Special Issue "Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mariusz Jaśniok
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Building Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 5 Akademicka, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: concrete durability; rebar corrosion in concrete; coatings on steel reinforcement; corrosion diagnostics of building structures; corrosion monitoring; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; realkalization; chloride extraction
Prof. Maria Sozanska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Materials engineering and Metallurgy, Institute of Materials Engineerig, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice, Krasinskiego str. 8, Poland
Interests: material characterization; microstructure; SEM analysis; XRD analysis; EDS; EDX; SEM operation; X-ray microanalysis; physical characterization; materials testing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Zbigniew Perkowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Opole University of Technology, Katowicka 48, 45-061 Opole, Poland
Interests: ultrasonic imaging of concrete structures; building physics; moisture transport in building porous materials; timber-concrete composite structures; concrete composite structures; mechanics of concrete; strength of materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diagnostics of building structures is an extremely important element in ensuring the safety of users of building structures. Monitoring of the condition of structures, treated as cyclic diagnostic measurements, provides extremely valuable information about the deterioration of the structure. It is particularly important in the case of phenomena related to corrosion degradation of construction materials.

The Special Issue is focused on the broadly understood problems of diagnostics and remote monitoring of concrete and steel structures. Articles will be published on new or improved diagnostic methods, sensors, and systems for remote transmission of measurements. The scope of this issue also includes the so-called intelligent constructions, which on the basis of artificial intelligence algorithms make a self-assessment of technical condition.

Prof. Mariusz Jaśniok
Prof. Maria Sozanska
Prof. Zbigniew Perkowski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • building structures 
  • concrete
  • steel
  • diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • measurements
  • corrosion
  • sensors
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Intelligent Anomaly Identification of Uplift Pressure Monitoring Data and Structural Diagnosis of Concrete Dam
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020612 - 09 Jan 2022
Viewed by 76
Abstract
As an essential load of the concrete dam, the abnormal change of uplift pressure directly threatens the safety and stability of the concrete dam. Therefore, it is of great significance to accurately and efficiently excavate the hidden information of the uplift pressure monitoring [...] Read more.
As an essential load of the concrete dam, the abnormal change of uplift pressure directly threatens the safety and stability of the concrete dam. Therefore, it is of great significance to accurately and efficiently excavate the hidden information of the uplift pressure monitoring data to clarify the safety state of the concrete dam. Therefore, in this paper, density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) method is used to intelligently identify the abnormal occurrence point and abnormal stable stage in the monitoring data. Then, an application method of measured uplift pressure is put forward to accurately reflect the spatial distribution and abnormal position of uplift pressure in the dam foundation. It is easy to calculate and connect with the finite element method through self-written software. Finally, the measured uplift pressure is applied to the finite element model of the concrete dam. By comparing the structural behavior of the concrete dam under the design and measured uplift pressure, the influence of abnormal uplift pressure on the safety state of the concrete dam is clarified, which can guide the project operation. Taking a 98.5 m concrete arch dam in western China as an example, the above analysis ideas and calculation methods have been verified. The abnormal identification method and uplift pressure applying method can provide ideas and tools for the structural diagnosis of a concrete dam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures)
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Article
Field Test for a Base Isolation Structure on Condition of Horizontal and Initial Displacement
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010232 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 191
Abstract
There are a few isolated structures that have been subjected to seismic testing. An isolated structure is incapable of tracking, adjusting, and controlling its dynamic characteristics. As a result, field evaluations of solitary structures’ dynamic characteristics are important. The horizontal initial displacement of [...] Read more.
There are a few isolated structures that have been subjected to seismic testing. An isolated structure is incapable of tracking, adjusting, and controlling its dynamic characteristics. As a result, field evaluations of solitary structures’ dynamic characteristics are important. The horizontal initial displacement of a base isolation kindergarten made of 46 isolation bearings is 75 mm. The method for creating the horizontal initial displacement condition is illustrated, as are the primary test findings. Horizontal initial displacement is accomplished with the assistance of a reaction wall, rods, and hydraulic pump system. To begin, we removed the building using hydraulic jacks to produce horizontal displacement of the isolation layer and then attached rods to support the building. The rods were then shot and unloaded, causing the building to shake freely, and its dynamic response and other parameters were tested. The results indicate that the natural vibration period of an isolated structure is much greater than the natural vibration period of a seismic structure. The isolation layer’s hysteretic curve as completely filled; upon unloading, the isolation layer as promptly reset; the dynamic response control effect of each was visible, but the top floor’s acceleration was magnified by approximately 1.27 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures)
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Article
A Durability Prediction Method for Historical Square Rebar Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11737; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411737 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Square rebars were developed and used for decades in the early development of reinforced concrete (RC) structures; however, the objectives of modern concrete structure durability analyses and standards are centered on round rebars in past decades, which are not suited for RC buildings [...] Read more.
Square rebars were developed and used for decades in the early development of reinforced concrete (RC) structures; however, the objectives of modern concrete structure durability analyses and standards are centered on round rebars in past decades, which are not suited for RC buildings utilizing square rebars. Considering the absence of proper evaluation techniques to evaluate the square rebar RC structures’ durability accurately, a novel durability prediction method has been proposed for this type of historical building. The method is based on major parts as in-situ investigation, finite element model simulation, component importance analysis, and structural durability prediction. The durability prediction calculation method was established on the experimental results of the realistic historical concrete tests and corrosion-induced cover cracking experiments for square rebar components. It was found that the carbonization-resistant ability of historical concretes was relatively weaker than that of current concretes and the calculation method for critical corrosion depth of square rebar was different from that of round rebar. Furthermore, two typical application cases are presented to introduce the procedure of the method in detail. Consequently, the research outcomes can be directly used on the durability prediction and protection works for historical RC buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures)
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Article
Influence of Fatigue Crack Formation and Propagation on Reliability of Steel Members
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11562; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311562 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
During the years of bridge exploitation, many degradation processes and external influences attack its structure. Therefore, bridge reliability and durability is decreasing in time. On the other hand, the traffic load remains almost the same or even higher than in the past. However, [...] Read more.
During the years of bridge exploitation, many degradation processes and external influences attack its structure. Therefore, bridge reliability and durability is decreasing in time. On the other hand, the traffic load remains almost the same or even higher than in the past. However, bridges should not to become the limiting component of communication capacity and traffic reliability. Regarding to reliability, bridges should be assessed from the viewpoint of the Ultimate Limit States (ULS) and Serviceability Limit States (SLS). Within the ULS, cross-sections and members are verified for various types of stressing and their combinations, and also for fatigue at the same time. The cross-sectional verification, e.g., for bending stresses and fatigue, is done independently according to corresponding criteria of the ULS determined for strength verification a fatigue assessment separately. The presented article deals with the steel railway plate girder bridge with bottom member deck, in which there is an effort to prove the effect of the crack in tension bottom flange due to fatigue stressing on the change of bending resistance over time. The analytical calculation was derived and at the same time, the probabilistic approach of the influence of the fatigue crack size on the change of the cross-sectional resistance and reliability over time was used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures)
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Article
Usage of Barkhausen Noise for Assessment of Corrosion Damage on Different Low Alloyed Steels
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10646; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210646 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 344
Abstract
This study deals with corrosion damage of low alloyed feritic steels of variable strength. Three different steels of nominal yield strength 235, 700 and 1100 MPa were subjected to the variable degree of corrosion attack developed in the corrosion chamber under a neutral [...] Read more.
This study deals with corrosion damage of low alloyed feritic steels of variable strength. Three different steels of nominal yield strength 235, 700 and 1100 MPa were subjected to the variable degree of corrosion attack developed in the corrosion chamber under a neutral salt spray (NSS) atmosphere. The corrosion damage was investigated by the use of conventional metallographic observations when the thickness of corroded layer was quantified. Moreover, non-destructive magnetic technique, based on Barkhausen noise, was also employed. It was found that the rate of corrosion damage decreases along with the increasing number of days in the chamber. The similar evolution can be also found for Barkhausen noise emission and the extracted parameters from the emission. It can be reported that conventional rms value of Barkhausen noise signal as well as FWHM (full width at half maximum of Barkhausen noise envelope) can be linked with the corrosion extent, especially in the early phases of corrosion attack. The PP (peak position of Barkhausen noise envelope) values exhibit poor sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Monitoring of Steel and Concrete Structures)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

