Aerotech, Aerospace and Security Applications in the Age of Artificial Intelligence Support for Industry 4.0 and Green Technology

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerospace Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 10736

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Flight preparation, Technical University of Kosice, Rampova 7, 041 21 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: transport; aeronautics education; flight training; aviation engineering; decision-making processes; safety and security; impacts of aviation activities on the environment and health; interdisciplinary research on environmental aspects and public health, human performance, criminology in air transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dean of Faculty of Aeronautics, Technical University of Košice, Rampova 7, 041 21 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: transport; innovative tools to ensure the technical safety of aircraft components; industrial revolution and aerospace industry; use of computer-aided systems and reverse engineering for digitization and 3D visualization of aircraft design elements; simulations and experiments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
John von Neumann Faculty of Informatics, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary
Interests: the field of information technology; applied informatics and applied mathematics; multidisciplinary knowledge for the independent solution of research and development tasks based on the real needs of industry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to present recent advances in aeronautics and aerospace technology to form a platform from which to seek the advancement of (human-related) technology in an interdisciplinary manner in the age of artificial intelligence support for industry 4.0 and green technology.

Systems in the fields of aerotech and aerospace are complex, multidimensional, highly distributed, and interdependent, making them multidisciplinary. Growing economic, atmospheric, and safety uncertainties are opening up new research questions. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as machine learning, multiagent systems, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, neural networks, and predictive analytics, etc., have demonstrated the potential to address complex problems for which traditional methodologies have been ineffective or infeasible. The topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to: multiple areas of aerotech and aerospace engineering and applications; human factors and performance in aeronautics and aerospace; aeronautics and aerospace education and training; systems engineering; expert software applications for aeronautics and aerospace; aeronautics and aerospace operations; avionics; aircraft engines; sensors; sustainable energies; ergonomic issues for aeronautics and aerospace; aerodynamics; computer vision; airport design; aircraft design, certifications, maintenance, and services; vibroacoustic issues; aeronautical meteorology; unmanned autonomous systems (UAS); numerical methods for UAS; UAS planning and engineering design; UAS modeling, simulation, and operations; skydiving and testing; impacts of transport activities on the environment and health; smart mobility and transport; smart and sustainable technology; reliability, safety and security, risk-assessment in transport and critical infrastructure; and anti-bacterial and anti-virus problem-solving in transport.

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Kelemen
Dr. Peter Korba
Dr. Imre Felde
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aeronautics and aerospace technologies, engines, avionics, sensors, energies, and fuels
  • IT, applied informatics and applied mathematics, stochastic and deterministic modeling
  • expert models, simulation
  • airport design, aircraft design, maintenance, services, and decarbonization
  • UAV/UAS, photogrammetry
  • aeronautics and aerospace education and training, human factors and performance
  • aeronautical meteorology
  • skydiving and testing
  • reliability, safety and security, risk-assessment in transport and critical infrastructure
  • information safety in transport and critical infrastructure
  • human-centric approach to artificial intelligence in aeronautics and aerospace

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 4954 KiB  
Article
Advancing Aircraft Safety through CAx-Enhanced Digitalization and Thermal Stress Testing Methodologies: A Comprehensive Approach
by Peter Korba, Patrik Šváb, Michal Vereš and Pavol Hudák
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010051 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Safety is of utmost importance in air transport, and the quality and durability of aircraft construction materials play a significant role in ensuring overall safety. The right technology and methodology for designing, simulating, and testing aircraft components can simplify the process, digitize components, [...] Read more.
