Special Issue "Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerospace Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2022) | Viewed by 10119

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jérôme Morio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ONERA/DTIS, Université de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France
Interests: safety engineering; uncertainty management in complex aerospace systems (reliability, sensitivity analysis, surrogate modeling, etc.)
Dr. Mathieu Balesdent
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau, France
Interests: design of aerospace systems; multidisciplinary design optimization; uncertainty quantification; reliability-based design optimization
Dr. Loïc Brevault
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ONERA- The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau, France
Interests: multidisciplinary design optimization; uncertainty quantification; machine learning for design of complex systems; mixed discrete/continuous optimization; aerospace vehicle design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In today’s complex aerospace system engineering, designers face requirements that become a challenge to satisfy: System specifications are narrowing (due to safety regulations, environmental constraints, costs, etc.), development delays are shortening, and the performances of the system have to be established as soon as possible with sufficient accuracy. The design of aerospace systems is thus a complex and inherently multidisciplinary process involving several disciplines ranging from aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, electric/hydraulic systems, and guidance to navigation and control, each including different groups of highly experienced experts and advanced high-fidelity simulation models. This multidisciplinary process can be considered as the paradigm for general complex engineering systems in which experiments are replaced by large-scale expensive numerical simulations, enabling to reduce testing costs, to mitigate risks, and to shrink development duration.

A large range of mathematical algorithms blossom to face up to the challenges induced by aerospace system design and simulation. The scope of this Special Issue is to present the latest methodological and applied developments for aerospace system analysis and optimization. Fields for this SPECIAL ISSUE involve new advances in particular on aerospace system analysis, uncertainty quantification, aerospace system identification and modeling, machine learning for aerospace systems, multidisciplinary analysis, and optimization and multifidelity modeling.

Prof. Dr. Jérôme Morio
Dr. Mathieu Balesdent
Dr. Loïc Brevault
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • aerospace system modeling and optimization
  • multidisciplinary analysis and optimization
  • multifidelity simulation
  • uncertainty management
  • data science
  • reliability
  • surrogate modeling
  • machine learning for aerospace systems

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Article
Optimisation of Segregation Distances between Electric Cable Bundles Embedded in a Structure
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042132 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 308
Abstract
This paper presents the optimisation of the segregation distance between two electric cable bundles installed in an aircraft structure under electromagnetic compatibility constraints. We first describe the problem formulation where a probabilistic constraint has to be verified during the optimisation process. To overcome [...] Read more.
This paper presents the optimisation of the segregation distance between two electric cable bundles installed in an aircraft structure under electromagnetic compatibility constraints. We first describe the problem formulation where a probabilistic constraint has to be verified during the optimisation process. To overcome the nonlinearity of the constraint function and guarantee the algorithm convergence, we propose a joint approach between Monte Carlo sampling and a Kriging surrogate to estimate the optimum distance with a low computational cost. This methodology was tested on a realistic use-case of distance segregation between cable bundles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Dynamics and Control of Typical Orbits around Saturn
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031462 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 367
Abstract
This paper investigates the dynamics of some typical orbits around Saturn, including sun-synchronous orbits, repeating ground track orbits, frozen orbits, and stationary orbits, and corresponding control methods mainly based on the mean element theory. The leading terms of Saturn’s aspheric gravitational field, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the dynamics of some typical orbits around Saturn, including sun-synchronous orbits, repeating ground track orbits, frozen orbits, and stationary orbits, and corresponding control methods mainly based on the mean element theory. The leading terms of Saturn’s aspheric gravitational field, J2 and J4 terms, are used when designing the orbits around Saturn. Two control methods of sun-synchronous orbits, including initial inclination-biased method and periodic inclination-biased method, are used to damp the local time drift at the descending node, which is caused by solar gravitation and atmospheric drag. The compensation of semimajor axis and maneuver period to maintain the recursive feature of repeating ground orbits are calculated. While only J2 and J3 terms are taken into account, we examine the argument that the perigee of frozen orbits around Saturn should be 270 deg to promise meaningful eccentricity. The perturbations of inclination and eccentricity of stationary orbits due to solar gravitation and solar radiation pressure are presented. Meanwhile, the preliminary control strategies of inclination perturbation and eccentricity perturbation are naturally introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Comparative Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of Camber Morphing and Conventional Airfoils
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210663 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
This paper aims to numerically validate the aerodynamic performance and benefits of variable camber rate morphing wings, by comparing them to conventional ones with plain flaps, when deflection angles vary, assessing their D reduction or L/D improvement. Many morphing-related research works mainly focus [...] Read more.
