Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2024) | Viewed by 25646

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
The International College of Semiconductor Technology, National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: advanced III-V compound semiconductor; Si CMOS Devices

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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: SiC high power devices; power electronics; renewable energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

GaN is an excellent material for making optoelectronic and electronic devices. Global sales of GaN-based blue, green, and white LEDs are netting billions of dollars every year, and there is also a substantial market for in-plane lasers emitting in the blue, blue-violet, and green. In addition, its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, combined with its outstanding properties, such as high electron mobility, high breakdown field, and high temperature capabilities, makes GaN attractive for many applications in high-power, and high-frequency devices for beyond 5G applications.

Silicon carbide (SiC) has also attracted increasing attention due to recent achievements in wafer growth technology and its outstanding materials properties, such as higher values for electric field breakdown, saturation velocity, and superior thermal conductivity.

SiC, being one of the most widely used wide bandgap materials, plays a critical role in power industries by setting new standards in power savings as switches or rectifiers in the system for electric vehicles (EV), wind turbines, solar cells, data centers, as well as high-temperature and radiation-tolerant electronic applications.

This Special Issue aims to cover the most recent advances from the fundamental physics of this emerging material to the fabrication, design, simulations, electrical characterization techniques, and reliability of GaN-based and SiC-based devices and for optoelectronic, power, and RF applications, especially in the following fields:

  • Novel LED or laser material and devices from UV to red emission;
  • Micro-LED for micro-display application and other potential application such as LiFi, bio-application, etc.;
  • Microcavity and nanolaser based on GaN material;
  • GaN SiC for power electronics (especially for EV);
  • GaN on Si and GaN on SiC for applications beyond 5G;
  • Reliability of GaN-based and SiC-based optoelectronic and power devices.

Reviews and surveys of the state of the art are also invited.

Prof. Dr. Hao-chung Kuo
Prof. Dr. Chun-Hsiung Lin
Prof. Dr. Kung-Yen Lee
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • power devices
  • RF devices
  • LED
  • micro-LED
  • lasers
  • LiFi GaN SiC

