Special Issue "Aerotech and Aerospace Applications including Selected Papers from SpliTech 2021"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerospace Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 7564

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Kelemen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Flight preparation, Technical University of Kosice, Rampova 7, 041 21 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: transport; aeronautics education; flight training; aviation engineering; decision-making processes; safety and security; impacts of aviation activities on the environment and health; interdisciplinary research on health and human performance, criminology in air transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Saša Mladenović
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Split, Faculty of Science, Department of Computer science, Ruđera Boškovića 33, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: artificial intelligence; intelligent agents; machine learning; computer science education; interdisciplinary research in education; engineering applications of intelligent technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special edition aims to present recent advances in aviation and aerospace technology, including a selected contribution from the SpliTech 2021 conference (https://2021.splitech.org/), but also papers from other researchers that fit into the topics of this Special Issue.

The 6th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech 2021) will feature a technical and professional program related to today’s hottest topics: smart city/environment, energy, engineering modeling, and health, including the aviation and aerospace technologies. The goal of SpliTech 2021 is to form a platform to seek the advancement of technology and human-related technologies in an interdisciplinary manner. Systems in the field of aerotech and aerospace are complex, multidimensional, highly distributed, and interdependent, making then multidisciplinary. The growth of uncertainties related to economic, atmospheric, and safety conditions are opening new research questions.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, such as machine learning, multiagent systems, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, neural networks, predictive analytics, etc., have demonstrated potential to address complex problems for which traditional methodologies have been ineffective or infeasible. The conference will also include plenary sessions, technical sessions, and special sessions. Highly qualified papers selected from SpliTech 2021/Special Section on Aerotech and Aerospace applications will be invited to this Special Issue for publication. However, the Special Issue also welcomes submissions from other researchers which fit the scope as shown below. The topics of this Special Issue include but are not limited to: multiple areas of Aerotech and aerospace engineering and applications; human factors and performance in aeronautics and aerospace; low-profile Aerotech; high-profile Aerotech; systems engineering; security and safety issues, software applications for aeronautics and aerospace; aeronautics and aerospace operations; avionics; dual-use applications; ergonomic issues for aeronautics and aerospace; aerodynamics; aerostructures; unmanned autonomous systems (UAS); numerical methods for UAS; UAS planning and engineering design; UAS modeling, simulation, and operations; applications; computer vision;aircraft certifications, maintenance and services; vibroacoustic issues; aeronautical meteorology; impacts of aviation activities on the environment and health; smart mobility and transport; and COVID-19 Virus Issues in aeronautics.

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Kelemen
Prof. Dr. Saša Mladenović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aeronautics and Aerospace technologies
  • Aircraft design, maintenance and services
  • Certification; Maintenance; Systems Engineering
  • UAV/UAS; photogrammetry
  • Avionics; AI; ML; Swarm
  • Aeronautical meteorology; Wind Power
  • Aerodynamics
  • Numerical Modelling; CFD; Computer Vision; Data Science; Simulation; HITL; SITL
  • Aeronautics Education and Training; Human factors and performance
  • Reliability, safety and security, risk assessment
  • Smart technologies and concepts

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Design and Experimental Analyses of an Accuracy Verification System for Airborne Target Tracking via Radar Guidance Systems
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6838; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146838 - 06 Jul 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
A radar guidance system is a core component of a radar-guided air-to-air missile, and its tracking accuracy of airborne targets determines the operational effectiveness of said missile. To verify the tracking accuracy of the radar guidance system against an airborne target under the [...] Read more.
A radar guidance system is a core component of a radar-guided air-to-air missile, and its tracking accuracy of airborne targets determines the operational effectiveness of said missile. To verify the tracking accuracy of the radar guidance system against an airborne target under the real flight conditions of the missile, an experimental verification system was implemented in this study. The mechanical, electrical, and bus interfaces of the verification system were examined. A tracking accuracy evaluation model of the seeker was designed based on the data obtained from the experiments using the proposed test method, and the tracking accuracy of the seeker in the typical state was analyzed. Full article
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Article
Fall Testing of the Personal Airborne Equipment Backpack: Ground and Flight Testing
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3671; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073671 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
This article evaluated the functionality and reliability of the personal airborne equipment backpack TL-98 before its launch in military parachute operations. An objective of this project was the verification of the TL-98’s characteristics which could be important in terms of the safety of [...] Read more.
