Special Issue "Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 22 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alberto Leardini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Interests: human motion analysis; joint biomechanics; prosthesis design; computer-assisted surgery; custom-made implants
Prof. Dr. Richie Gill
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Interests: biomechanics of joints; motion analysis; biomechanical modelling; medical image processing; orthopaedic implants; custom implants
Prof. Dr. Tung-Wu Lu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100233, Taiwan;
2. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100233, Taiwan
Interests: human motion analysis; balance control; joint biomechanics; medical imaging-based biomechanics; biomechanical modelling; robot-assisted surgery; wearable sensor technology; sports biomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human motion analysis is a recognised technique for accurately tracking locomotion and exercise, and it has been exploited in past decades for hundreds of studies in clinical, performance, and physiological research. Meanwhile, biomechanics, in particular musculoskeletal research, has made huge progress, achieving excellent results in terms of new instrumentation, robust computer models, medical image analysis, and established experimental methods. Medicine, sport science, prosthetics and orthotics, and other disciplines may now take advantage of original combinations between traditional motion analysis and most modern biomechanical results and techniques. We want to contribute to the development of this merging between these various competences and experiences, by selecting and publishing original work aimed at including advanced biomechanical analysis and instruments in motion analysis, or special motion analysis studies involving innovative biomechanical research. This can include in silico modelling, and in vitro and in vivo measurements. In other words, we are looking for studies in which Biomechanics and Motion Analysis sustain each other.

We thus invite you to submit your research on these topics, in the form of original research papers, methodological advances, mini-reviews, and perspective articles.

Dr. Alberto Leardini
Prof. Dr. Richie Gill
Prof. Dr. Tung-Wu Lu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • human motion analysis
  • musculo-skeletal modelling
  • joint kinematics
  • joint kinetics
  • medical image analysis
  • joint modelling
  • sport science
  • prosthetics and orthotics
  • prosthesis design
  • balance control
  • wearable sensor technology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Hamstring Torque, Velocity and Power Elastic Band Measurements during Hip Extension and Knee Flexion
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10509; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210509 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The quantitative dynamic monitoring of the performance of hamstring muscles during rehabilitation and training cannot currently be undertaken using elastic resistance bands. Hip extension with a fully extended knee involves hamstring agonists, while knee flexion involves only the hamstring. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
The quantitative dynamic monitoring of the performance of hamstring muscles during rehabilitation and training cannot currently be undertaken using elastic resistance bands. Hip extension with a fully extended knee involves hamstring agonists, while knee flexion involves only the hamstring. The purpose of this study is to provide normative values of torque, velocity and power involving hamstring muscles opposing elastic bands. Twenty amateur athletes aged 25.7 ± 4.9, were studied during two motor tasks—hip extension and knee flexion, both isometric & dynamic—with an elastic resistance band and DINABANG portable instrument. We compared the peak isometric torque in hip extension with agonists (2.93 Nm/kg) and without them (1.21 Nm/kg): the difference is significant. The peak angular limb velocity—starting at 50% of the maximum torque—is smaller in hip extension with agonists (215.96°/s) than in a knee flexion without them (452.56°/s). The combination of peak torque and peak velocity estimates power and there is no difference (p = 0.051) with and without agonists: 452.56°Nm/s.kg without agonists and 542.13°Nm/s.kg with them. This study opens the possibility of monitoring torque–velocity–power profiles for hamstring exercise in open chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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Article
Spine, Pelvis and Hip Kinematics—Characterizing the Axial Plane in Healthy and Osteoarthritic Hips
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9921; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219921 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Abnormal spinopelvic movements are associated with inferior outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aims to (1) characterize the agreement between dynamic motion and radiographic sagittal assessments of the spine, pelvis, and hip; (2) determine the effect of hip osteoarthritis (OA) on [...] Read more.
