Special Issue "Applied Electromagnetism in Modern Engineering and Medical Technologies"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ewa Korzeniewska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Vice-president of Polish Society of Applied Electromagnetism; Faculty of Electrical, Electronic, Computer and Control Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 18/22, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
Interests: materials science; textronics; wearable electronics; thin films; electromagnetic field applications; electrical engineering systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Paweł Kiełbasa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 116, Kraków, Poland
Interests: machine management in agriculture; ergonomics in agricultural technology; electromagnetic identification of plant quality structure; soil type; subsoil compaction; agricultural engineering; electromagnetism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is based on the activity of the group of scholars dealing with the applications of electromagnetism in electronic and electrical engineering, medicine, computational electromagnetism, modeling and simulation, measurements, and industrial/medical tomography.

The research activity is institutionally under the care of the Polish Society of Applied Electromagnetism (www.ptze.pl).

This Special Issue will be devoted to the applications of new solutions and computational methods in the following areas:

  • Applications of electromagnetism in electronics;
  • Applications of electromagnetism in engineering;
  • Applications of electromagnetism in medicine;
  • Applications of electromagnetism in computer science;
  • Bioelectromagnetism and environmental protection;
  • Computational electromagnetism;
  • Wearable electronics;
  • Textronics;
  • Electromagnetic materials;
  • Medical and industrial applications of tomography;
  • Electromagnetism in education and social policy;
  • Tomography.

There are no page limitations for this journal.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ewa Korzeniewska
Prof. Dr. Paweł Kiełbasa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electromagnetism
  • Bioelectromagnetism
  • Sensors
  • Numerical Calculation
  • Machine Learning
  • Computational Intelligence
  • Coupled Systems
  • Tomography
  • Wearable Electronics
  • Textronics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Analysis of Electromagnetic Coupling Characteristics of Balise Transmission System Based on Digital Twin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6002; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136002 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The balise transmission system (BTS) is an automatic identification system for vehicle–ground communication based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The electromagnetic coupling characteristics of BTS have a very important effect on the transmission quality of the uplink telegram signals. However, signal transmission [...] Read more.
The balise transmission system (BTS) is an automatic identification system for vehicle–ground communication based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The electromagnetic coupling characteristics of BTS have a very important effect on the transmission quality of the uplink telegram signals. However, signal transmission problems of BTS often occur due to unreasonable installation mode or parameter setting. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to fully discuss the electromagnetic coupling characteristics of the BTS. In this paper, the transmission process of energy and data between the onboard antenna unit and the balise was analyzed using digital twin technology. A high-precision dynamic electromagnetic coupling model of the BTS was established from four aspects of three-dimensional structure, physical properties, behavior patterns, and rule restrictions. Then the accuracy of the model was verified by experiments. Finally, the influence of typical parameters on the uplink signal is calculated and analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that compared with other factors discussed in this paper, the vertical distance and the installation mode had greater effects on the uplink signal. These results can be used to guide the engineering installation and related optimization of the BTS. Full article
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Article
Measuring Current in a Power Converter Using Fuzzy Automatic Gain Control
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5793; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135793 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The accuracy of current measurements can be increased by appropriate amplification of the signal to within the measurement range. Accurate current measurement is important for energy monitoring and in power converter control systems. Resistance and inductive current transducers are used to measure the [...] Read more.
The accuracy of current measurements can be increased by appropriate amplification of the signal to within the measurement range. Accurate current measurement is important for energy monitoring and in power converter control systems. Resistance and inductive current transducers are used to measure the major current in AC/DC power converters. The output value of the current transducer depends on the load motor, and changes across the whole measurement range. Modern current measurement circuits are equipped with operational amplifiers with constant or programmable gain. These circuits are not able to measure small input currents with high resolution. This article proposes a precise loop gain system that can be implemented with various algorithms. Computer analysis of various automatic gain control (AGC) systems proved the effectiveness of the Mamdani controller, which was implemented in an MCU (microprocessor). The proposed fuzzy controller continuously determines the value of the conversion factor. The system also enables high resolution measurements of the current emitted from small electric loads (≥1 A) when the electric motor is stationary. Full article
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Article
Modeling of Aerodynamic Separation of Preliminarily Stratified Grain Mixture in Vertical Pneumatic Separation Duct
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4383; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104383 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
The productivity of most grain cleaning machines seems to be directly related to the efficiency of vertical pneumatic separation ducts. Nevertheless, improvement is accompanied by an increase in the load of the vertical duct, the design of which is limited by the width [...] Read more.
