Special Issue "Recent Advances in the Ecological Extraction and Application of Bioactive Plant Compounds"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Sustainable Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Urszula Szymanowska
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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Interests: food science; food bioactive compounds; antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; anthocyanins; functional food; food wastes (pomaces); food fortification
Dr. Monika Karaś
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Interests: food science; food bioactive compounds; antioxidant activity; bioactive peptides; protein hydrolysates; functional food; food fortification; functional properties of proteins
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biologically-active compounds of plant origin play a very important role in the prevention of many diseases due to the fact that they exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and many other properties.

Developing new, safe, and ecologically-friendly technologies for their acquisition is of great importance for society and is also a very interesting research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology, or food technology.

Extraction is the widely used technique of obtaining natural compounds (phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, aroma compounds, etc.) from plant material. Ecological extraction is the invention, design, and application of solvents and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, thereby obtaining a safe and high-quality product.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue of Applied Sciences on “Recent Advances in the Ecological Extraction and Application of Bioactive Plant Compounds”, we invite you to provide original research contributions, as well as review articles, related to recent advances in the ecological methods for obtaining of bioactive plant compounds via human health and environment-protecting methods.

This Special Issue will also be focused on in vitro and in vivo pro-health activity of extracted compounds and using them for fortification or producing functional food.

Dr. Urszula Szymanowska
Dr. Monika Karaś
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Ecological extraction
  • Biologically active compounds
  • Conventional vs. Alternative extraction methods
  • Industrial applications
  • Phytochemicals
  • Functional food
  • Food fortification