Abnormal spinopelvic movements are associated with inferior outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aims to (1) characterize the agreement between dynamic motion and radiographic sagittal assessments of the spine, pelvis, and hip; (2) determine the effect of hip osteoarthritis (OA) on kinematics by comparing healthy individuals with pre-THA patients suffering from uni- or bilateral hip OA. Twenty-four OA patients pre-THA and eight healthy controls underwent lateral spinopelvic radiographs in standing and seated bend-and-reach (SBR) positions. Lumbar-lordosis (LL), sacral-slope (SS), and pelvic–femoral (PFA) angles were measured in both positions, and the differences (Δ) between SBR and standing were computed to assess spine flexion (SF), pelvic tilt (PT), and hip flexion (HF), respectively. Dynamic SBR and seated maximal trunk rotation (STR) tasks were performed at the biomechanics laboratory. Peak sagittal and axial kinematics for spine, pelvis, and hip, and range of motion (ROM), were calculated for SBR and STR. Radiograph readings correlated with sagittal kinematics during SBR for ΔLL and SFmax (r = 0.66, p < 0.001), ΔPT and PTmax (r = 0.44, p = 0.014), and ΔPFA and HFmax (r = 0.70, p < 0.001), with a satisfactory agreement in Bland–Altman analyses. Sagittal SBR spinal (r = 0.33, p = 0.022) and pelvic (r =0.35, p = 0.018) flexions correlated with the axial STR rotations. All axial spinopelvic parameters were different between the OA patients and controls, with the latter exhibiting significantly greater mobility and less variability. Bilaterally affected patients exhibited lower peak and ROM compared to controls. The biomechanics laboratory performed reliable assessments of spinopelvic and hip characteristics, in which the axial plane can be included. The sagittal and axial pelvic kinematics correlate, illustrating that pelvic rotation abnormalities are likely also contributing to the inferior outcomes seen in patients with abnormal spinopelvic flexion characteristics. Axial rotations of the pelvis and spine were least in patients with bilateral hip disease, further emphasizing the importance of the hip–pelvic–spine interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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Article
Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Tibiofemoral Kinematics Using Single-Plane Fluoroscopy and a Personalized Kinematic Model
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9415; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209415 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Model-based 3D/2D image registration using single-plane fluoroscopy is a common setup to determine knee joint kinematics, owing to its markerless aspect. However, the approach was subjected to lower accuracies in the determination of out-of-plane motion components. Introducing additional kinematic constraints with an appropriate [...] Read more.
Model-based 3D/2D image registration using single-plane fluoroscopy is a common setup to determine knee joint kinematics, owing to its markerless aspect. However, the approach was subjected to lower accuracies in the determination of out-of-plane motion components. Introducing additional kinematic constraints with an appropriate anatomical representation may help ameliorate the reduced accuracy of single-plane image registration. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate a multibody model-based tracking (MbMBT) scheme, embedding a personalized kinematic model of the tibiofemoral joint for the measurement of tibiofemoral kinematics. The kinematic model was consisted of three ligaments and an articular contact mechanism. The knee joint activities in six volunteers during isolated knee flexion, lunging, and sit-to-stand motions were recorded with a biplane X-ray imaging system. The tibiofemoral kinematics determined with the MbMBT and mediolateral view fluoroscopic images were compared against those determined using biplane fluoroscopic images. The MbMBT was demonstrated to yield tibiofemoral kinematics with precision values in the range from 0.1 mm to 1.1 mm for translations and from 0.2° to 1.3° for rotations. The constraints provided by the kinematic model were shown to effectively amend the nonphysiological tibiofemoral motion and not compromise the image registration accuracy with the proposed MbMBT scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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Article
Modeling Musculoskeletal Dynamics during Gait: Evaluating the Best Personalization Strategy through Model Anatomical Consistency
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8348; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188348 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
No consensus exists on how to model human articulations within MSK models for the analysis of gait dynamics. We propose a method to evaluate joint models and we apply it to three models with different levels of personalization. The method evaluates the joint [...] Read more.
