Green Extraction and Valorisation of Bioactive Compounds from Food and Food Waste

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical and Molecular Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 4745

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Via Francesco Marzolo, 5, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: phytochemicals; chromatography; natural product chemistry; metabolomics; polyphenols; gut microbiota
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are excited to present a Special Issue of Applied Sciences on "Green Extraction and Valorisation of Bioactive Compounds from Food and Food Waste". This Special Issue aims to explore innovative and sustainable approaches for extracting and utilising bioactive compounds from various food sources and their by-products.

With a focus on environmental responsibility and resource optimisation, this Special Issue provides a platform for researchers, scientists, and experts to share their advancements, methodologies, and insights in the realm of green extraction and bioactive compound valorisation.

Original research articles, reviews, and perspectives are invited for this Special Issue, covering a wide spectrum of topics related to green extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from foods and food wastes. The scope includes, but is not limited to:

  • Green extraction techniques;
  • Bioactive compound characterisation;
  • Functional and nutraceutical properties;
  • Food waste utilisation;
  • Sustainable processing;
  • Biorefinery concepts;
  • Bioavailability enhancement;
  • Industrial applications;
  • functional foods, supplements, or pharmaceuticals.

Dr. Gregorio Peron
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • food waste
  • functional foods
  • green extraction
  • natural product chemistry

