Special Issue "Biomedical Optics and Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ye Zhi Ting
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 62102 ChiaYi, Taiwan
Interests: intelligence biomedical photoelectric; photoelectric semiconductor materials and device; artificial intelligence, intelligence green energy; optical design, opto-mechatronics integrated design; patent layout and analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Hsiang-Chen Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High -tech Innovations, Taiwan
Interests: intelligent image recognition; biomedical imaging and sensing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chien-Yuan Han
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Taiwan
Interests: biomedical optoelectronics; photoelectricity measurement; interference optics and applications
Prof. Dr. Hao-chung Kuo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Photonics & Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: Nanostructured optoelectronic materials and devices; III-V (Nitride) high speed semiconductor laser technology and related research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a great pleasure, and an honor, to present this Special Issue of Applied Sciences.

This is a feature issue to present recent advances in the biomedical and future prospects of this key, fundamental, research area, especially on biomedical optoelectronics and optical biosensors.

You are cordially invited to submit your original research or review papers to this Special Issue. All papers need to present original, previously-unpublished work and will be subject to the normal standards and peer-review processes of this journal. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Optical biosensors;
  • Optical biopsy;
  • Biomedical imaging and sensing;
  • Spectroscopic imaging and sensing;
  • Multispectral imaging and sensing;
  • Optical diagnostics;
  • Scattering imaging;
  • Fluorescence imaging;
  • Optical coherence tomography;
  • Tissue optics and spectroscopy;
  • Biomedical imaging and sensing;
  • Diffuse and fluorescence tomography;
  • Optical biophysics and photobiology;
  • Medical and biological imaging instrumentation and techniques.