This article evaluated the functionality and reliability of the personal airborne equipment backpack TL-98 before its launch in military parachute operations. An objective of this project was the verification of the TL-98’s characteristics which could be important in terms of the safety of the operation of the parachute, i.e., its functionality and reliability during flight and fall tests. A major effort within this research was focused on the fall tests of the TL-98 in standard parachute operational conditions. The strength of the backpack’s anchorage points (by which the backpack is attached to the parachute harness) was verified by flight test, where it was dropped from the aircraft at the maximum operating speed and at the maximum operating weight of the backpack; the backpack’s maximum operating weight had been increased by multiplying the standard maximum operating weight by a safety factor of 1.2. During the fall tests of the backpack, after its disconnection from the parachute harness (during ground tests and the test during the test jump), the strength of the backpack’s anchoring eye and the strength of the rope with which the backpack is connected to the parachute harness were verified. Another objective of this research was the collection of information to define the TL-98’s rope lifetime, which serves for the dropping of the TL-98. To fulfill this goal, the impact forces on the rope during the backpack’s fall were measured using a force sensor. The values of the impact forces were then calculated and compared with the values from the experiment. Using experimentally obtained results and their comparison with the calculated results, the lifetime of the TL-98 rope for parachuting operations was determined on the basis of predetermined criteria. Full article
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Article
A Novel Camera-Based Approach to Increase the Quality, Objectivity and Efficiency of Aeronautical Meteorological Observations
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062925 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
Despite the general efforts of meteorological services to provide aeronautical observations at all ranges of airports automatically, for some meteorological variables, especially for the ones that highly rely on complex human perception (e.g., prevailing visibility and cloud coverage), reliable, fully automated observations cannot [...] Read more.
Despite the general efforts of meteorological services to provide aeronautical observations at all ranges of airports automatically, for some meteorological variables, especially for the ones that highly rely on complex human perception (e.g., prevailing visibility and cloud coverage), reliable, fully automated observations cannot be ensured. This paper introduces novel possibilities to observe prevailing visibility and cloud coverage/height by means of a camera-based observation system that does not necessarily replace, but effectively and synergically amends the standard observations. We present human (and not automated) observations from a remote center that allows for an observer to report meteorological conditions remotely, only using images from cameras installed at the airport. The basic concept of the remote observer was developed within a previous SESAR project. The focus of our methods is set (1) on the quality of information with the occurrence of reduced visibility and enhanced cloud cover in inhomogeneous weather situations and (2) on a comparison of our approaches with those from local human observers. We conclude that for a correct estimation of the prevailing visibility, cloud coverage and cloud types, the automated sensors alone are inadequate; however, the camera-aided remote human approach to observations seems to be a promising supplement to eliminate the sensors’ deficiencies, in terms of the quality (e.g., high quality camera records; no more point measurements), objectivity (e.g., database of archived weather situations) and efficiency (e.g., no need to have an observer physically present at the airport). The possibility to provide observations remotely seems to be advantageous in the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 era when the society must adapt to different levels of quarantine conditions, affecting and/or disabling standard work and travelling regimes. Full article
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Article
Anti-Collision System for Small Civil Aircraft
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031648 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the research in the field of anti-collision systems for small civil aircraft, which are not dependent on secondary radars and satellite navigation systems. The aviation communication network was used to design the anti-collision system. The simulation results [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the research in the field of anti-collision systems for small civil aircraft, which are not dependent on secondary radars and satellite navigation systems. The aviation communication network was used to design the anti-collision system. The simulation results manifested that the anti-collision system precision depended on the errors of synchronization of the aviation communication network. The precision of the anti-collision system is also influenced by the errors of the coordinates of individual aviation communication network users, based on which the system identifies its own position. The results of the simulation show that the dispersion of the positioning error σ2∆P by the ACS system varied in the range of 1.94 m2 to 503.23 m2. The simulation results confirm that the designed anti-collision system is operational in establishing its position against other FOs, with the distance from the given FOs being 50.0 km maximum. The main contribution of this paper are derived algorithms for the operation of an anti-collision system for small civil aircraft, in addition to the design of movement trajectory models of five flying objects which operate within the aviation communication network. The advantage of the anti-collision system is that it is independent of satnav systems and secondary radars. A significant advantage is the low cost of this system. Full article
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Article
Computational Investigation of a Novel Box-Wing Aircraft Concept
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020752 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 816
Abstract
With regard to the current needs for greener aviation, this study focuses on a novel concept of Box-Wing Aircraft (BWA). Labelled SmartLiner (BWA/SL), this conceptual aircraft comes as a triplane comprising backward and forward swept wings. The aerodynamic performance and structural characteristics of [...] Read more.