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Walnut Husks as well as the Influence of Juglone on Their Evaluation
by Małgorzata Olszowy-Tomczyk and Dorota Wianowska
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072972 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Concern for the future of the next generation leads to the search for alternative solutions for the proper management of materials considered as useless waste. This study fits into this research trend. Its aim is to demonstrate the potential of walnut husks as [...] Read more.
Concern for the future of the next generation leads to the search for alternative solutions for the proper management of materials considered as useless waste. This study fits into this research trend. Its aim is to demonstrate the potential of walnut husks as a source of compounds with antioxidant properties that can be used in non-food industries. Pressurized liquid extraction, i.e., one of the modern green extraction techniques used on an industrial scale, as well as conventional extraction in Soxhlet and maceration were applied to prepare the extracts. In order to assess in depth their antioxidant activity in relation to the content of characteristic components, various activity assessment methods were used in this research. The results proved that the husk components have such antioxidant properties that they can be of interest to the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries regarding the management of this waste. The results confirmed the usefulness of assisted extraction in increasing the ecological and economic values of the proposed waste disposal. Moreover, they showed that juglonehas very weak antioxidant properties, and the antioxidant effect of the mixture containing husk extract and juglone solution is mainly additive. Full article
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22 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Green Solvent Extraction of Antioxidants from Herbs and Agro-Food Wastes: Optimization and Capacity Determination
by Malo Hamieau, Patrick Loulergue and Aleksandra Szydłowska-Czerniak
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2936; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072936 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Herbs and agro-food wastes are rich sources of bioactive compounds vital for organisms and valuable for many fields of industry. Therefore, in this study, green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) such as choline chloride/citric acid (ChCl:CitA), glucose/citric acid (Gu:CitA), glucose/urea (Gu:U), betaine/citric acid (B:CitA), [...] Read more.
Herbs and agro-food wastes are rich sources of bioactive compounds vital for organisms and valuable for many fields of industry. Therefore, in this study, green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) such as choline chloride/citric acid (ChCl:CitA), glucose/citric acid (Gu:CitA), glucose/urea (Gu:U), betaine/citric acid (B:CitA), and betaine/urea (B:U) at a molar ratio of 1:1 for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from four herbs (chamomile—Cha, lemon balm—LB, mint—M, and nettle—N) and two agro-food wastes (buckwheat husk—BH and chokeberry pomace—ChoP) were proposed. The antioxidant capacity (AC) of the obtained extracts was evaluated utilizing three antioxidant assays: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC = 0.0–429.9 μmol of Trolox (TE)/g); 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS = 0.0–146.5 μmol TE/g); and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH = 11.9–170.3 μmol TE/g). The LB extracts revealed the highest CUPRAC (59.3–429.9 μmol TE/g), ABTS (30.7–144.3 μmol TE/g), and DPPH (32.6–170.3 μmol TE/g) values. Due to the lowest antioxidant potential of LB extracts prepared using ChCl:CitA (AC = 30.7–59.3 μmol TE/g) and the highest AC demonstrated by extracts based on B:U (AC = 144.3–429.9 μmol TE/g), the UAE conditions using a new DES consisting of ChCl and U were optimized by the Box–Behnken design (BBD). Effects of three independent variables, molar ratios of the ChCl and U (mol/mol), water content (%), and sonication time (t) on the AC of LB extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated that different DESs had great differences in the extraction of antioxidant compounds from herbs and agro-food residues. Full article
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11 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Prunus dulcis Blossoms and the Antioxidant Compounds of Their Extracted Oil Using Green Extraction Method
by Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Konstantina Kotsou, Ioannis Makrygiannis, Eleni Bozinou and Stavros I. Lalas
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052001 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Edible blossoms and extracted oils from various parts of plants have gained the interest of researchers in recent years due to their strong antioxidant activity and their high content of vitamins. In addition, they contain a plethora of polyphenols, and they do not [...] Read more.
Edible blossoms and extracted oils from various parts of plants have gained the interest of researchers in recent years due to their strong antioxidant activity and their high content of vitamins. In addition, they contain a plethora of polyphenols, and they do not have high caloric content. The blossoms of Prunus dulcis (i.e., almond tree) are edible; however, they have not been examined in terms of nutritional value. The present study aimed to examine the nutritional value of almond blossoms, as well as their extracted oil. The fat content of the blossoms was 1.75 g/100 g dry weight (dw), while the defatted blossoms were found to contain 1.34 g/100 g dw of crude protein and 29.97 g/100 g dw of carbohydrates. In addition, the blossom oil was tested for its composition of fatty acids, polyphenols, and total carotenoids. According to the results, several important fatty acids for human health were identified, such as oleic (25.17%), linoleic (15.64%), and linolenic (10.15%). Simultaneously, a low oxidation index (COX), i.e., 4.05, and many monounsaturated (25.17%) and unsaturated (67.56%) fats were detected, while both polyphenols (51.86 mg GAE/kg) and carotenoids were in abundance. Finally, the combination of simple stirring with ultrasound (a green extraction method) was found to be the most appropriate method to ensure maximum amounts of various antioxidant compounds in the blossom extracts (i.e., polyphenols and L-ascorbic acid). After optimization, the total polyphenol content increased by 23.98% and L-ascorbic acid content by 6.96%. In addition, antioxidant activity was tested by different antioxidant assays and specifically FRAP, DPPH, and H2O2, which showed a corresponding increase (14.46, 17.23, and 8.79%, respectively). Therefore, it can be concluded that Prunus dulcis blossoms, besides being edible, are also highly nutritious, and their oil has nutritional value and deserves further exploration. Full article
12 pages, 4952 KiB  
Article
Cricket Protein as an Innovative Emulsifier for Avocado Oil: Formulation and Characterization of Sustainable Emulsions
by Luis A. Trujillo-Cayado, Irene García-Domínguez, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Elena Hurtado-Fernández and Jenifer Santos
