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Open AccessReview

Diet and Mental Health: Review of the Recent Updates on Molecular Mechanisms

1
Oasi Research Institute—IRCCS, 94018 Troina, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
4
Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
5
Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
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Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
7
School of Advanced Studies on Food and Nutrition, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
8
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040346
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders, including an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, cognitive, and sleep disorders. Diet and its bioactive components have been recognized among the modifiable risk factors, possibly influencing their pathogenesis. This review aimed to summarize molecular mechanisms underlying the putative beneficial effects toward brain health of different dietary factors, such as micro- and macronutrient intake and habits, such as feeding time and circadian rhythm. The role of hormonal homeostasis in the context of glucose metabolism and adiponectin regulation and its impact on systemic and neuro-inflammation has also been considered and deepened. In addition, the effect of individual bioactive molecules exerting antioxidant activities and acting as anti-inflammatory agents, such as omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, considered beneficial for the central nervous system via modulation of adult neurogenesis, synaptic and neuronal plasticity, and microglia activation has been summarized. An overview of the regulation of the gut–brain axis and its effect on the modulation of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress has been provided. Finally, the impact of bioactive molecules on inflammation and oxidative stress and its association with brain health has been summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; inflammation; polyphenols; mental health; diet; depression; sleep; brain; neurons; neuronal plasticity oxidative stress; inflammation; polyphenols; mental health; diet; depression; sleep; brain; neurons; neuronal plasticity
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Godos, J.; Currenti, W.; Angelino, D.; Mena, P.; Castellano, S.; Caraci, F.; Galvano, F.; Del Rio, D.; Ferri, R.; Grosso, G. Diet and Mental Health: Review of the Recent Updates on Molecular Mechanisms. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 346.

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