No consensus exists on how to model human articulations within MSK models for the analysis of gait dynamics. We propose a method to evaluate joint models and we apply it to three models with different levels of personalization. The method evaluates the joint model’s adherence to the MSK hypothesis of negligible joint work by quantifying ligament and cartilage deformations resulting from joint motion; to be anatomically consistent, these deformations should be minimum. The contrary would require considerable external work to move the joint, violating a strong working hypothesis and raising concerns about the credibility of the MSK outputs. Gait analysis and medical resonance imaging (MRI) from ten participants were combined to build lower limb subject-specific MSK models. MRI-reconstructed anatomy enabled three levels of personalization using different ankle joint models, in which motion corresponded to different ligament elongation and cartilage co-penetration. To estimate the impact of anatomical inconsistency in MSK outputs, joint internal forces resulting from tissue deformations were computed for each joint model and MSK simulations were performed ignoring or considering their contribution. The three models differed considerably for maximum ligament elongation and cartilage co-penetration (between 5.94 and 50.69% and between −0.53 and −5.36 mm, respectively). However, the model dynamic output from the gait simulations were similar. When accounting for the internal forces associated with tissue deformation, outputs changed considerably, the higher the personalization level the smaller the changes. Anatomical consistency provides a solid method to compare different joint models. Results suggest that consistency grows with personalization, which should be tailored according to the research question. A high level of anatomical consistency is recommended when individual specificity and the behavior of articular structures is under investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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Article
Aging Affects Multi-Objective Optimal Control Strategies during Obstacle Crossing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8040; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178040 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Obstacle crossing challenges balance and increases the risk of falls in older people. Knowledge of the control strategies adopted by older people will be helpful for the study of the mechanisms of falls during obstacle crossing and the development of fall-prevention approaches. A [...] Read more.
Obstacle crossing challenges balance and increases the risk of falls in older people. Knowledge of the control strategies adopted by older people will be helpful for the study of the mechanisms of falls during obstacle crossing and the development of fall-prevention approaches. A mechanical model of the body combined with measured gait data was used to study the control strategies adopted by 17 healthy older and 17 young adults when crossing obstacles of different heights, in terms of the best-compromise weighting sets for the objectives of minimizing energy expenditure and maximizing the toe-obstacle and heel-obstacle clearances. The older group showed increased leading toe-obstacle clearance and trailing toe-obstacle distance, but decreased leading heel-obstacle distance. Compared with the young, the crossing strategy of older people emphasized the foot-obstacle clearance to reduce the risk of tripping, at the expense of energy expenditure. It appears that the multi-objective optimal control strategy relies on the muscular strength of the lower extremities and precise end-point control. Therefore, maintaining or improving the muscle strength and the ability of limb position control is critical for safe and successful obstacle-crossing in the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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Article
Experimental Study of Military Crawl as a Special Type of Human Quadripedal Automatic Locomotion
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7666; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167666 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
The biomechanics of military crawl locomotion is poorly covered in scientific literature so far. Crawl locomotion may be used as a testing procedure which allows for the detection of not only obvious, but also hidden locomotor dysfunctions. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
The biomechanics of military crawl locomotion is poorly covered in scientific literature so far. Crawl locomotion may be used as a testing procedure which allows for the detection of not only obvious, but also hidden locomotor dysfunctions. The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of crawling among healthy adult participants. Eight healthy adults aged 15–31 (four women and four men) were examined by means of a 3D kinematic analysis with Optitrack optical motion-capture system which consists of 12 Flex 13 cameras. The movements of the shoulder, elbow, knee, and hip joints were recorded. A person was asked to crawl 4 m on his/her belly. The obtained results including space-time data let us characterize military crawling in terms of pelvic and lower limb motions as a movement similar to walking but at a more primitive level. Progressive and propulsive motions are characterized as normal; additional right–left side motions—with high degree of reciprocity. It was found that variability of the left-side motions is significantly lower than that of the right side (Z = 4.49, p < 0.0001). The given normative data may be used as a standard to estimate the test results for patients with various pathologies of motor control (ataxia, abasia, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Human Motion Analysis)
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