. Finally, provided with a target reliability index of 3.0, the fatigue life of the suspenders S36 and S2, considering the life time wind and traffic load, is estimated as 53 years and 167 years, respectively. The present research could provide essential guidelines for the optimization of inspection and replacement in maintenance practices for suspenders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigations into Earthquake Resistance of Steel Frame Retrofitted by Low-Yield-Point Steel Energy Absorbers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3299; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163299 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper is the world’s first to highlight an experimental investigation into the earthquake responses of a steel frame retrofitted by novel metallic bending energy absorbers made of low-yield-point steel with the yield strength of approximately 100 MPa. New results have been achieved [...] Read more.
This paper is the world’s first to highlight an experimental investigation into the earthquake responses of a steel frame retrofitted by novel metallic bending energy absorbers made of low-yield-point steel with the yield strength of approximately 100 MPa. New results have been achieved by conducting comprehensive shaking table tests on a quarter-scaled model of a two-story, one-span building structure subjected to incremental intensity levels of input earthquake records. The detailed information of the specimens, material properties, monitoring sensors, and dynamic loading mechanisms has been presented. The experimental results in terms of seismic phenomena, dynamic characteristics, acceleration, inter-story drift ratios, and strain distributions are also analyzed by the data collected from a wide range of sensors. It is found that the seismic failure of the specimens depends largely on the energy absorbers, which dissipate the majority of seismic input energy in order to prevent the parent steel frame from being damaged by a severe earthquake. In addition, the retrofitted structure sufficiently satisfies the design criteria considering allowable drift limits under both frequent and rare earthquakes. This indicates the influential role of the novel low-yield-point absorber, in that the overall seismic performance of the retrofitted structure can be improved adequately for survival in high-intensity seismic fortification areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Tempcore Process Simulator to Analyze Microstructural Evolution of Quenched and Tempered Rebar
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142938 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Tempcore process simulator (TPS) has been developed in this study to analyze the microstructural evolution of quenched and tempered rebar. There has been an increasing need to relate the complex microstructures to the resulting properties of quenched and tempered rebar. However, information on [...] Read more.
Tempcore process simulator (TPS) has been developed in this study to analyze the microstructural evolution of quenched and tempered rebar. There has been an increasing need to relate the complex microstructures to the resulting properties of quenched and tempered rebar. However, information on such relationships typically requires precise thermal histories imposed on the workpiece. Therefore, TPS, capable of simulating the Tempcore process, has been developed to produce high-fidelity data. TPS mainly consists of a vacuum induction furnace, pilot rolling mill, box furnace, and cooling unit to simulate shop floor operations. A series of experimental tests were successfully carried out with various parameters, such as reheating temperature, water flow, water pressure, and cooling time. The effects of chemical compositions and cooling time on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of quenched and tempered rebar have been analyzed to validate the performance of TPS. The results show that TPS can simulate the Tempcore process with a high degree of fidelity and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Shaking Table Tests of Suspended Structures Equipped with Viscous Dampers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132616 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, a series of shaking table tests of a ten storey concrete suspended structure equipped with viscous dampers were carried out to evaluate the dynamic responses and vibration damping performance of suspended structures. The effects of link types between the primary [...] Read more.
In this study, a series of shaking table tests of a ten storey concrete suspended structure equipped with viscous dampers were carried out to evaluate the dynamic responses and vibration damping performance of suspended structures. The effects of link types between the primary structure and suspended floors and different seismic excitations on the response of suspended structure models was verified. The responses include the damping ratio, the frequency, maximum relative displacements, accelerations and maximum strains of the suspended structures. Test results showed that the damping ratio and the frequency of suspended structures installed with dampers (called damping suspended structure) are adjusted compared with a conventional suspended structure with rigid-bar links (conventional suspended structure). Maximum relative displacements of the primary structure of the damping suspended structure were distinctly smaller than those of the conventional suspended structure. However, the maximum relative displacement between the primary structure and the suspended floors of the damping suspended structure was significantly larger than that of the conventional structure, indicating that the swing of the suspended floor can help dissipate seismic energy. The peak acceleration and acceleration amplification factors of the damping suspended structure were less than the conventional suspended structure. Moreover, the peak acceleration response of the damping suspended structure was slightly behind the conventional suspended structure. The damping suspended structure certainly had a considerable and stable reduction for strain response, and the maximum strain response was decreased by 42.3%–72.7% for the damping suspended structure compared with the conventional suspended structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Stochastic Traffic-Based Fatigue Life Assessment of Rib-to-Deck Welding Joints in Orthotropic Steel Decks with Thickened Edge U-Ribs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132582 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rib-to-deck (RD) joints in orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) are highly prone to fatigue cracking under heavy traffic. An innovative longitudinal rib, named the thickened edge U-rib (TEU), has been proposed to enhance the fatigue strength of RD joints and validated through model tests. [...] Read more.
