Special Issue "Architectural Structure"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Assistant Professor with Aggregation Luís Filipe Almeida Bernardo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
C-MADE - Centre of Materials and Building Technologies, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Beira Interior, 6200-358 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: structural analysis and design; numerical modelling; concrete structures; structural materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An architectural structure can be defined as a human-made construction simultaneously driven by aesthetic and engineering considerations. In many cases, such a construction can be viewed as ‘structural art’.

Many ancient constructions can be considered real architectural structures and, for a long time, demonstrated the ability of human beings to use rationally natural materials, dominate construction techniques, understand and optimize the path of forces along the construction components. However, until the end of renaissance, the work of the master builder was mainly based on empirical rules. As a result, structural components were generally oversized, and large volumes of material were used.

In the 17th century, the development of modern calculus and experimental techniques allowed developing rational design criteria based on the knowledge of the mechanical properties of the materials. This enabled optimizing the cross-sections and volumes of materials to be used in the constructions.

Since the 20th century, the development of more refined design criteria, computational tools, new structural materials, and new structural typologies has made it possible to further optimize the volume of materials and also to rationalize their use even more. Today, the masters of architecture and engineering are able to design and build slender and more elegant structures fulfilling all architectural and engineering requirements.

The aim of the Special Issue ‘Architectural Structure’ is to gather advances in architectural structures and inspire researchers and practitioners to share their knowledge and experience in the field, and also explore new directions for the future. In this Special Issue, we welcome both original research studies and review papers based on diverse topics, with architectural structures as a reference point, such as:

  • New typologies;
  • Innovative structural systems;
  • Innovative structural materials;
  • Experimental and/or numerical studies;
  • Construction techniques;
  • Case studies, including design projects.

Researchers, architects, and engineers, among others, working on this field are invited to present and share their work.

Assistant Professor with Aggregation Luís Filipe Almeida Bernardo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • architectural structure
  • typology
  • structural system
  • structural material
  • experimental and numerical modeling
  • design project
  • construction techniques
  • case study