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Activity of Anthocyanins from Berry Fruits after Their Isolation and Freeze-Drying
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052096 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Natural phytonutrients in foods, including anthocyanins, can play an important role in human health. Anthocyanins have been reported to cause many various useful effects, such as reducing cancer cell proliferation, regulating blood pressure, preventing tumor formation, and preventing diabetes. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Natural phytonutrients in foods, including anthocyanins, can play an important role in human health. Anthocyanins have been reported to cause many various useful effects, such as reducing cancer cell proliferation, regulating blood pressure, preventing tumor formation, and preventing diabetes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the qualitative anthocyanin content, antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of different extracts derived from Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium corymbosum, Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa. The anthocyanin content of the plants mentioned in the study was characterized after the freeze-drying process. MTT assay was chosen to determine the antiproliferative effect of extracts on colorectal cancer cells. Antimicrobial effects of extracts were studied on typical and clinical strains of five different bacteria. As a result, it was determined that the anthocyanin content in the extracts obtained by the freeze-drying method was acceptable, and some extracts were found to have a strong antiproliferative effect on colorectal cancer cells and have an antibacterial effect on typical and clinical strains. Conclusionally, it has been shown that anthocyanins, which are reported to have many beneficial effects, are very promising when prepared with a relatively new method, and this study is a pioneer study for possible future pharmacological and in vivo studies. Full article
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Article
Development and Evaluation of Ginkgo biloba L. Extract Loaded into Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sublingual Films
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010270 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Oral bioavailability of flavonoids, including G. biloba extract, is limited due to their chemical complexity, which determines slow dissolution in vitro behavior of the extract. The overall research objective was to compare the effect of increasing freeze-dried G. biloba extract (GFD) concentrations in [...] Read more.
Oral bioavailability of flavonoids, including G. biloba extract, is limited due to their chemical complexity, which determines slow dissolution in vitro behavior of the extract. The overall research objective was to compare the effect of increasing freeze-dried G. biloba extract (GFD) concentrations in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films on their mechanical properties, release profile of flavonoid glycosides, stability and disintegration time. Physicochemical evaluation of films was performed by SEM and FTIR. The mechanical properties and in vitro release profile of flavonoid glycosides from the prepared films were characterized in the study. The higher elongation at break and tensile strength values, quick release of flavonoids and good stability were observed in formulation, coded FRG—15 (the film contained 0.4 g of GFD, 0.3 g of glycerol and 2 g of 2% CMC), (p < 0.05). Dissolution rate tests showed that approximately 85% of loaded flavonoid glycosides had been released; the release profile of flavonoid glycosides from FRG-15 had levelled off after only 15 min. The results could lay the groundwork for further studies, concerning the development of sublingual films as G. biloba extract-based dosage forms, which might increase the multifunctional properties and pharmacological activity closer to the desired level. Full article
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Article
Optimization and Validation of the GC/FID Method for the Quantification of Fatty Acids in Bee Products
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010083 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
To the best of our knowledge, so far, no study has been conducted about the comparison of the total fatty acid concentration in the four bee products (honey, bee pollen, bee bread, and propolis) collected from Lithuania. Therefore, we aimed to optimize the [...] Read more.
To the best of our knowledge, so far, no study has been conducted about the comparison of the total fatty acid concentration in the four bee products (honey, bee pollen, bee bread, and propolis) collected from Lithuania. Therefore, we aimed to optimize the derivatization parameters and to investigate a simple and sensitive gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method to determine fatty acids. The optimal derivatization parameters were used to analyze fatty acids in the bee products. Regarding sample preparation, three derivatization parameters were compared (temperature and extraction time with BF3/MeOH reagent) in order to obtain a high amount of the total fatty acids of interest from the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) standard. The results showed that the highest total yield of fatty acids was conducted by using the conventional heating process at 70 °C for 90 min. Under optimal conditions, there was obtained excellent linearity for fatty acids with determination coefficients of r2 > 0.9998. The LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.21 to 0.54 µg/mL and 0.63 to 1.63 µg/mL, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the qualitative analysis of fatty acids in bee products. The above findings might provide a scientific basis for evaluating the nutritional values of bee products. Full article
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Article
LC-ESI-MS/MS-MRM Profiling of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Junipers of Different Origin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8921; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248921 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
This study was aimed at identifying new efficient antioxidant juniper species and their metabolites, which are responsible for this activity. About 30 juniper representatives were assayed for antioxidant activity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging) and total polyphenol content (TPC). The [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at identifying new efficient antioxidant juniper species and their metabolites, which are responsible for this activity. About 30 juniper representatives were assayed for antioxidant activity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging) and total polyphenol content (TPC). The most active species were identified, and their most abundant polyphenols were quantified by the LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. In the group of studied species, J. ashei (mountain cedar) leaf extract was outlined as the best antioxidant with the highest TPC. Catechin was revealed as the most abundant polyphenol in the J. ashei extract, contributing to its superior antioxidant properties. An in-depth analysis of antioxidant capacity was also performed. The higher metal-chelating activity was observed in the case of J. sibirica (0.83 mg DE/mL), whereas the lowest was observed for J. communis (3.2 mg dry extract (DE)/mL) extracts. All efficient antioxidant extracts were also able to inhibit lipoxygenase. EC50 values ranged from 1.77 to 2.44 mg DE/mL. The most effective inhibitors were J. ashei and J. formozana extracts, which acted as uncompetitive lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors. The presented results have potential application in the pharmacy and cosmetics for the generation of antioxidant compositions based on naturally derived lead compounds for the prevention of oxidative-stress associated organ-degenerative diseases, cancer, or other free radical-induced disorders. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant and Potentially Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Pasta Fortified with Onion Skin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8164; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228164 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 506
Abstract
In recent years, food industries have produced a large volume of waste, which is an ecological and economic problem. Fruit and vegetable by-products can also be promising sources of functional compounds, with documented pro-health potential. The goal of the study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