With regard to the current needs for greener aviation, this study focuses on a novel concept of Box-Wing Aircraft (BWA). Labelled SmartLiner (BWA/SL), this conceptual aircraft comes as a triplane comprising backward and forward swept wings. The aerodynamic performance and structural characteristics of this BWA/SL aircraft are here explored through numerical simulation, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI). The computational approach is first validated using NASA’s Common Research Model (CRM) aircraft, which is then taken as a reference solution against which to compare the aero-structural merits of the BWA/SL concept. Results show that, although its design is still preliminary and lacks optimization, the BWA/SL aircraft exhibits very decent aerodynamic performance, with higher lifting capacities and a reasonable lift-to-drag ratio. Moreover, thanks to the closed frame of its peculiar planform, it demonstrates superior structural characteristics, including under extreme loading scenarios. Based on this preliminary analysis and considering the room left for its further optimization, this conceptual aircraft thus appears as a potentially promising alternative for the development of more environmentally friendly airliners. Full article
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Article
Simplified Approach to Detect Satellite Maneuvers Using TLE Data and Simplified Perturbation Model Utilizing Orbital Element Variation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10181; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110181 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
In this study, an algorithm to identify the maneuvers of a satellite is developed by comparing the Keplerian elements acquired from the two-line elements (TLEs) and Keplerian elements propagated from simplified perturbation models. TLEs contain a specific set of orbital elements, whereas the [...] Read more.
In this study, an algorithm to identify the maneuvers of a satellite is developed by comparing the Keplerian elements acquired from the two-line elements (TLEs) and Keplerian elements propagated from simplified perturbation models. TLEs contain a specific set of orbital elements, whereas the simplified perturbation models are used to propagate the state vectors at a given time. By comparing the corresponding Keplerian elements derived from both methods, a satellite’s maneuver is identified. This article provides an outline of the working methodology and efficacy of the method. The function of this approach is evaluated in two case studies, i.e., TOPEX/Poseidon and Envisat, whose maneuver histories are available. The same method is implemented to identify the station-keeping maneuvers for TDRS-3, whose maneuver history is not available. Results derived from the analysis indicate that maneuvers with a magnitude of even as low as cm/s are detected when the detection parameters are calibrated properly. Full article
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Article
Suitability of Aerial Photogrammetry for Dump Documentation and Volume Determination in Large Areas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6564; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146564 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
The study presented in this paper analyses the results of measurements and data processing for documentation and quantification of material in heaps in large areas, where UAVs may no longer be effective due to a large range. Two test heaps were selected from [...] Read more.
