Special Issue "3D Reconstruction and Data Analysis: Cutting-Edge Techniques for Terrestrial and Marine Environments"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paraskevi Nomikou
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment, University of Athens, Athens 157 72, Greece
Interests: Geodynamics; Marine Geology; Geo-Hazard; volcanic hazard; Geomorphology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Fabio Luca Bonali
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy
2. CRUST- Interuniversity Center for 3D Seismotectonics with Territorial Applications, Italy
Interests: Volcano-tectonics, active tectonics, Aerial structure from motion, Immersive virtual reality for Earth Sciences
Dr. Varvara Antoniou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Interests: GIS, story maps, physical geography, natural hazards, visualization, 3D models
Dr. Fabio Marchese
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy
Interests: Submarine geomorphology, seafloor mapping, 3D modeling and analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This volume is focused on cutting-edge approaches and technologies for 3D reconstruction, visualization, data collection and analyses on derived 3D models, and high-resolution topography and bathymetry. Today, high-resolution 3D reconstruction is a key issue for mapping and interpretation of geological and geomorphic features, representing the primary, necessary step for the identification and characterization of geological sites and related geohazards. We would like to open the discussion focused on advances, new frontiers, challenges, and criticisms for 3D approaches in both an onshore and offshore environment.

This volume covers, without being limited to, the following techniques: Radar, LiDAR; terrestrial laser scanner (TLS); the photogrammetry and multibeam echosounder system (MBES)—performed on both manned and unmanned vehicles; the structure from motion technique applied to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV or Drone); remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROV); field or underwater activity; 3D reconstruction and dense cloud analysis; merging of 3D points cloud with classical digital terrain models, derived from different techniques; virtual reality and other innovative methods; and examples of the practical use of such methods highlighting challenges and criticism.

Prof. Paraskevi Nomikou
Dr. Fabio Luca Bonali
Dr. Varvara Antoniou
Dr. Fabio Marchese
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • 3D environment reconstruction
  • High-resolution topography/bathymetry
  • Structure from motion/ photogrammetry
  • Virtual reality
  • 3D points cloud
  • Radar 
  • LiDAR
  • Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS)
  • Multibeam Echosounder System (MBES) 
  • ROV/AUV photomosaic

