Special Issue "Cyber Physical Energy Systems"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Edmund Widl

AIT—Austrian Institute of Technology
Website | E-Mail
Interests: modeling and simulation of cyber–physical energy systems, integrated energy systems, application of the Functional Mock-up Interface specification for energy-related applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Automation and digitalization have become important topics in the energy sector in recent years, as modern energy systems increasingly rely on communication and information technology to combine smart controls with hardware infrastructure. In this context, applications like smart grids and smart buildings have pioneered the intertwining of hardware and software components, operating on different spatial and temporal scales and often across the boundaries of traditional engineering domains. With the emergence of cyber–physical systems (CPS) as a transdisciplinary field, such modern energy systems can be classified as cyber–physical energy systems (CPES), integrating the related research and development within a broader scope.

An important aspect of the research and development related to CPS is to bridge the gap between the traditional engineering domains and computer science. This is especially true for CPES, where the related engineering domains have in the past come up with proven and reliable methods for designing even large and complex systems.However, with the advent of distributed and renewable energy sources and the integration of energy systems across the traditional borders of engineering domains, these proven methods are being challenged and require extension. The inclusion of intelligent control strategies and the integration of ubiquitous amounts of data, which is facilitated through (or at least promised by) the notion of CPES, is expected to be an important enabler for the anticipated transition of the energy system.

This call for papers targets researchers and practitioners from all energy-related domains who work on issues related to CPES. The scope includes (but is not limited to) work on the modeling and simulation of CPES, distributed algorithms and control, formal languages and ontologies for integrated energy systems, the design of simulations/experiments and the general applications of CPES (for instance in the context of smart grids or smart cities). We would like to invite you to submit or recommend original research papers for the “Cyber–Physical Energy Systems” Special Issue.

Dr. Edmund Widl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Hybrid modeling and simulation
  • Co-Simulation of multi-domain systems
  • Ontologies for energy systems
  • Applications of cyber-physical energy systems
  • Distributed algorithms and control
  • Standards in interfacing components
  • Formal languages for energy systems
  • Smart grid modeling
  • Smart cities modeling
  • Design of simulations/experiments

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
WAMS-Based Online Disturbance Estimation in Interconnected Power Systems Using Disturbance Observer
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050990
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the event of a generator loss or disturbance, the power system frequency declines quickly and overall system stability is at risk. During these scenarios, under frequency load shedding is triggered to restore the power system frequency. The main stage of modern adaptive [...] Read more.
In the event of a generator loss or disturbance, the power system frequency declines quickly and overall system stability is at risk. During these scenarios, under frequency load shedding is triggered to restore the power system frequency. The main stage of modern adaptive under frequency load shedding techniques is disturbance estimation. However, the swing equation is widely used in disturbance estimation but has some critical estimation errors. In this paper, instead of using the swing equation we proposed the use of a disturbance observer to estimate the curtailed power. By making use of wide area measurements, a system frequency response model, which is a representative of the whole power system, can be realized in real time. Using different power system states of the developed model, a disturbance observer can be designed as well. The main advantage of the disturbance observer is that it can accurately estimate the disturbance magnitude and its location in a very short time. Further investigations show that by using the disturbance observer disturbances, which occur at the same time or at different times in different areas regardless of the magnitude or size, accurate estimations can be made. To ascertain the efficiency of the proposed scheme, simulations are done for a four-area power system using Matlab/Simulink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
CPES Testing with mosaik: Co-Simulation Planning, Execution and Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050923
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complex nature of cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) makes systematic testing of new technologies for these setups challenging. Co-simulation has been identified as an efficient and flexible test approach that allows consideration of interdisciplinary dynamic interactions. However, basic coupling of simulation models alone [...] Read more.
The complex nature of cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) makes systematic testing of new technologies for these setups challenging. Co-simulation has been identified as an efficient and flexible test approach that allows consideration of interdisciplinary dynamic interactions. However, basic coupling of simulation models alone fails to account for many of the challenges of simulation-based multi-domain testing such as expert collaboration in test planning. This paper illustrates an extended CPES test environment based on the co-simulation framework mosaik. The environment contains capabilities for simulation planning, uncertainty quantification and the development of multi-agent systems. An application case involving virtual power plant control is used to demonstrate the platform’s features. Future extensibility of the highly modular test environment is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Architectural Concept and Evaluation of a Framework for the Efficient Automation of Computational Scientific Workflows: An Energy Systems Analysis Example
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040728
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scientists and engineers involved in the design of complex system solutions use computational workflows for their evaluations. Along with growing system complexity, the complexity of these workflows also increases. Without integration tools, scientists and engineers are often highly concerned with how to integrate [...] Read more.
Scientists and engineers involved in the design of complex system solutions use computational workflows for their evaluations. Along with growing system complexity, the complexity of these workflows also increases. Without integration tools, scientists and engineers are often highly concerned with how to integrate software tools and model sets, which hinders their original research or engineering aims. Therefore, a new framework for streamlining the creation and usage of automated computational workflows is introduced in the present article. It uses state-of-the-art technologies for automation (e.g., container-automation) and coordination (e.g., distributed message oriented middleware), and a microservice-based architecture for novel distributed process execution and coordination. It also supports co-simulations as part of larger workflows including additional auxiliary computational tasks, e.g., forecasting or data transformation. Using Apache NiFi, an easy-to-use web interface is provided to create, run and control workflows without the need to be concerned with the underlying computing infrastructure. Initial framework testing via the implementation of a real-world workflow underpins promising performance in the realms of parallelizability, low overheads and reliable coordination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Standards for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems—Two Case Studies from Sensor Technology
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030435
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) describe a specialization of the cyber-physical system concept, in which energy systems are transformed into intelligent energy networks. These systems provide the basis for the realization of smart microgrids and smart grids. In the last decade, numerous research projects [...] Read more.
Cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) describe a specialization of the cyber-physical system concept, in which energy systems are transformed into intelligent energy networks. These systems provide the basis for the realization of smart microgrids and smart grids. In the last decade, numerous research projects have intensively explored the fundamentals and modeling of CPES and validated them in pilot projects. In the meantime, more and more CPES solutions have been appearing on the market and the battle for the most suitable standards has begun. This paper gives an overview of the currently available standards for CPES sensor technologies and assesses the suitability for implementation. In two case studies in the application area of operational energy management in German companies, a sensor retrofitting is described—once with proprietary technology and once using the standards Long Range (LoRa) Wide Area Network and OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA). As a result, the shortcomings of the standards for their use in CPES are shown and discussed. OPC UA, which was originally developed for the manufacturing industry, turns out to be to be a suitable standard for a wide range of CPES implementations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Energy Systems)
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