This paper aims to numerically validate the aerodynamic performance and benefits of variable camber rate morphing wings, by comparing them to conventional ones with plain flaps, when deflection angles vary, assessing their D reduction or L/D improvement. Many morphing-related research works mainly focus on the design of morphing mechanisms using smart materials, and innovative mechanism designs through materials and structure advancements. However, the foundational work that establishes the motivation of morphing technology development has been overlooked in most research works. All things considered, this paper starts with the verification of the numerical model used for the aerodynamic performance analysis and then conducts the aerodynamic performance analysis of (1) variable camber rate in morphing wings and (2) variable deflection angles in conventional wings. Finally, we find matching pairs for a direct comparison to validate the effectiveness of morphing wings. As a result, we validate that variable camber morphing wings, equivalent to conventional wings with varying flap deflection angles, are improved by at least 1.7% in their L/D ratio, and up to 18.7% in their angle of attack, with α = 8° at a 3% camber morphing rate. Overall, in the entire range of α, which conceptualizes aircrafts mission planning for operation, camber morphing wings are superior in D, L/D, and their improvement rate over conventional ones. By providing the improvement rates in L/D, this paper numerically evaluates and validates the efficiency of camber morphing aircraft, the most important aspect of aircraft operation, as well as the agility and manoeuvrability, compared to conventional wing aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Adaptive Predictive Functional Control of X-Y Pedestal for LEO Satellite Tracking Using Laguerre Functions
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9794; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219794 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 479
Abstract
In this paper, Predictive Functional Control (PFC) is used for X-Y pedestal control for LEO satellite tracking. According to the nonlinear characteristics of the X-Y pedestal and pedestal model variation caused by its operating point change, the use of system identification algorithm, which [...] Read more.
In this paper, Predictive Functional Control (PFC) is used for X-Y pedestal control for LEO satellite tracking. According to the nonlinear characteristics of the X-Y pedestal and pedestal model variation caused by its operating point change, the use of system identification algorithm, which is based on special types of orthonormal functions known as Laguerre functions, is presented. This algorithm is combined with PFC to obtain a novel adaptive control algorithm entitled Adaptive Predictive Functional Control (APFC). In this combination, Laguerre functions are utilized for system identification, while the PFC is the control law. An interesting feature of the proposed algorithm is its desirable performance against the interference effect of channel X and channel Y. The proposed APFC algorithm is compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller using simulation results. The results confirm that the proposed controller improves the performance in terms of the pedestal model variations; that is, the controller is capable of adapting to the model changes desirably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Gaussian Process Model-Based Performance Uncertainty Quantification of a Typical Turboshaft Engine
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8333; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188333 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The gas turbine engine is a widely used thermodynamic system for aircraft. The demand for quantifying the uncertainty of engine performance is increasing due to the expectation of reliable engine performance design. In this paper, a fast, accurate, and robust uncertainty quantification method [...] Read more.
The gas turbine engine is a widely used thermodynamic system for aircraft. The demand for quantifying the uncertainty of engine performance is increasing due to the expectation of reliable engine performance design. In this paper, a fast, accurate, and robust uncertainty quantification method is proposed to investigate the impact of component performance uncertainty on the performance of a classical turboshaft engine. The Gaussian process model is firstly utilized to accurately approximate the relationships between inputs and outputs of the engine performance simulation model. Latin hypercube sampling is subsequently employed to perform uncertainty analysis of the engine performance. The accuracy, robustness, and convergence rate of the proposed method are validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo sampling method. Two main scenarios are investigated, where uncertain parameters are considered to be mutually independent and partially correlated, respectively. Finally, the variance-based sensitivity analysis is used to determine the main contributors to the engine performance uncertainty. Both approximation and sampling errors are explained in the uncertainty quantification to give more accurate results. The final results yield new insights about the engine performance uncertainty and the important component performance parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Topology Optimization Based Parametric Design of Balloon Borne Telescope’s Primary Mirror
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5077; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115077 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
For balloon-borne telescopes, the primary mirror is the most important optical element, but designing a primary mirror with an excellent overall performance is a challenge. To comprehensively consider the contradictory objectives of the root mean square (RMS) surface error under gravity in the [...] Read more.