Safety is of utmost importance in air transport, and the quality and durability of aircraft construction materials play a significant role in ensuring overall safety. The right technology and methodology for designing, simulating, and testing aircraft components can simplify the process, digitize components, and utilize non-destructive testing methods to increase safety. This article focuses on the digitization, creation of a 3D model, and testing of a small jet engine, MPM-20. Using a 3D scanner and position markers, the authors created a 3D digital model of the engine and adjusted it to the desired state using computer-aided technologies (CAx). Thermo-spectral analysis was then performed on the real object using a thermal camera and associated software. It was found that the engine’s structural integrity was not compromised by excessive thermal load in the specified spatial points. The methodology used can be applied to a wide range of aircraft components, improving their digitization, modification, and stress-testing. Full article
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23 pages, 5119 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Design of Aircraft Landing Gear System
by Cristiana Delprete, Alberto Dagna and Eugenio Brusa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11465; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011465 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2534
Abstract
The aerospace industry is one of the leading figures in the development and improvement of techniques for the design of new products. One of the most promising developments of the last decades is the exploitation of digital models that make it possible to [...] Read more.
The aerospace industry is one of the leading figures in the development and improvement of techniques for the design of new products. One of the most promising developments of the last decades is the exploitation of digital models that make it possible to evaluate design solutions and simulate the behavior of the individual systems and their interactions. The goal is to be able to predict and analyze all aspects an aircraft much in advance of its industrialization in order to heavily reduce the time and costs of product development and to guarantee flexibility to test a multitude of solutions. The main issue in this context is the complexity of creating models that are capable of accurately sizing and simulating multiple interacting systems, thus considering the constraints imposed by the need for their mutual compatibility. The present contribution introduces two interconnected models regarding an aircraft system, in particular, the landing gear, that make it possible to size its main components and subsystems and to use the found parameters to populate a dynamic model that simulates the behavior of the aircraft during landing. These models provide a preliminary digitalization of the system itself and of the design process as well, thereby making it possible to define a potential configuration and to test it in a dynamic virtual environment, thus taking into account the interaction between the individual subsystems. The model was tested through three use cases, differentiated by class and scope, which made it possible to compare and validate the obtained results with actual values. Full article
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15 pages, 3105 KiB  
Article
Parametric Analysis for Hybrid–Electric Regional Aircraft Conceptual Design and Development
by Giuseppe Palaia, Karim Abu Salem and Alessandro A. Quarta
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 11113; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131911113 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
This paper proposes a conceptual analysis of the limitations related to the development (and integration) of hybrid–electric propulsion on regional transport aircraft, with the aim to identify a feasibility space for this innovative aircraft concept. Hybrid–electric aircraft have attracted the interest of aeronautical [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a conceptual analysis of the limitations related to the development (and integration) of hybrid–electric propulsion on regional transport aircraft, with the aim to identify a feasibility space for this innovative aircraft concept. Hybrid–electric aircraft have attracted the interest of aeronautical research as these have the potential to reduce fuel consumption and, thus, the related greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, considering the development of such an aircraft configuration while keeping the constraints deriving from technological and/or operating aspects loose could lead to the analysis of concepts that are unlikely to be realised. In this paper, specifically to outline the boundaries constraining the actual development of such aircraft, the influence on overall aircraft design and performance of the main technological, operating, and design factors characterising the development of such a configuration is analysed and discussed at a conceptual level. Specifically, the current achievable gravimetric battery energy density (BED) is identified as the main limiting factor for the development of regional hybrid–electric aircraft, and a sensitivity analysis shows the correlation of this important technological parameter with aircraft performance in terms of both fuel consumption and energy efficiency. In this context, minimum technological development thresholds are therefore identified to enable the effective development of this type of aircraft; namely, a minimum of BED = 500 Wh/kg at battery pack level is identified as necessary to provide tangible benefits. From an operating point of view, flight distance is the most limiting design requirement, and a proper assessment of the design range is necessary if a hybrid–electric aircraft is to be designed to achieve lower emissions than the state of the art; flight ranges equal to or lower than 600 nm are to be considered for this type of aircraft. As a bridging of both of the previous constraints, a change in the design paradigm with respect to established practices for state-of-the-art aircraft is necessary. More specifically, penalisations in maximum take-off weight and overall aircraft energy efficiency may be necessary if the aim is to reduce direct in-flight consumption by means of integration of hybrid–electric powertrains. Full article
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12 pages, 4245 KiB  
Article
Active Flow Control of a Supercritical Airfoil and Flap with Sweeping Jets
by Shuai Luo, Linkai Li, Keming Cheng, Yunsong Gu, Ruishan Fang and Wanbo Wang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10166; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810166 - 09 Sep 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
To provide sufficient lift during takeoff and landing, large aircraft are equipped with complicated high-lift devices. The use of simple flaps coupled with active flow control (AFC) can achieve lift improvement while reducing mechanical structure and weight. The present study focuses on verifying [...] Read more.