A service life prediction method for historical square-rebar reinforced concrete buildings

Hui Jin1, Qing Chun1, *

1 School of Architecture, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing 210096, China

* Corresponding author, e-mail: [email protected]

Abstract: In history, square-rebar was produced and used in large quantities for decades, but the objectives of current concrete durability analysis and standards are all for round-rebars, which are not suitable for historical concrete buildings using square-rebars. In order to accurately evaluate the durability of the square-rebar historical concrete structures, a method is proposed to predict the service life for this type of historical buildings. The procedures of the method include on-site investigations, finite element modelling, component importance analysis, and durability predictions for critical components. The predicted service life of the structure is determined by the durability life of the critical components, and the durability life is up to the corrosion-induced cracking time of the components. The research results can be directly used on the evaluation and protection works for historical square-rebar historical buildings, and improve the accuracy and safety of the current works.

Key Words: Historical reinforced concrete buildings; Square-rebar; Component importance analysis; Durability assessment; Service life.

 

Influence of Polypropylene and Steel Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Crack Repair of Self-Compacting Concrete

Mohammed A. Abed1, Abdulkarim Naoulo2, Amr Essa2, Bojan Poletanovic3

1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.

2 Department of Structural Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.

3 Institute of Material Technology, Building Physics and Building Ecology, TU Wien, Austria

Abstract

The research reported in this paper aims to evaluate the epoxy injection technique used to strengthen fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) with high strength. This method is carried out on ruptured concrete specimens to assess the efficiency of epoxy resin adhesive injection retrofitting technique for strength and stiffness. Five FRSCC mixes were designed and placed using different types (steel and polypropylene) and contents (0%, 0.25%, and 0.45% by volume) of fibers. Fresh and mechanical properties of produced mixes were evaluated to assess the impact of fibers on the behavior of FRSCC. Results showed that the workability of FRSCC is reduced by increasing steel or polypropylene fiber content, however, the rheological characteristics of placed mixes satisfied EFNARC recommendation for fresh concrete. Also, splitting tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were enhanced by increasing fiber content. The simultaneous application of epoxy injection in FRSCC for repairing damaged concrete beams was shown to be highly effective.

Keywords: Epoxy injection; polypropylene fiber; steel fiber; mechanical properties; crack repair; workability.

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