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Torsional Behaviour of Prestressed HSC Hollow Beams
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020642 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
This article describes an experimental program developed to study the influence of longitudinal prestress on the behaviour of high-strength concrete hollow beams under pure torsion. The pre-cracking, the post-cracking and the ultimate behaviour are analysed. Three tests were carried out on large hollow [...] Read more.
This article describes an experimental program developed to study the influence of longitudinal prestress on the behaviour of high-strength concrete hollow beams under pure torsion. The pre-cracking, the post-cracking and the ultimate behaviour are analysed. Three tests were carried out on large hollow high-strength concrete beams with similar concrete strength. The variable studied was the level of longitudinal uniform prestress. Some important conclusions on different aspects of the beams’ behaviour are presented. These conclusions, considered important for the design of box bridges, include the influence of the level of prestress in the cracking and ultimate behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Self-Compacting Concrete Strength with Non-Destructive Tests for Concrete Structures
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235109 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) shows to have some specificities when compared to normal vibrated concrete (NVC), namely higher cement paste dosage and smaller volume of coarse aggregates. In addition, the maximum size of coarse aggregates is also reduced in SCC to prevent blocking effect. [...] Read more.
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) shows to have some specificities when compared to normal vibrated concrete (NVC), namely higher cement paste dosage and smaller volume of coarse aggregates. In addition, the maximum size of coarse aggregates is also reduced in SCC to prevent blocking effect. Such specificities are likely to affect the results of non-destructive tests when compared to those obtained in NVC with similar compressive strength and materials. This study evaluates the applicability of some non-destructive tests to estimate the compressive strength of SCC. Selected tests included the ultrasonic pulse velocity test (PUNDIT), the surface hardness test (Schmidt rebound hammer type N), the pull-out test (Lok-test), and the concrete maturity test (COMA-meter). Seven sets of SCC specimens were produced in the laboratory from a single mixture and subjected to standard curing. The tests were applied at different ages, namely: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 94 days. The concrete compressive strength ranged from 45 MPa (at 24 h) to 97 MPa (at 94 days). Correlations were established between the non-destructive test results and the concrete compressive strength. A test variability analysis was performed and the 95% confidence limits for the obtained correlations were computed. The obtained results for SCC showed good correlations between the concrete compressive strength and the non-destructive tests results, although some differences exist when compared to the correlations obtained for NVC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexural and Shear Performance of Prestressed Composite Slabs with Inverted Multi-Ribs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4946; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224946 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Half precast concrete slabs with inverted multi-ribs (Joint Advanced Slab, JAS), which enhance composite performance between slabs by introducing shear keys at connections between the slabs and improve structural performance by placing prestressing tendons and truss-type shear reinforcements, have recently been developed and [...] Read more.
Half precast concrete slabs with inverted multi-ribs (Joint Advanced Slab, JAS), which enhance composite performance between slabs by introducing shear keys at connections between the slabs and improve structural performance by placing prestressing tendons and truss-type shear reinforcements, have recently been developed and applied in many construction fields. In this study, flexural and shear tests were performed to verify the structural performance of JAS members. Towards this end, two flexural specimens and four shear specimens were fabricated, and the presence of cast-in-place concrete and the location of the critical section were set as the main test variables. In addition, the flexural and shear performance of the JAS was quantitatively evaluated using a non-linear flexural analysis model and current structural design codes. Evaluation results confirmed that the flexural behavior of the JAS was almost similar to the behavior simulated through the non-linear flexural analysis model, and the shear performance of the JAS can also be estimated appropriately by using the shear strength equations presented in the current design codes. For the JAS with cast-in-place concrete, however, the shear strength estimation results differed significantly depending on the way that the shear contributions of the precast concrete unit and cast-in-place concrete were calculated. Based on the analysis results, this study proposed a design method that can reasonably estimate the shear strength of the composite JAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Multiple Openings on Reinforced Concrete Outrigger Walls in a Tall Building
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224913 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Outrigger systems have been used to control the lateral displacement of tall buildings. Reinforced concrete (R.C.) outrigger walls with openings can be used to replace conventional steel outrigger trusses. In this paper, a structural model for an R.C. outrigger wall with multiple openings [...] Read more.
Outrigger systems have been used to control the lateral displacement of tall buildings. Reinforced concrete (R.C.) outrigger walls with openings can be used to replace conventional steel outrigger trusses. In this paper, a structural model for an R.C. outrigger wall with multiple openings was proposed, and the effects of the multiple openings on the stiffness and strength of the outrigger walls were evaluated. The equivalent bending stiffness of the outrigger wall was derived to predict the lateral displacement at the top of tall buildings and internal shear force developed in the wall. The openings for the passageway in the wall were designed by the strut-and-tie model. The stiffness and strength of the outrigger wall with multiple openings was analyzed by the nonlinear finite element analysis. Taking into consideration the degradation in stiffness and strength, the ratio of the opening area to the outrigger wall area is recommended to be less than 20%. The degradation of stiffness due to openings does not affect the structural performance of the outrigger system when the outrigger has already large stiffness as the case of reinforced concrete outrigger walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Compressive Properties and Carbon Emission Assessment of Concrete Hollow Block Masonry Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregates
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4870; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224870 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the compressive strength experiment for three groups of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) specimens with different replacement ratios of recycled aggregate (0%, 50%, 100%) was carried out. The mechanism of the block and mortar properties on the compressive strength of block [...] Read more.
In this paper, the compressive strength experiment for three groups of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) specimens with different replacement ratios of recycled aggregate (0%, 50%, 100%) was carried out. The mechanism of the block and mortar properties on the compressive strength of block masonry was investigated by means of a static loading test. The formula for calculating the compressive strength of a recycled concrete block was obtained based on experimental data. Moreover, the global warming potential (GWP) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) block masonry was evaluated by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The feasibility for application of RAC block masonry was discussed combined with environmental impact data analysis. The results show that the strength of RAC blocks is the principal element affecting the compressive strength of block masonry, and the strength of mortar also has a certain impact for the compressive of RAC block masonry; the sub-coefficient of material performance should be enhancive appropriately for ensuring the construction quality of RAC block masonry; the total GWP of RAC block is lower than that of natural aggregate concrete (NAC) block. The environmental benefits of the promotion and application of RAC block masonry are inspiring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
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