To provide sufficient lift during takeoff and landing, large aircraft are equipped with complicated high-lift devices. The use of simple flaps coupled with active flow control (AFC) can achieve lift improvement while reducing mechanical structure and weight. The present study focuses on verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of simple flaps combined with sweeping jet flow control. An experimental study on the AFC of flaps, using sweeping jets, was carried out using a NASA SC(2)-0410 supercritical airfoil wind-tunnel model at Re = 2.0 × 105 (with velocity V = 10 m/s). In the experiment, the wing angle of attack (α) ranged from 3 to 18°, and the flap deflection angle (δ) ranged from 0 to 30°; the aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressure characteristics of the wing at typical working conditions were analyzed. Using sweeping jets to control the flow on the flaps, the momentum coefficients (for three actuator groups) of the jet are 0.8%, 3.6%, and 8.2%, respectively, and the maximum lift coefficient was increased by approximately 33%. The influence of the sweeping jet flow rate on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil is analyzed. There are two main reasons for the lift coefficient increase caused by sweeping jet flow: an extra suction peak near the flap and a suction peak increase near the leading edge area caused by induced flow. Full article
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15 pages, 4091 KiB  
Article
Aircraft Trajectory Prediction Enhanced through Resilient Generative Adversarial Networks Secured by Blockchain: Application to UAS-S4 Ehécatl
by Seyed Mohammad Hashemi, Seyed Ali Hashemi, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez and Georges Ghazi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9503; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179503 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel and robust data-driven algorithm designed for Aircraft Trajectory Prediction (ATP). The approach employs a Neural Network architecture to predict future aircraft trajectories, utilizing input variables such as latitude, longitude, altitude, heading, speed, and time. The model’s foundation is [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel and robust data-driven algorithm designed for Aircraft Trajectory Prediction (ATP). The approach employs a Neural Network architecture to predict future aircraft trajectories, utilizing input variables such as latitude, longitude, altitude, heading, speed, and time. The model’s foundation is rooted in the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) framework, known for its inherent generative capabilities, rendering it remarkably resilient against Adversarial Attacks. To enhance its credibility, the Blockchain is employed as a Ledger Technology (LT) to securely store legitimate predicted values utilized in subsequent trajectory predictions. The Blockchain ensures that only authorized and non-adversarial samples are stored in the blocks, rejecting any adversarial predictions. In the validation process, trajectory data for training the GAN model were generated through the UAS-S4 Ehécatl simulation model. The performance evaluation relies on the model’s resistance to adversarial attacks, measured by fooling rates. The results acquired affirm the excellent efficacy of the GAN model, Secured by Blockchain, approaching against adversarial attacks. Full article
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20 pages, 6806 KiB  
Article
A Time-Domain Planning Method for Surface Rescue Process of Amphibious Aircraft for Medium/Distant Maritime Rescue
by Lu Yang, Rong Yin, Yuanbo Xue, Yongliang Tian and Hu Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042169 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Medium/distant maritime rescue is significantly important in the development of maritime business. For typical medium/distant maritime rescue, the range limitation of helicopters and many difficulties between helicopter and ship cooperation lead to unsatisfactory rescue results. Compared to helicopters and ships, amphibious aircrafts could [...] Read more.