Dr. Zhi Ting Ye
Prof. Hsiang-Chen Wang
Prof. Chien-Yuan Han
Prof. Hao-chung Kuo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Optical biosensors
  • Optical biopsy
  • Biomedical imaging and sensing
  • Spectroscopic imaging and sensing
  • Multispectral imaging and sensing
  • Optical diagnostics
  • Scattering imaging
  • Fluorescence imaging
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Tissue optics and spectroscopy
  • Biomedical imaging and sensing
  • Diffuse and fluorescence tomography
  • Optical biophysics and photobiology
  • Medical and biological imaging instrumentation and techniques.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
In Vitro Evidences of Different Fibroblast Morpho-Functional Responses to Red, Near-Infrared and Violet-Blue Photobiomodulation: Clues for Addressing Wound Healing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7878; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217878 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 549
Abstract
Although photobiomodulation (PBM) has proven promising to treat wounds, the lack of univocal guidelines and of a thorough understanding of light–tissue interactions hampers its mainstream adoption for wound healing promotion. This study compared murine and human fibroblast responses to PBM by red (635 [...] Read more.
Although photobiomodulation (PBM) has proven promising to treat wounds, the lack of univocal guidelines and of a thorough understanding of light–tissue interactions hampers its mainstream adoption for wound healing promotion. This study compared murine and human fibroblast responses to PBM by red (635 ± 5 nm), near-infrared (NIR, 808 ± 1 nm), and violet-blue (405 ± 5 nm) light (0.4 J/cm2 energy density, 13 mW/cm2 power density). Cell viability was not altered by PBM treatments. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopy and biochemical analyses showed, in red PBM irradiated cells: F-actin assembly reduction, up-regulated expression of Ki67 proliferation marker and of vinculin in focal adhesions, type-1 collagen down-regulation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 expression/functionality increase concomitant to their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) decrease. Violet-blue and even more NIR PBM stimulated collagen expression/deposition and, likely, cell differentiation towards (proto)myofibroblast phenotype. Indeed, these cells exhibited a higher polygonal surface area, stress fiber-like structures, increased vinculin- and phospho-focal adhesion kinase-rich clusters and α-smooth muscle actin. This study may provide the experimental groundwork to support red, NIR, and violet-blue PBM as potential options to promote proliferative and matrix remodeling/maturation phases of wound healing, targeting fibroblasts, and to suggest the use of combined PBM treatments in the wound management setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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Article
Enhanced Sensitivity of Microring Resonator-Based Sensors Using the Finite Difference Time Domain Method to Detect Glucose Levels for Diabetes Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4191; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124191 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The properties of light and its interaction with biological analytes have made it possible to design sophisticated and reliable optical-based biomedical sensors. In this paper, we report the simulation, design, and fabrication of microring resonator (MRR)-based sensors for the detection of diabetic glucose [...] Read more.
The properties of light and its interaction with biological analytes have made it possible to design sophisticated and reliable optical-based biomedical sensors. In this paper, we report the simulation, design, and fabrication of microring resonator (MRR)-based sensors for the detection of diabetic glucose levels. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) with 1:1 hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative tone resist were used to fabricate MRR on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was then used to characterize the morphology of the MRR device. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and quality factors of MRR were obtained by using a tunable laser source (TLS) and optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). In this paper, the three-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (3D FDTD) approach has been used to simulate the proposed design. The simulation results show an accurate approximation with the experimental results. Next, the sensitivity of MRR-based sensors to detect glucose levels is obtained. The sensitivity value for glucose level detection in the range 0% to 18% is 69.44 nm/RIU. This proved that our MRR design has a great potential as a sensor to detect diabetic glucose levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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Article
Intraocular Pressure Study in Ex Vivo Pig Eyes by the Laser-Induced Cavitation Technique: Toward a Non-Contact Intraocular Pressure Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072281 - 27 Mar 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Traditional applanation tonometry techniques lack the necessary accuracy and reliability for measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP), and there is still a need for a reliable technique for in vivo diagnosis. A single laser-induced cavitation bubble event was optically monitored in order to precisely [...] Read more.
Traditional applanation tonometry techniques lack the necessary accuracy and reliability for measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP), and there is still a need for a reliable technique for in vivo diagnosis. A single laser-induced cavitation bubble event was optically monitored in order to precisely measure the first collapse time of the cavitation bubble, which presents a direct dependence on the liquid pressure. This can certainly be done within the IOP range. We now extend the partial transmittance modulation (STM) technique to determine its feasibility for directly measuring the IOP by studying the nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser-induced cavitation bubble dynamics for an externally pressurized fresh ex vivo porcine eye. The results demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the IOP by detecting the light of a continuous-wave (CW) laser beam which is intensity modulated by the bubble itself. This technique currently presents a measurement resolution of about 4 mmHg in the 5 to 50 mmHg pressure range, indicating the feasibility of this approach for measuring IOP. This technique provides a direct measurement within the anterior eye chamber, avoiding common pitfalls in IOP diagnosis, such as errors due to patient movement, varying physical properties of the eye globe, or central cornea thickness (CCT) effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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Article
Geometrical Calibration of a 2.5D Periapical Radiography System
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030906 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a geometrical calibration method applicable to the 2.5D prototype Periapical Radiography System and estimate component position errors. A two-steel-ball phantom with a precisely known position was placed in front of a digital X-ray sensor for [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop a geometrical calibration method applicable to the 2.5D prototype Periapical Radiography System and estimate component position errors. A two-steel-ball phantom with a precisely known position was placed in front of a digital X-ray sensor for two-stage calibration. In the first stage, the following three parameters were estimated: (1) r, the distance between the focal spot and the rotation axis of the X-ray tube; (2) ψ, the included angle between the straight line formed by the X-ray tube’s focal spot and rotation axis and the straight line of the orthogonal sensor; and (3) L4, the distance between the rotation axis and the plane where the two steel balls were positioned. In the second stage, the steel balls’ positions were determined to calculate the positions of the X-ray tube on the x, y, and z axes. Computer simulation was used to verify the accuracy of the calibration method. The results indicate that for the calibration approach proposed in this study, the differences between the estimated errors and setting errors were smaller than 0.15% in the first and second stages, which is highly accurate, verifying its applicability to accurate calibration of the 2.5D Periapical Radiography System. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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Article
Measurement of Structural Loads Using a Novel MEMS Extrinsic Fabry–Perot Strain Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010018 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
In this paper, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology was used to fabricate a novel extrinsic fiber Fabry–Perot (EFFP) strain sensor; this fiber sensor is applied to measure load with higher precision for a small structure. The sensor cavity consists of two Fabry–Perot (FP) cavity [...] Read more.
In this paper, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology was used to fabricate a novel extrinsic fiber Fabry–Perot (EFFP) strain sensor; this fiber sensor is applied to measure load with higher precision for a small structure. The sensor cavity consists of two Fabry–Perot (FP) cavity mirrors that are processed by surface micromachining and then fused and spliced together by the silicon–glass anode bonding process. The initial cavity length can be strictly controlled, and the excellent parallelism of the two faces of the cavity results in a high interference fineness. Then, the anti-reflection coating process is applied to the sensor to improve the clarity of the interference signal with the cavity, with its wavelength working within the range of the C + L band. Next, the sensor placement is determined by the finite element software Nastran. Experimental results indicate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response (99.77%) to load changes and a high repeatability. Considering the strain transfer coefficient, the sensitivity for the tested structure load is as high as 35.6 pm/N. Due to the miniaturization, repeatability, and easy-to-batch production, the proposed sensor can be used as a reliable and practical force sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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Article
Theoretical Study on Pressure Damage Based on Clinical Purpura during the Laser Irradiation of Port Wine Stains with Real Complex Vessels
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5478; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245478 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Port wine stains (PWSs) are congenital dermal vascular lesions composed of a hyperdilated vasculature. Purpura represented by local hemorrhage from water vaporization in blood during laser therapy of PWS is typically considered a clinical feedback, but with a low cure rate. In this [...] Read more.
Port wine stains (PWSs) are congenital dermal vascular lesions composed of a hyperdilated vasculature. Purpura represented by local hemorrhage from water vaporization in blood during laser therapy of PWS is typically considered a clinical feedback, but with a low cure rate. In this study, light propagation and heat deposition in skin and PWSs is simulated by a tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo method fitted to curved bio-tissues. A curvature-corrected pressure damage model was established to accurately evaluate the relationship between purpura-bleeding area (rate) and laser therapy strategy for real complex vessels. Results showed that the standard deviation of Gaussian curvature of the vessel wall has negative relation with the fluence threshold of vessel rupture, but has positive relation with the effective laser fluence of vessel damage. This finding indicated the probable reason for the poor treatment of PWS, that is, considering purpura formation as a treatment end point (TEP) only leads to partial removal of vascular lesions. Instead, appropriate purpura area ratio with marked effects or rehabilitation should be adopted as TEP. The quantitative correlation between the fluence of a pulsed dye laser and the characteristics of vascular lesions can provide personalized and precise guidance for clinical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Engineering)
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