For balloon-borne telescopes, the primary mirror is the most important optical element, but designing a primary mirror with an excellent overall performance is a challenge. To comprehensively consider the contradictory objectives of the root mean square (RMS) surface error under gravity in the X and Z directions, the mass and fundamental frequency of the primary mirror, a parametric primary mirror design using the compromise programming method based on topology optimization is proposed. The parametric design of the compromise programming method based on topology optimization is used to find the optimal solution for X-direction RMS (RMSx), Z-direction RMS (RMSz), mass, and fundamental frequency. Compared with the initial primary mirror structure designed according to traditional experience, the overall performance is improved. Results show that the respective mass of the primary mirror, the RMSx and the RMSz decreased by 8.5%, 14.3% and 10.5% compared to those before optimization. Comprehensive consideration can prove the effectiveness of parametric design based on the topology optimization of the primary mirror. This method provides a reference for the design of other primary mirrors for balloon-borne telescope and space cameras. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Attainable Moment Set Optimization to Support Configuration Design: A Required Moment Set Based Approach
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083685 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss an attainable moment set (AMS) optimization methodology considering a system’s required moment set (RMS). The AMS describes the achievable moments from a system, given its input limits. An RMS, like an AMS, is a convex set in the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discuss an attainable moment set (AMS) optimization methodology considering a system’s required moment set (RMS). The AMS describes the achievable moments from a system, given its input limits. An RMS, like an AMS, is a convex set in the moment space, describing the required moments for a system to meet the designed mission profile and disturbance rejection requirements. Given the configuration of a system, its mission requirements, and the derived RMS, the proposed optimization maximizes coverage of the AMS onto the RMS, thus ensuring the system possesses the guaranteed controllability to fulfill its required missions from a design level. To achieve this goal, the variables to optimize are chosen as effector settings, such as the installation position and angle of propellers and control surfaces, which effectively change the AMS without a vast impact on major design parameters, such as mass and moment of inertia. Since the optimization includes massive geometry operations of rays intersecting polyhedron, an efficient intersection solver is proposed to speed up the optimization process. The described method is applied to an electric-vertical-take-of-landing vehicle (eVTOL) with eight hover propellers, which delivers a highly improved coverage of the RMS compared to its initial design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Required Moment Sets: Enhanced Controllability Analysis for Nonlinear Aircraft Models
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3456; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083456 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
Attainable moment sets (AMS) are a powerful method to assess aircraft controllability. However, as attainable moment sets only take into account the achievable moment set of the control effectors, they do not assess the required moment set to fulfill the aircraft mission requirements. [...] Read more.
Attainable moment sets (AMS) are a powerful method to assess aircraft controllability. However, as attainable moment sets only take into account the achievable moment set of the control effectors, they do not assess the required moment set to fulfill the aircraft mission requirements. This paper proposes to calculate a corresponding required moment set (RMS) which defines a set of moments sufficient for fulfilling aircraft controllability requirements in the mission flight envelope. The paper applies the required moment set approach to a nonlinear simulation model of an electric vertical take off vehicle (eVTOL) transition drone in hover. By comparing the required moment set to the AMS of the aircraft model, moment set margins are derived and used to assess the controllability of the considered aircraft. The results indicate that the combined evaluation directly identifies critical moment channels and margins, which is advantageous when compared to a pure AMS-based evaluation. The proposed approach enables the execution of simulation-based assessments in aircraft design and flight control development. In the early stages of aircraft design, required moment sets can support sizing, positioning and tilting of control effectors (e.g., propulsive elements) to fit the AMS to the actual required force and moment set for the specific system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
An Integrated Thermal-Electrical Model for Simulations of Battery Behavior in CubeSats
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041554 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
This work presents an integrated thermal-electrical simulation model, capable of taking into account the thermal and electrical effects of the battery and photovoltaic panels for each instant of time in a given orbit and attitude. Using the physical equations that govern the thermal [...] Read more.