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041674 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The use of cricket protein in emulsions is in line with the growing interest in sustainable food sources, as crickets require minimal resources and produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional livestock. Research in this area suggests that incorporating cricket protein into emulsions [...] Read more.
The use of cricket protein in emulsions is in line with the growing interest in sustainable food sources, as crickets require minimal resources and produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional livestock. Research in this area suggests that incorporating cricket protein into emulsions not only improves their nutritional value but also contributes to the development of environmentally friendly and functional food products. This study proposes the use of cricket protein for the stabilization of emulsions formulated with avocado oil as a dispersed phase. This oil is rich in monounsaturated fats, particularly oleic acid, and a variety of bioactive compounds. In the first part of this study, we assessed the influence of the emulsifier concentration and found that 2 wt.% is the optimum because a depletion flocculation effect was produced. Subsequently, processing was optimized using ultrasonication so that the higher energy input produced emulsions with a droplet diameter of less than 700 nm. Finally, rhamsan gum was added to the formulation, producing emulgels with improved pseudoplastic behavior and physical stability. This study demonstrates that cricket protein in combination with rhamsan gum is capable of forming stable, low-droplet-size emulgels with potential applications in encapsulation systems. Full article
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16 pages, 6059 KiB  
Article
Influence of Selected Compositions of Wall Materials and Drying Techniques Used for Encapsulation of Linseed Oil and Its Ethyl Esters
by Dorota Ogrodowska, Małgorzata Tańska, Paweł Banaszczyk, Grzegorz Dąbrowski, Sylwester Czaplicki, Marta Wachowicz and Iwona Zofia Konopka
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041372 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the encapsulation of linseed oil and its ethyl esters using two coating materials (maltodextrin with whey protein concentrate (WPC) vs. maltodextrin with gum arabic) and two drying methods (spray-drying vs. freeze-drying) to obtain powders with [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare the encapsulation of linseed oil and its ethyl esters using two coating materials (maltodextrin with whey protein concentrate (WPC) vs. maltodextrin with gum arabic) and two drying methods (spray-drying vs. freeze-drying) to obtain powders with the highest oxidative stability. A comparison was made based on the properties of emulsions (morphology, particle size distribution, and stability) and powders (morphology, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability). The powder’s oxidative stability was determined based on the Rancimat protocol. The most uniform distribution of oil droplets in prepared emulsions was stated for ethyl esters in a mixture of maltodextrin and gum arabic. Emulsions with WPC had a bimodal character, while those with gum arabic had a monomodal character. Gum arabic promoted emulsion stability, while in samples containing WPC, sedimentation and creaming processes were more visible. Powders obtained using spray-drying had a spherical shape, while those obtained by freeze-drying were similar to flakes. Although encapsulation efficiency was the highest for freeze-dried powders made of linseed ethyl esters with gum arabic, the highest oxidative stability was stated for powders made by spray-drying with WPC as wall material (independently of linseed sample form). These powders can be easily applied to various food matrices, increasing the share of valuable α-linolenic acid. Full article
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11 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Bioactive Components from Strawberry Seeds Residues Post Oil Extraction and Their Cosmetic Potential
by Weronika Wójciak, Magdalena Żuk, Ireneusz Sowa, Barbara Mazurek, Katarzyna Tyśkiewicz and Magdalena Wójciak
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020783 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the valorization of byproducts generated during fruit processing. An example of this is the waste produced during the processing of strawberries. For instance, it has been evidenced that strawberries seeds can be a valuable source [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the valorization of byproducts generated during fruit processing. An example of this is the waste produced during the processing of strawberries. For instance, it has been evidenced that strawberries seeds can be a valuable source of oil. The goal of this paper was to investigate the potential of strawberry seed residues after oil extraction (defatted seeds) as a source of phenolics with possible cosmetic applications. The components were recovered using water and ethanol mixture, assisted by heat, ultrasound, and microwave. The extracts were characterized through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass detectors (UPLC-DAD-MS), and the biological properties of the phenolic-rich fraction were assessed using antioxidant tests and a cell viability assay on human skin fibroblasts. The study revealed that defatted strawberry seeds are rich in low molecular weight phenolics, specifically in tiliroside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, and ellagic acid. Furthermore, the phenolic-rich fraction was effective in scavenging free radicals in human skin fibroblasts and showed cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress. This evidence suggests that defatted strawberry seeds are a valuable material for further processing to obtain a beneficial additive for skincare products. Full article
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11 pages, 2721 KiB  
Article
Wood Distillate Enhances Seed Germination of Chickpea, Lettuce, and Basil
by Viviana Maresca, Riccardo Fedeli, Andrea Vannini, Silvana Munzi, Ana Corrêa, Cristina Cruz and Stefano Loppi
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020631 - 11 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Seed priming with synthetic chemicals may be harmful to the environment and human health. Their replacement with bio-based compounds may overcome these concerns. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of wood distillate (WD) in enhancing in vitro germination of crop plants using [...] Read more.
Seed priming with synthetic chemicals may be harmful to the environment and human health. Their replacement with bio-based compounds may overcome these concerns. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of wood distillate (WD) in enhancing in vitro germination of crop plants using basil, chickpea, and lettuce as case studies. Seeds of the three species were soaked for 24 h in 0.25% and 0.17% WD solutions and then left to germinate for 7 days at 20 °C in a dark germination chamber. Seed pre-treatment with 0.25% WD enhanced germination in all tested species, while 0.17% WD stimulated germination in lettuce and chickpea, but not in basil. For lettuce, 0.17% WD worked better than 0.25% WD. Radicle length of basil and chickpea increased following pre-treatment with 0.25% WD, while in lettuce, it increased after pre-treatment with 0.17% WD. Treating seeds with appropriate WD solutions is a potential strategy to improve germination of crop plants. Full article
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