The productivity of most grain cleaning machines seems to be directly related to the efficiency of vertical pneumatic separation ducts. Nevertheless, improvement is accompanied by an increase in the load of the vertical duct, the design of which is limited by the width of the grain cleaning machines. This requires an increase in the thickness of the layer of grain mixture that enters the working area of the duct, which significantly worsens the conditions of separation of its components under the action of airflow. Particles of light impurities are unable to separate due to their retention by the grain medium. This reduces the quality of cleaning and requires appropriate scientific and technical solutions. The application of preliminary stratification of the granular mixture while increasing the concentration of light impurities in the top layer of the mixture seems to be a prospective method. The positive effect of the previous stratification on the intensity of redistribution of light impurity particles in the working zone has been theoretically considered and experimentally confirmed. Mathematical models were obtained to determine the trajectory of discussed particles, taking into account the previous stratification of mixtures, and the corresponding dependences were established. The influence of the initial coordination of the introduction of the particles of lightweight impurities, their sizes and densities, and technological and structural parameters of operation of the pneumatic separation duct were taken into account in the studies. The intensification of the process of cleaning grain from lightweight impurities in the working zones of pneumatic separation ducts of grain cleaning machines is theoretically substantiated. Full article
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Communication
The Effect of Concentrated Microwave Field (CMF) on Selected Physical and Rheological Properties of Liquid Egg Products
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041832 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
Concentrated microwave field (CMF) is the technology for preserving liquid food products, where the preservation factor is both a nonthermal effect and a moderate thermal effect. The term “concentrated microwave field” is traditionally used in Poland and is the equivalent to “single-mode-type microwave [...] Read more.
Concentrated microwave field (CMF) is the technology for preserving liquid food products, where the preservation factor is both a nonthermal effect and a moderate thermal effect. The term “concentrated microwave field” is traditionally used in Poland and is the equivalent to “single-mode-type microwave heating”. The aim of the research was to determine selected physical and rheological properties of liquid egg white, liquid yolk and liquid whole eggs (LWE) after CMF treatment. It was found that both the amount of energy supplied to the system and the intervals between CMF pulses had a statistically significant impact on the analyzed properties of liquid egg raw materials. In industrial practice, it would be recommended to use lower CMF treatment (at the level of 2.2–2.6 kJ) for the yolk, medium (3.2–3.6 kJ) for egg white and higher (4.0–4.4 kJ) for the liquid whole eggs. The “response surface” models presented in the paper may have a practical application in determining the influence of individual technological parameters on the final quality of various liquid food products. Full article
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Article
Influence of Coniferous Wood Conditioning by Pulsed Electric Field on Its Combustion Heat Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030983 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
The article presents the impact of sawdust conditioning from coniferous trees with a pulsed electric field (PEF) on the characteristics of the combustion heat. The study used four variants of electric field parameters, i.e., (I) 300 discharges with an electric field intensity of [...] Read more.
The article presents the impact of sawdust conditioning from coniferous trees with a pulsed electric field (PEF) on the characteristics of the combustion heat. The study used four variants of electric field parameters, i.e., (I) 300 discharges with an electric field intensity of 25 kV·cm−1, (II) 150 discharges with an electric field intensity of 25 kV·cm−1, (III) 300 discharges with an electric field intensity of 30 kV·cm−1, (IV) 150 discharges with an electric field intensity of 30 kV·cm−1. It should be noted that the interval between successive discharges was 10 sec and it was constant for each variant of the experiment. A change in the characteristics of the heat of combustion was found under the influence of a pulsed electric field on sawdust from coniferous trees in each period of the measurement. The highest temperatures were achieved by the interaction of a pulsed electric field with a discharge pulse of 30 kV·cm−1 and the number of discharge cycles amounting to 300, whereas significantly lower temperature values were recorded with the discharge electric field intensity of 25 kV·cm−1. It was found that the longest times from the moment of ignition to reaching the maximum temperature were obtained for the material after the influence of PEF with an electric field intensity of 30 kV·cm−1 and the number of pulses 300 (IV combination), while the shortest time of the analyzed interval was stated for the first combination of the experiment (electric field intensity 25 kV·cm−1 and a number of pulses 150). The use of a pulsed electric field allows modeling the combustion time of a homogeneous material, which enables the improvement of the process control possibilities, and is also important information for the design of devices intended for biomass combustion. Full article
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Article
Model of Complex Heat Transfer in the Package of Rectangular Steel Sections
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9044; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249044 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
During heat treatment of rectangular steel sections, a heated charge in the form of regularly arranged packages is placed in a furnace. The article presents a model of a complex heat transfer in such a package using the thermo-electric analogy. The model considers [...] Read more.