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 5877 KiB  
Article
Study of Leakage Current Transport Mechanisms in Pseudo-Vertical GaN-on-Silicon Schottky Diode Grown by Localized Epitaxy
by Mohammed El Amrani, Julien Buckley, Thomas Kaltsounis, David Plaza Arguello, Hala El Rammouz, Daniel Alquier and Matthew Charles
Crystals 2024, 14(6), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14060553 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
In this work, a GaN-on-Si quasi-vertical Schottky diode was demonstrated on a locally grown n-GaN drift layer using Selective Area Growth (SAG). The diode achieved a current density of 2.5 kA/cm2, a specific on-resistance RON,sp of [...] Read more.
In this work, a GaN-on-Si quasi-vertical Schottky diode was demonstrated on a locally grown n-GaN drift layer using Selective Area Growth (SAG). The diode achieved a current density of 2.5 kA/cm2, a specific on-resistance RON,sp of 1.9 mΩ cm2 despite the current crowding effect in quasi-vertical structures, and an on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 1010. Temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics were measured in the range of 313–433 K to investigate the mechanisms of leakage conduction in the device. At near-zero bias, thermionic emission (TE) was found to dominate. By increasing up to 10 V, electrons gained enough energy to excite into trap states, leading to the dominance of Frenkel–Poole emission (FPE). For a higher voltage range (−10 V to −40 V), the increased electric field facilitated the hopping of electrons along the continuum threading dislocations in the “bulk” GaN layers, and thus, variable range hopping became the main mechanism for the whole temperature range. This work provides an in-depth insight into the leakage conduction transport on pseudo-vertical GaN-on-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) grown by localized epitaxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device)
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20 pages, 3067 KiB  
Article
Properties of Z1 and Z2 Deep-Level Defects in n-Type Epitaxial and High-Purity Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC
by Paweł Kamiński, Roman Kozłowski, Jarosław Żelazko, Kinga Kościewicz and Tymoteusz Ciuk
Crystals 2024, 14(6), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14060536 - 7 Jun 2024
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Abstract
For the first time, the Z1 and Z2 defects with closely spaced energy levels having negative-U properties are revealed in high-purity semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC using Laplace-transform photoinduced transient spectroscopy (LPITS). In this material, after switching off the optical [...] Read more.
For the first time, the Z1 and Z2 defects with closely spaced energy levels having negative-U properties are revealed in high-purity semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC using Laplace-transform photoinduced transient spectroscopy (LPITS). In this material, after switching off the optical trap-filling pulse, either the one-electron or the two-electron thermally stimulated emission from these defects is observed at temperatures 300–400 K. It is found that the former corresponds to the Z10/+ and Z20/+ transitions with the activation energies of 514 and 432 meV, respectively, and the latter is associated with the Z1−/+ and Z2−/+ transitions with the activation energies of 592 meV and 650 meV, respectively. The Z1 and Z2 defect concentrations are found to increase from 2.1 × 1013 to 2.2 × 1014 cm−3 and from 1.2 × 1013 to 2.7 × 1014 cm−3, respectively, after the heat treatment of HPSI 4H-SiC samples at 1400 °C for 3 h in Ar ambience. Using the electrical trap-filling pulse, only the thermal two-electron emission from each defect was observed in the epitaxial 4H-SiC through Laplace-transform deep level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS). The activation energies for this process from the Z1 and Z2 defects are 587 and 645 meV, respectively, and the defect concentrations are found to be 6.03 × 1011 and 2.64 × 1012 cm−3, respectively. It is postulated that the Z1 and Z2 defects are the nearest-neighbor divacancies involving the carbon and silicon vacancies located at mixed, hexagonal (h), and quasi-cubic (k) lattice sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device)
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11 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Effects of Surface Size and Shape of Evaporation Area on SiC Single-Crystal Growth Using the PVT Method
by Yu Zhang, Xin Wen, Nuofu Chen, Fang Zhang, Jikun Chen and Wenrui Hu
Crystals 2024, 14(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14020118 - 25 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Silicon carbide (SiC) polycrystalline powder. As the raw material for SiC single-crystal growth through the physical vapor transport (PVT) method, its surface size and shape have a great influence on growth of crystal. The surface size and shape of the evaporation area filled [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide (SiC) polycrystalline powder. As the raw material for SiC single-crystal growth through the physical vapor transport (PVT) method, its surface size and shape have a great influence on growth of crystal. The surface size and shape of the evaporation area filled with polycrystalline powder were investigated by numerical simulation in this study. Firstly, the temperature distribution and deposition rate distribution for the PVT system were calculated by global numerical simulation, and the optimal ratio of polycrystalline powder surface diameter to seed crystal diameter was determined to be 1.6. Secondly, the surface of the evaporation area filled with polycrystalline powder was covered by a graphite ring and a graphite disc, respectively, to change its surface shape. The results show that adjusting the surface size and shape of the evaporation area filled with polycrystalline powder is an effective method to control the growth rate, growth stability, and growth surface shape of the single crystal. Finally, the result obtained by selecting appropriate covered structures for actual growth indicates that this process can act as a reference for improving the quality of single crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device)
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12 pages, 2914 KiB  
Article
The Transition from Type-I to Type-II SiC/GaN Heterostructure with External Strain
by Li Zhang, Haiyang Sun, Ruxin Zheng, Hao Pan, Weihua Mu and Li Wang
Crystals 2024, 14(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14010030 - 27 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Two-dimensional materials are widely used as a new generation of functional materials for photovoltaic, photocatalyst, and nano-power devices. Strain engineering is a popular method to tune the properties of two-dimensional materials so that performances can be improved or more applications can be obtained. [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional materials are widely used as a new generation of functional materials for photovoltaic, photocatalyst, and nano-power devices. Strain engineering is a popular method to tune the properties of two-dimensional materials so that performances can be improved or more applications can be obtained. In this work, a two-dimensional heterostructure is constructed from SiC and GaN monolayers. Using first-principle calculations, the SiC/GaN heterostructure is stacked by a van der Waals interaction, acting as a semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 3.331 eV. Importantly, the SiC/GaN heterostructure possesses a type-II band structure. Thus, the photogenerated electron and hole can be separated in the heterostructure as a potential photocatalyst for water splitting. Then, the external biaxial strain can decrease the bandgap of the SiC/GaN heterostructure. From pressure to tension, the SiC/GaN heterostructure realizes a transformation from a type-II to a type-I semiconductor. The strained SiC/GaN heterostructure also shows suitable band alignment to promote the redox of water splitting at pH 0 and 7. Moreover, the enhanced light-absorption properties further explain the SiC/GaN heterostructure’s potential as a photocatalyst and for nanoelectronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device)
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Review

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27 pages, 5033 KiB  
Review
Review of Silicon Carbide Processing for Power MOSFET
by Catherine Langpoklakpam, An-Chen Liu, Kuo-Hsiung Chu, Lung-Hsing Hsu, Wen-Chung Lee, Shih-Chen Chen, Chia-Wei Sun, Min-Hsiung Shih, Kung-Yen Lee and Hao-Chung Kuo
Crystals 2022, 12(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12020245 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 21597
Abstract
Owing to the superior properties of silicon carbide (SiC), such as higher breakdown voltage, higher thermal conductivity, higher operating frequency, higher operating temperature, and higher saturation drift velocity, SiC has attracted much attention from researchers and the industry for decades. With the advances [...] Read more.
Owing to the superior properties of silicon carbide (SiC), such as higher breakdown voltage, higher thermal conductivity, higher operating frequency, higher operating temperature, and higher saturation drift velocity, SiC has attracted much attention from researchers and the industry for decades. With the advances in material science and processing technology, many power applications such as new smart energy vehicles, power converters, inverters, and power supplies are being realized using SiC power devices. In particular, SiC MOSFETs are generally chosen to be used as a power device due to their ability to achieve lower on-resistance, reduced switching losses, and high switching speeds than the silicon counterpart and have been commercialized extensively in recent years. A general review of the critical processing steps for manufacturing SiC MOSFETs, types of SiC MOSFETs, and power applications based on SiC power devices are covered in this paper. Additionally, the reliability issues of SiC power MOSFET are also briefly summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor: GaN and SiC Material and Device)
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