Medium/distant maritime rescue is significantly important in the development of maritime business. For typical medium/distant maritime rescue, the range limitation of helicopters and many difficulties between helicopter and ship cooperation lead to unsatisfactory rescue results. Compared to helicopters and ships, amphibious aircrafts could effectively solve the problems faced by helicopters and ships and meet the medium/distant maritime rescue demands with their long cruise range, high speed, high rescue capability and surface landing capability. Therefore, a time-domain planning method (TPM) based on the k-means* clustering algorithm and the genetic algorithm* is proposed in this study for the surface rescue process (SRP) of amphibious aircrafts in medium/distant maritime rescue. To simulate the SRP of amphibious aircrafts, an agent-based simulation environment of medium/distant maritime rescue was constructed based on the Python platform. Finally, a case study was carried out to verify its effectiveness and applicability. The results show that the TPM exhibits satisfactory rescue results for the SRP of the amphibious aircraft and that less than 1 h of delay time is recommended for the amphibious aircraft to rescue the persons in distress by using TPM. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 3952 KiB  
Review
Advancements and Applications of Rim-Driven Fans in Aerial Vehicles: A Comprehensive Review
by Afshar Kasaei, Wenjiang Yang, Zihao Wang and Juzhuang Yan
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12502; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212502 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1678
Abstract
As the aviation industry seeks sustainable propulsion solutions, innovative technologies have emerged, among which rim-driven fan (RDF) systems hold notable promise. This comprehensive review paper deeply investigates RDF technology, uncovering its principles, benefits, and transformative potential for aviation propulsion. Amid escalating concerns about [...] Read more.
As the aviation industry seeks sustainable propulsion solutions, innovative technologies have emerged, among which rim-driven fan (RDF) systems hold notable promise. This comprehensive review paper deeply investigates RDF technology, uncovering its principles, benefits, and transformative potential for aviation propulsion. Amid escalating concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, the aviation sector’s shift towards electric propulsion has gained impetus. RDF technology has emerged as a beacon of optimism, heralding the prospect of energy-efficient and eco-conscious air travel. Navigating the slower development pace of RDF technology for aerospace applications, this paper draws insights from analogous marine technologies and relevant literature. Merging these realms, this paper meticulously examines RDF systems, spotlighting their unique attributes, with particular emphasis on the rim-driven configuration and its fundamental design principles. This review delves into the progressive strides accomplished in RDF’s evolution, encompassing the spectrum from evolving electric motor variants to intricate design considerations, strategic noise and vibration management, innovative control methodologies, advancements in bearing technology, and the strategic integration of finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for comprehensive performance optimization. In the context of aviation’s electrification journey, the exploration of RDF technology marks a pivotal inflection point. This paper concludes by succinctly encapsulating pivotal insights, accentuating RDF technology’s central role in reshaping aviation’s propulsion paradigm. As the aviation sector charts a course towards sustainable progress, the lessons gleaned from RDF technology are poised to chart the trajectory of aviation’s environmental transformation. Full article
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21 pages, 6471 KiB  
Review
Progress in Lightweight Design Methods for Large-Size Panel Structures in Manned Pressurized Capsules
by Zhiyong Zhou, Chenfan Yu, Xiuzhu Han, Kaiwei Zheng, Chao Jiang and Kuo Tian
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158635 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
The pressurized capsule structure provides the pressure environment for astronauts or payloads in space, which is thus considered as the most crucial structural component for manned spacecraft. The manned deep space exploration mission (MDSEM) brings new challenges to the pressurized capsule structure: extremely [...] Read more.
The pressurized capsule structure provides the pressure environment for astronauts or payloads in space, which is thus considered as the most crucial structural component for manned spacecraft. The manned deep space exploration mission (MDSEM) brings new challenges to the pressurized capsule structure: extremely low structural weight, long service life, reusability and adaptability to the harsh deep space environment. The conventional welded panel pressurized capsule structure (WPPCS) is not able to meet these new requirements. To address the above challenges, this paper comprehensively expounds why the current WPPCS cannot meet the requirements of MDSEMs based on the analysis of the vibration environment and structural characteristics of the pressurized capsule structure. Furthermore, a new type of integrated panel pressurized capsule structure (IPPCS) is proposed, showing the lightweight advantage compared with WPPCS. Finally, the technical details and research results of the strength criterion, design method, material upgrading and structural integrity manufacturing process of the IPPCS are fully introduced. The conclusions drawn in this paper will provide useful and meaningful references for the future development of large-size, lightweight pressurized capsule structures. Full article
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