During heat treatment of rectangular steel sections, a heated charge in the form of regularly arranged packages is placed in a furnace. The article presents a model of a complex heat transfer in such a package using the thermo-electric analogy. The model considers the following types of heat transfer: conduction in section walls, conduction and natural convection within gas, heat radiation between the walls of a section, as well as contact conduction between the adjacent sections. The results of our own experimental research were used for calculations of heat resistance applying to natural convection and contact conduction. We assumed that the material of sections was low-carbon steel and the gas was air. The result of the calculations of the presented model is total thermal resistance Rto. The calculations were performed for the temperature range 20–700 °C for four geometrical cases. Due to the variability of conditions for contact heat conduction, we assumed that total thermal resistance for a given charge is contained within a value range between Rto-min and Rto-max. We established that the value of Rto depends significantly on the section’s geometry. The larger the section sizes, the greater the changes of Rto. The minimal and maximal values of Rto for all packages were 0.0051 (m2·K)/W and 0.0238 (m2·K)/W, respectively. The correctness of model calculations was verified with the use of experimental data. Full article
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Article
Determination of the Operating Temperature of the Gas-Insulated Transmission Line
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8877; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248877 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 466
Abstract
Gas-insulated lines (GILs) have been increasingly used as high-current busducts for high-power transmission. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the performance and ampacity of GILs. In this paper, an analytical method was proposed to determine the temperature of a three-phase [...] Read more.
Gas-insulated lines (GILs) have been increasingly used as high-current busducts for high-power transmission. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the performance and ampacity of GILs. In this paper, an analytical method was proposed to determine the temperature of a three-phase high-current busduct in the form of a single pole GIL. First, power losses in the phase conductors and enclosures were determined analytically with the skin, and proximity effects were taken into account. The determined power losses were used as heat sources in thermal analysis. Considering the natural convection and radiation heat transfer effects, the heat balance equations on the surface of the phase conductors and the screens were established, respectively. Subsequently, the temperature of the phase conductors and the enclosures were determined. The validation of the proposed method was carried out using the finite element method and laboratory measurements. Full article
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Article
An Analysis of the Performance of Trolleybus Brushes Developed from Recycled Materials
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7929; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217929 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
The paper presents an analysis of the performance of traction brushes produced from waste materials. Brushes are used to ensure good electrical contact between the rail and the pantograph. Slides are produced by the process of hot pressing, with the parameters of heating [...] Read more.
The paper presents an analysis of the performance of traction brushes produced from waste materials. Brushes are used to ensure good electrical contact between the rail and the pantograph. Slides are produced by the process of hot pressing, with the parameters of heating up to max 175 °C, at the minimal pressure value of 200 MPa. Some of the developed brushes with a high (55–60%) content of recycled materials are more durable and break-resistant than their commercial counterparts. Full article
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Article
Development of Mathematical Models in Explicit Form for Design and Analysis of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7695; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217695 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
This article proposes a methodology for the design of double-sided coreless axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines, which is based on a developed model for calculating the axial component of the magnetic flux density in the middle of the distance between opposite permanent [...] Read more.
This article proposes a methodology for the design of double-sided coreless axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines, which is based on a developed model for calculating the axial component of the magnetic flux density in the middle of the distance between opposite permanent magnets, which also represents the middle of the stator. Values for different geometric parameters represent the input data for the mathematical model in explicit form. The input data are calculated by using a simplified finite element method (FEM), which means that calculations of simplified 3D models are performed. The simplified model consists of two rotor disks with surface-mounted permanent magnets and air between them, instead of stator windings. Such a simplification is possible due to similar values of permeability of the air and copper. For each simplified model of the machine the axial component of the magnetic flux density is analyzed along a line passing through the center of opposite permanent magnets and both rotor disks. Values at the middle of the distance between the opposite permanent magnets are the lowest and are therefore selected for the input data at different stator, rotor disks and permanent magnets (PM) thicknesses. Such input data enable the model to consider the nonlinearity of materials. Full article
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