Rib-to-deck (RD) joints in orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) are highly prone to fatigue cracking under heavy traffic. An innovative longitudinal rib, named the thickened edge U-rib (TEU), has been proposed to enhance the fatigue strength of RD joints and validated through model tests. However, more studies are still required on the effect of TEUs in real engineering applications. To this end, a typical OSD bridge in China has been investigated, based on the experimental results. In the analysis, a stochastic traffic model is employed to simulate the vehicle-induced fatigue actions comprehensively. The framework of the stochastic model is proposed by considering the randomness in both the vehicles and their lateral distribution. Then the traffic model is instantiated using standard truck models in conjunction with the codes of practice as well as the observed data. A multi-scale finite element model is later established to determine the stochastic stress responses, whereas the influence surface method is used to improve computational efficiency. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to derive the stress spectra for the RD joints at different critical locations. Based on the test data and the derived spectra, an engineering assessment has been performed to obtain the fatigue life of RD joints in OSDs with and without TEUs, respectively. The new findings show that the position of joints has a remarkable influence on the stress spectra of RD joints, which results in the notable difference in fatigue life of the joints. Further, the fatigue life of RD joints can be significantly prolonged by using TEUs, and the prolongation rates are varied from 141% to 161% depending on the calculation methods and traffic models used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Behavior of a Double-Column Self-Centering Pier Fused with Shear Links
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122497 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A double-column self-centering pier fused with shear links is a novel structure developed to reduce residual deformation and facilitate post-earthquake repair. With this novel structure, the seismic resilience of bridges can be improved, and the reliability of lifeline infrastructure can be ensured. This [...] Read more.
A double-column self-centering pier fused with shear links is a novel structure developed to reduce residual deformation and facilitate post-earthquake repair. With this novel structure, the seismic resilience of bridges can be improved, and the reliability of lifeline infrastructure can be ensured. This paper presents the proposed pier configuration and investigates the mechanical behavior of the pier. A simplified finite element model is established to develop the lateral force-displacement relationship under cyclic loading. Additionally, a theoretical model based on the matrix displacement method and the virtual work principle is proposed to calculate the lateral force-displacement skeleton curve. The rationality and reliability of the theoretical model are validated by the satisfactory agreement observed between the numerical and theoretical results. Furthermore, a series of parametric analyses are conducted to discuss the effects of key parameters. The outcomes of this work can serve as a reference for further development of the design method for the innovated pier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Idealisations of Dynamic Modelling for Railway Ballast in Flood Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091785 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
As the main component of a ballasted railway system, railway ballast is frequently used by the railway industry to enhance constructability and practicality. Numerous studies into train–track interactions focused on ballast modelling and idealisation in completely dry environments, but recent studies have found [...] Read more.
As the main component of a ballasted railway system, railway ballast is frequently used by the railway industry to enhance constructability and practicality. Numerous studies into train–track interactions focused on ballast modelling and idealisation in completely dry environments, but recent studies have found that, in extreme weather such as floods, water can clog natural ballast beds and change the initial state of their properties. Ballast models used in multi-body simulations have been mostly developed based on the instrumented impact hammering method considering the ballast as a spring/dashpot. The single degree of freedom (SDOF) idealization for ballast enables a non-destructive field testing technique for monitoring of railway components in practice. In this study, the suitability of the idealization of ballast for dynamic characteristics has been evaluated. A series of experiments have been performed with a variety of ballast conditions in flooding levels from 0 to 40 cm, with a frequency range of 0–500 Hz. The results clearly show that the increase in the flood level will result in increasing dynamic damping of more than 50% of dry natural ballast whilst reducing its stiffness and natural frequency. The novel insights are of great significance for exploring the non-linear dynamic traits of ballast in extreme environments, which can be integrated into the coupled train–track analysis that can better express more realistically the dynamic train–track interaction and load transfer mechanism of flooded railway tracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Behavior of Tunnel Segment Joints Exposed to Fire and Strengthening of Fire-damaged Joints with Concrete-filled Steel Tubes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091781 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Owing to its discontinuous configuration, segment joint is of particular concern when the shield tunnel lining is exposed to fire. The thermal behavior of such joints when exposed to fire was investigated experimentally in full scale. In addition, the effectiveness of using concrete-filled [...] Read more.
Owing to its discontinuous configuration, segment joint is of particular concern when the shield tunnel lining is exposed to fire. The thermal behavior of such joints when exposed to fire was investigated experimentally in full scale. In addition, the effectiveness of using concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) to restore joint strength after a fire was also investigated. Five full-scale reinforced concrete segment joints were fabricated. Four were exposed to the ISO 834 standard fire for 60 or 120 min, with the fifth serving as a control. Two fire-damaged specimens were then strengthened with CFSTs. All five specimens were then loaded to failure at room temperature. It was found that: (1) The effect of the joint gap on the temperature distribution was observed to change markedly during heating; (2) the temperature of the bolt end was much higher than that of the bolt mid-point, insulating the bolt ends is probably called for; (3) the bearing capacity and flexural stiffness of the fire-damaged segment joints can be significantly improved by strengthening with CFSTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sciences and Engineering)
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