In recent years, food industries have produced a large volume of waste, which is an ecological and economic problem. Fruit and vegetable by-products can also be promising sources of functional compounds, with documented pro-health potential. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of the addition of various concentrations of onion skin powder on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties associated with changes in the quercetin content in uncooked and cooked pastas. The total contents of phenolic acids, quercetin, and antioxidant activity were determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated by inhibitory effects on lipoxygenase (LOX) in vitro activity. Dry onion skin is the source of quercetin in analyzed pastas. The concentrations of these compounds gradually and significantly increased with increases in the vegetable component in fortified pastas. Additionally, a positive correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of pastas fortified with onion skin powder was noted. The process of cooking caused enhancement in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. These qualities of pastas resulted from the presence of dry onion skin with high pro-health activities. Fortification of pasta with onion skin powder could be a starting point to benefit onion industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products. Full article
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Article
Extraction of Alkaloids Using Ultrasound from Pulp and By-Products of Soursop Fruit (Annona muricata L.)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4869; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144869 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
The main goal of this work was to measure the total alkaloid content (TALC) from pulp, peel, seed, and columella of soursop fruit (Annona muricata L.) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and to obtain the best conditions of the UAE with the response [...] Read more.
The main goal of this work was to measure the total alkaloid content (TALC) from pulp, peel, seed, and columella of soursop fruit (Annona muricata L.) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and to obtain the best conditions of the UAE with the response surface methodology (RSM). We evaluated the effect of amplitude (40%, 70%, and 100%), time (5, 10, and 15 min) and pulse-cycles (0.4, 0.7, and 1 s) and compared the best UAE conditions of alkaloids with a conventional extraction (maceration). The structural characterization of the raw material with the highest TALC was developed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques [1H, 13C, heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and homonuclear correlation spectroscopy (COSY)]. According to the RSM, the best conditions in the UAE for extracting alkaloids varied depending on the type of plant tissue. It took 5 min with an amplitude of 70% and pulse-cycles of 1, 0.4, and 1 s, respectively, to extract the highest TALC in peel, seed, and columella while the optimal conditions for extracting the largest amount of alkaloids from the pulp were obtained at 5 min in UAE with pulse-cycles of 0.55 s and 100% amplitude. The TALC was highest in the peel (7.48 mg/g), which was followed by the seed (2.31 mg/g), the pulp (1.20 mg/g), and the columella (0.79 mg/g) and was positively correlated (R2 = 0.98–0.88) with the predicted values. In addition, the extraction alkaloids from the peel, pulp, seed, and columella using the UAE was 56.31, 5.45, 3.06, and 2.96 times higher, respectively, than the extraction by maceration. The alkaloids identified in the peel have not been reported and were nornuciferin, assimilobin, anonaine, and isolaureline. This study showed that the soursop fruit peel can be a source of alkaloids and that UAE has an important potential for extracting these compounds. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Potentilla anserina L. Polysaccharides Affected by Ultrasonication
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4510; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134510 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharides (PAPs) were investigated. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the parameters of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). A maximum yield of 9.43% was achieved at an extraction [...] Read more.
The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharides (PAPs) were investigated. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the parameters of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). A maximum yield of 9.43% was achieved at an extraction temperature of 66 °C, ultrasonic power of 205 W, and extraction time of 2.6 h. The chemical structure analyses illustrated that the two PAP extracts using UAE and hot water extraction (HWE) had the same monosaccharide composition but displayed a significant difference in the monosaccharide content, and the molecular weight of PAPUAE was significantly lower than PAPHWE. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that the ultrasonic treatment did not change the type of glycosidic bonds compared with HWE. In addition, the results from thermogravimetric analysis indicated that different extraction methods had effects on the physical properties of PAPs to some degree. Antioxidant activity assays demonstrated that PAPUAE had higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities when cells were exposed to exogenous H2O2 than PAPHWE, and the malondialdehyde levels were also lowered following exposure to PAPUAE. These findings indicated that ultrasound irradiation is a promising technique for polysaccharide extraction from plant materials. Full article
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Article
Potential Acetylcholinesterase, Lipase, α-Glucosidase, and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity, as well as Antimicrobial Activities, of Essential Oil from Lettuce Leaf Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Elicited with Jasmonic Acid
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4315; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124315 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the elicitation with jasmonic acid on the biological activities of essential oils (EOs) from lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Specifically, 0.01 µM jasmonic acid (JA1), 1 µM jasmonic acid (JA2), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the elicitation with jasmonic acid on the biological activities of essential oils (EOs) from lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Specifically, 0.01 µM jasmonic acid (JA1), 1 µM jasmonic acid (JA2), and 100 µM jasmonic acid (JA3) were used as elicitors. The results indicated that the elicitation increased the acetylcholinesterase, lipase, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of essential oils. A significant difference in α-glucosidase inhibition was noted only for the JA3 extract (IC50 = 0.81 µL/mL), as this activity was lower than in the control sample without elicitation (IC50 = 0.68 µL/mL). The studied basil EOs exhibited similar activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria). Based on the value of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC), the best antimicrobial activity was observed for JA2 and JA3. Full article

Review

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Review
Extracts of Peanut Skins as a Source of Bioactive Compounds: Methodology and Applications
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8546; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238546 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 544
Abstract
Peanut skins are a waste product of the peanut processing industry with little commercial value. They are also significant sources of the polyphenolic compounds that are noted for their bioactivity. The extraction procedures for these compounds range from simple single solvent extracts to [...] Read more.
Peanut skins are a waste product of the peanut processing industry with little commercial value. They are also significant sources of the polyphenolic compounds that are noted for their bioactivity. The extraction procedures for these compounds range from simple single solvent extracts to sophisticated separation schemes to isolate and identify the large range of compounds present. To take advantage of the bioactivities attributed to the polyphenols present, a range of products both edible and nonedible containing peanut skin extracts have been developed. This review presents the range of studies to date that are dedicated to extracting these compounds from peanut skins and their various applications. Full article
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