The study presented in this paper analyses the results of measurements and data processing for documentation and quantification of material in heaps in large areas, where UAVs may no longer be effective due to a large range. Two test heaps were selected from a whole area, where the aim was to confirm the suitability of using the method of digital aerial photogrammetry by manned (crewed) aerial vehicle. For comparison, a commonly used GNSS RTK method was also used. Terrestrial laser scanning was chosen as the control reference method. TLS measurement is a trusted method with high accuracy. The methods were compared with each other through the quality of the mesh, analysis of the cross-sections, and comparison of the volumes of heaps. As a result, the determination of heap volumes and documentation using digital aerial photogrammetry can be confirmed as an appropriate, efficient, fast, and accurate method. The difference in the detected volume was less than 0.1%, the mean difference of the meshes was less than 0.01 m, and the standard deviation was less than 0.05 m. Full article
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Article
A Flow Analysis Using a Water Tunnel of an Innovative Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5772; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135772 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to present and discuss the results of a non-standard unnamed aerial vehicle construction with a constant cross-section square-shaped avionic profile. Based on the model’s in-air observed maneuverability, the research of avionic construction behavior was carried out in [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to present and discuss the results of a non-standard unnamed aerial vehicle construction with a constant cross-section square-shaped avionic profile. Based on the model’s in-air observed maneuverability, the research of avionic construction behavior was carried out in a water tunnel. The results show the model’s specific lift capabilities in comparison to classical avionic constructions. The characteristic results of the lift coefficient showed that the unmanned aerial vehicle presents favorable features than classic avionic constructions. The model was created with the prospect of using it in the future for dual-use purposes, where unmanned aerial vehicles are currently experiencing very rapid development. When creating the prototype, the focus was on low production cost, as well as convenience in operation. The development of this type of breakthrough avionic solution, which shows extraordinary maneuverability, may contribute to increasing the popularity and, above all, the availability of unmanned aerial vehicles for the largest possible group of recipients because of high avionic properties in relation to the technical construction complexity. Full article
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Article
Research of the Photo-Optical Method Application for Measuring Selected Data on the Movement of a Parachute for Type M-282
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5637; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125637 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Testing in the field of parachute technology provides space for the application of new and innovative methods of measuring operating and functional parameters. The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research for the verification of the photo-optical method [...] Read more.
Testing in the field of parachute technology provides space for the application of new and innovative methods of measuring operating and functional parameters. The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research for the verification of the photo-optical method of measuring the vertical speed of the M-282 parachutes, and for its use in testing, collecting, and investigating motion data in parachuting. As part of this measuring technology, twelve jumps were performed. It was verified that the experiment was completed for the M-282 parachute according to the regulation of SAE AS 8015B “Minimum Performance Standard Parachute Assemblies and Components”. An analysis of the influencing factors and quantification of their influence on the uncertainty of the measurement results was also performed. The results of the measurement achieved by using the photo-optical method were compared with the measurement with the electronic variometer FLYTEC 4030. The vertical speed of the M-282 parachute (4.655 m·s−1) defined by the photo-optical method is significantly similar to the vertical speed of the M-282 parachute (4.662 m·s−1) defined by FLYTEC 4030. We can state that the process of identifying the vertical speed of the parachute by the photo-optical method was correct. This is a suitable method of evaluating motion data in the operation of M-282 type parachutes. In the following research for generalization of the methodology, we assume the performance of more than 60 experimental jumps using different types of parachutes, digital sensors (cameras), and a photo-optical method to examine motion data and formulate recommendations for testing, investigative applications, individualized training programs, and aspects of parachuting injury prevention. Full article
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Article
The UWB Radar Application in the Aviation Security Systems
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4556; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104556 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
In the process of our research, we have identified new methods of processing ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar signals and possibilities of the UWB radar use in aviation security systems. We paid our main attention to finding new algorithms for tracking the movement of a [...] Read more.
In the process of our research, we have identified new methods of processing ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar signals and possibilities of the UWB radar use in aviation security systems. We paid our main attention to finding new algorithms for tracking the movement of a person behind an obstacle using the UWB radar. Such UWB radar application is typical for tracking the movement of people behind obstacles in case of security forces intervention at an airport. In the research process, we used methods of analysis, synthesis, and measured data from the performed experiment. The main contribution of the paper is the development of new algorithms for locating the movement of a person behind an obstacle using a straight- line method in the case of using two independent UWB radar systems. The article did not examine the accuracy of determining the position of a person behind the obstacle. We found that when applying the Kalman filter after signal processing by the straight-line method, the trajectory of the person’s movement behind the obstacle was smoother. The results of processing the measurement signals of UWB radar by the linear method have shown that this method is applicable to tracking a person behind an obstacle and can be used in aviation security systems. Full article
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