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Digital Field Mapping and Drone-Aided Survey for Structural Geological Data Collection and Seismic Hazard Assessment: Case of the 2016 Central Italy Earthquakes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5233; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155233 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
In this work, a high-resolution survey of the coseismic ground ruptures due to the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, performed through a dedicated software installed on a digital device, is strengthened by the analysis of a set of drone-acquired images. We applied this [...] Read more.
In this work, a high-resolution survey of the coseismic ground ruptures due to the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, performed through a dedicated software installed on a digital device, is strengthened by the analysis of a set of drone-acquired images. We applied this integrated approach to two active sections of the Mt Vettore active fault segment which, in the Castelluccio di Norcia plain (central Italy), were affected by surface faulting after the most energetic events of the sequence: the 24 August, Mw 6.0, Amatrice and 30 October, Mw 6.5, Norcia earthquakes. The main aim is to establish the range in which the results obtained measuring the same structures using different tools vary. An operating procedure, which can be helpful to map extensive sets of coseismic ground ruptures especially where the latter affects wide, poorly accessible, or dangerous areas, is also proposed. We compared datasets collected through different technologies, including faults attitude, dip-angles, coseismic displacements, and slip vectors. After assessing the accuracy of the results, even at centimetric resolutions, we conclude that the structural dataset obtained through remote sensing techniques shows a high degree of reliability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
OpenMP Implementation of a Novel Potential-Field-Data Source-Growth-Based Inversion Approach for 3D Salt Imaging in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4798; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144798 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
Potential-field-data imaging of complex geological features in deepwater salt-tectonic regions in the Gulf of Mexico remains an open active research field. There is still a lack of resolution in seismic imaging methods below and in the surroundings of allochthonous salt bodies. In this [...] Read more.
Potential-field-data imaging of complex geological features in deepwater salt-tectonic regions in the Gulf of Mexico remains an open active research field. There is still a lack of resolution in seismic imaging methods below and in the surroundings of allochthonous salt bodies. In this work, we present a novel three-dimensional potential-field-data simultaneous inversion method for imaging of salt features. This new approach incorporates a growth algorithm for source estimation, which progressively recovers geological structures by exploring a constrained parameter space; restrictions are posed from a priori geological knowledge of the study area. The algorithm is tested with synthetic data corresponding to a real complex salt-tectonic geological setting commonly found in exploration areas of deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Due to the huge amount of data involved in three-dimensional inversion of potential field data, the use of parallel computing techniques becomes mandatory. In this sense, to alleviate computational burden, an easy to implement parallelization strategy for the inversion scheme through OpenMP directives is presented. The methodology was applied to invert and integrate gravity, magnetic and full tensor gradient data of the study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surveying and High-Resolution Topography of the Ochtiná Aragonite Cave Based on TLS and Digital Photogrammetry
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4633; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134633 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
The Ochtiná Aragonite Cave (Slovakia, Central Europe) is a world-famous karst phenomenon of significant geological, geomorphological, and mineralogical values. Its specific origin is determined by particular lithological and hydrogeological conditions of the Ochtiná karst formed in lenses of Paleozoic crystalline limestones, partly metasomatically [...] Read more.
The Ochtiná Aragonite Cave (Slovakia, Central Europe) is a world-famous karst phenomenon of significant geological, geomorphological, and mineralogical values. Its specific origin is determined by particular lithological and hydrogeological conditions of the Ochtiná karst formed in lenses of Paleozoic crystalline limestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite. Although the cave is only 300 m long, it represents a combined labyrinth consisting in parallel tectonically controlled halls and passages, that are largely interconnected through transverse conduits of phreatic and epiphreatic morphology with many medium- and small-scale forms originated in slowly moving or standing water (flat solution ceilings, wall inward-inclined facets, water table notches, convectional cupolas, and spongework-like hollows). The highly dissected and irregular morphologies of the cave were surveyed with terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry. Both used surveying technologies proved to be suitable for quick and accurate mapping of the complicated cave pattern. While terrestrial laser scanning can provide a rapid survey of larger and more complex areas with results delivered directly in the field, digital photogrammetry is able to generate very high-resolution models with quality photo-texture for mapping of small-scale morphologies. Several data on cave morphometry were generated from terrestrial laser scanning (e.g., the area of cave ground plan, the peripheral surface of underground spaces, and their volume). The new detailed map, sections, and 3D model create an innovation platform for a more detailed study on the morphology and genesis of this unusual cave also for its environmental protection and use in tourism. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evidence of Hierarchy in the Drainage Basins Size Distribution of Greece Derived from ASTER GDEM-v2 Data
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010248 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
The drainage basins of Greece are analyzed in terms of hierarchy and discussed in view of Tsallis Entropy. This concept has been successfully used in a variety of complex systems, where fractality, memory and long-range interactions are dominant. The analysis indicates that the [...] Read more.
The drainage basins of Greece are analyzed in terms of hierarchy and discussed in view of Tsallis Entropy. This concept has been successfully used in a variety of complex systems, where fractality, memory and long-range interactions are dominant. The analysis indicates that the statistical distribution of drainage basins’ area in Greece, presents a hierarchical pattern that can be viewed within the frame of non-extensive statistical physics. Our work was based on the analysis of the ASTER GDEM v2 Digital Elevation Model of Greece, which offers a 30 m resolution, creating an accurate drainage basins’ database. Analyzing the drainage size (e.g., drainage basin area)-frequency distribution we discuss the connection of the observed power law exponents with the Tsallis entropic parameters, demonstrating the hierarchy observed in drainage areas for the set created for all over Greece and the subsets of drainages in the internal and external Hellenides that are the main tectonic structures in Greece. Furthermore, we discuss in terms of Tsallis entropy, the hierarchical patterns observed when the drainages are classified according to their relief or the Topographic Position Index (TPI). The deviation of distribution from power law for large drainages area is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Retrieval of Nearshore Bathymetry around Ganquan Island from LiDAR Waveform and QuickBird Image
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4375; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204375 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Optical remote sensing is an effective means of water depth measurement, but the current approach of mainstream bathymetric retrieval requires a large amount of onsite measurement data. Such data are hard to obtain from places where underwater terrains are complicated and unsteady, and [...] Read more.
Optical remote sensing is an effective means of water depth measurement, but the current approach of mainstream bathymetric retrieval requires a large amount of onsite measurement data. Such data are hard to obtain from places where underwater terrains are complicated and unsteady, and from sea areas affected by issues with rights and conflicts of interest. In recent years, the emergence of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provided a new technical means for field bathymetric survey. In this study, water depth inversion was carried out around an island far from the mainland by using remote sensing images and real LiDAR waveform data. Multi-Gaussian function fitting was proposed to extract water depth data from waveform data, and bathymetric values were used as control and validation data of the active and passive combination of water depth inversion. Results show that the relative error was 5.6% for the bathymetric retrieval from LiDAR waveform data, and the accuracy meets the requirements of ocean bathymetry. The average relative error of water depth inversion based on active and passive remote sensing was less than 9%. The method used in this study can also reduce the use of LiDAR data and the cost, thus providing a new idea for future coastal engineering application and construction. Full article
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