This work presents an integrated thermal-electrical simulation model, capable of taking into account the thermal and electrical effects of the battery and photovoltaic panels for each instant of time in a given orbit and attitude. Using the physical equations that govern the thermal and electrical models involved during a CubeSat operation, the proposed integrated model can estimate the temperature and energy conditions of the battery, not only in an isolated way but also in considering the mutual effects on the system. Besides, special attention is given to photovoltaic panels used in the energy harvesting process, whose performance is affected by irradiance and temperature along the orbit. The integrated model can be useful for engineers when developing the subsystems of their CubeSats, taking into account, for example, the battery temperature control through a heater. Simulations were performed to illustrate the functioning of the proposed model with variations in the power requirements of its modules and the temperature of the battery throughout the orbit, and a heater’s influence on it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Through-Life Maintenance Cost of Digital Avionics
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020715 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Modern avionics can account for around 30% of the total cost of the aircraft. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the operational cost of avionics during a lifetime. This article addresses the critical scientific problem of creating the appropriate maintenance models for digital [...] Read more.
Modern avionics can account for around 30% of the total cost of the aircraft. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the operational cost of avionics during a lifetime. This article addresses the critical scientific problem of creating the appropriate maintenance models for digital avionics systems that significantly increase their operational effectiveness. In this research, we propose the lifecycle cost equations to select the best option for the maintenance of digital avionics. The proposed cost equations consider permanent failures, intermittent faults, and false-positives occurred during the flight. The lifecycle cost equations are determined for the warranty and the post-warranty interval of aircraft operation. We model several maintenance options for each period of service. The cost equations consider the characteristics of the permanent failures and intermittent faults, conditional probabilities of in-flight false-positive and true-positive as well as the cost of different maintenance operations, duration of the flight, and some other parameters. We have demonstrated that a three-level post-warranty maintenance variant with a detector of intermittent faults is the best because it minimizes the total expected maintenance cost several folds compared to other maintenance options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Data-Driven Health Assessment in Flight Control System
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8370; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238370 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
The aircraft critical system’s health state will affect flight safety dramatically, such as flight control system, and its health state awareness or assessment is very important to avoid flight accident. A data-driven health assessment based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and rough set reduction [...] Read more.
The aircraft critical system’s health state will affect flight safety dramatically, such as flight control system, and its health state awareness or assessment is very important to avoid flight accident. A data-driven health assessment based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and rough set reduction is proposed for flight control system. Through the working principle and failure mode analysis, the system’s characteristic parameters are constructed to represent health state, and then the comprehensive health index construction is proposed to quantify health state. In the end, case calculation based on some aircraft’s flight data is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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Article
Improvement of Electric Propulsion System Model for Performance Analysis of Large-Size Multicopter UAVs
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8080; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228080 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
In this study, an improved model of the electric propulsion system is proposed in order to analyze the performance of large-size multicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. The main improvement of the proposed model is to reflect the armature reaction of the motor, which effectively [...] Read more.
In this study, an improved model of the electric propulsion system is proposed in order to analyze the performance of large-size multicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. The main improvement of the proposed model is to reflect the armature reaction of the motor, which effectively explains the significant performance degradation in high-power operation. The armature reaction is a phenomenon, in which the main field flux is interfered by a magnetic flux and, as the size and output of the motor increase, the effect of armature reaction also rapidly increases. Therefore, the armature reaction must be considered for the optimal design and performance analysis of large-size multicopter platforms. The model proposed in this study includes several mathematical models for propellers, motors, electric speed controllers, and batteries, which are key components of the electric propulsion system, and they can calculate key performance data, such as thrust and torque and power consumption, according to given product specifications and input conditions. However, estimates of the armature reaction constants and heat profiles of motors need to be obtained in advance through experimental methods, since there is not yet enough data available in order to derive an estimation model. In conclusion, a comparison with the static thrust test of some commercial products confirmed that the proposed model could predict performance in the high-power operation of electric propulsion systems for large multicopter platforms, although some errors were noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerospace System Analysis and Optimization)
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