Special Issue "Antioxidants and Retinal Disease"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francisco J. Romero
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Guest Editor
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Europea de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: antioxidants, oxidative and nitrosative stress, retinal diseases, nervous tissue
Assoc. Prof. Maria Miranda
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Guest Editor
Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Moncada Avda, Valencia, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing evidence attributes a role to oxidative stress in many retinal diseases. Several cellular mechanisms have been described in photoreceptor degenerative diseases, light-induced retinal damage, age-related macular degeneration, etc. Increased reactive oxygen species have been reported as a consequence of mutations, or as the triggering mechanism for cell death in different retinal cell types, in experimental disease models, in vivo and in vitro. Human ocular tissue samples have confirmed most of these proposals. More recently, circulating markers, e.g., exosomal cargo, have been described and proposed to be useful not only for diagnostic purposes, but also as targeted carriers for deficient molecules, such as antioxidants or enhancers of antioxidant capacity. Despite this accumulated evidence, not enough clear-cut results seem to support antioxidant supplements as therapeutic aids, or the composition and amount of the different molecules in such supplements. Furthermore, bioavailability, distribution and interactions between antioxidant molecules are systematically required to be able to propose natural or artificial antioxidants as preventive or therapeutic strategies for retinal diseases. This Special Issue welcomes submissions related to any aspect of antioxidants and retinal tissue in health and disease.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Javier Romero
Dr. Maria Miranda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Antioxidants and Retinal Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120604 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
The retina is a thin membrane derived from the neuroectoderm, it is the physical morphological substrate in which the transformation of light energy into electrical impulses, that later will be led to the cerebral cortex, is performed [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Saffron: A Multitask Neuroprotective Agent for Retinal Degenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070224 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Both age related macular degeneration (AMD) and light induced retinal damage share the common major role played by oxidative stress in the induction/progression of degenerative events. Light damaged (LD) rats have been widely used as a convenient model to gain insight into the [...] Read more.
Both age related macular degeneration (AMD) and light induced retinal damage share the common major role played by oxidative stress in the induction/progression of degenerative events. Light damaged (LD) rats have been widely used as a convenient model to gain insight into the mechanisms of degenerative disease, to enucleate relevant steps and to test neuroprotectants. Among them, saffron has been shown to ameliorate degenerative processes and to regulate many genes and protective pathways. Saffron has been also tested in AMD patients. We extended our analysis to a possible additional effect regulated by saffron and compared in AMD patients a pure antioxidant treatment (Lutein/zeaxanthin) with saffron treatment. Methods: Animal model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) adult rats, raised at 5 lux, were exposed to 1000 lux for 24 h and then either immediately sacrificed or placed back at 5 lux for 7 days recovery period. A group of animals was treated with saffron. We performed in the animal model: (1) SDS-PAGE analysis; (2) Western Blotting (3) Enzyme activity assay (4) Immunolabelling; in AMD patients: a longitudinal open-label study 29 (±5) months in two groups of patients: lutein/zeaxanthin (19) and saffron (23) treated. Visual function was tested every 8 months by ERG recordings in addition to clinical examination. Results: Enzymatic activity of MMP-3 is reduced in LD saffron treated retinas and is comparable to control as it is MMP-3 expression. LD treated retinas do not present “rosettes” and microglia activation and migration is highly reduced. Visual function remains stable in saffron treated AMD patients while deteriorates in the lutein/zeaxanthin group. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an additional way of action of saffron treatment confirming the complex nature of neuroprotective activities of its chemical components. Accordingly, long term follow-up in AMD patients reveals an added value of saffron supplementation treatment compared to classical antioxidant protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Suppression of Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration by Quercetin via the AP-1 Pathway in Rats
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040079 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
We examined the cytoprotective effect of quercetin via activator protein (AP-1) and the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) pathway against light-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Quercetin was administered intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats for seven days before light exposure to intense white fluorescent light [...] Read more.
We examined the cytoprotective effect of quercetin via activator protein (AP-1) and the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) pathway against light-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Quercetin was administered intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats for seven days before light exposure to intense white fluorescent light (3000 lux) for 24 h. Light-induced retinal damage was determined by the number of rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei, the microstructures of the rod outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated 2′-Deoxyuridine-5′-triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. To elucidate the cytoprotective mechanism of quercetin, expression levels were measured in the rat retinas of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress; Hsp70; and transcription factor AP-1 transcription activity. Pretreatment with quercetin inhibited light-induced photoreceptor cellular apoptosis and subsequent retinal degeneration in rats. 8-OHdG and Hsp70 protein expressions were up-regulated markedly by light exposure and suppressed by quercetin pretreatment. The results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AP-1-binding activity was activated by light exposure, and binding of c-Fos and c-Jun, but not JunB, mediated the binding activity. Intraperitoneal administration of quercetin decreases photooxidative damage in the retina and mediates cytoprotection against light-induced photoreceptor cell degeneration in rats. Suppression of the heterodimeric combination of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins at the AP-1 binding site is highly involved in quercetin-mediated cytoprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Correction of Experimental Retinal Ischemia by l-Isomer of Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine Malate
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020034 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
An important task of pharmacology and ophtalmology is to find specific and highly effective agents for correcting retinal ischemia. The objective of this study is to increase the effectiveness of pharmacological correction of retinal ischemia by using new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative–l-isomer of [...] Read more.
An important task of pharmacology and ophtalmology is to find specific and highly effective agents for correcting retinal ischemia. The objective of this study is to increase the effectiveness of pharmacological correction of retinal ischemia by using new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative–l-isomer of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine malate. A modification to the retinal ischemia-reperfusion model was used, in which an increase in intraocular pressure is carried out by mechanical pressure (110 mmHg) to the front chamber of the eye for 30 min. The protective effects of l-isomer of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine malate in comparison with Emoxipine as pretreatment, with parabulbar injection, based on the model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion, were estimated by the changes in the ratio of the amplitudes of the a- and b-waves of electroretinography (the b/a coefficient) and ophthalmoscopy. The use of l-isomer of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine malate improves the retinal electrophysiological state after 72 h of reperfusion; in the group of rats treated with l-isomer of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine malate, the coefficient b/a was reliably increased by 9.5%, p < 0.05, in comparison with animals treated with Emoxipine, and by 91.7%, p < 0.05, in comparison with the group with no treatment. Furthermore, it prevents the development of ischemic changes in the retina observed in ophthalmoscopy to a greater extent than Emoxipine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Effects of Coenzyme Q10 or n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Retinal Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy
Antioxidants 2018, 7(11), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110160 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) or apnea afflicts 70% to 90% of all preterm infants <28 weeks gestation, and is associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We tested the hypotheses that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) [...] Read more.
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) or apnea afflicts 70% to 90% of all preterm infants <28 weeks gestation, and is associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We tested the hypotheses that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation during neonatal IH reduces the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Newborn rats were exposed to two IH paradigms: (1) 50% O2 with brief hypoxia (12% O2); or (2) 21% O2 with brief hypoxia, until postnatal day 14 (P14), during which they received daily oral CoQ10 in olive oil, n-3 PUFAs in fish oil, or olive oil only and compared to room air (RA) treated groups. Pups were examined at P14, or placed in RA until P21. Retinal angiogenesis, histopathology, and morphometry were determined. Both IH paradigms produced severe OIR, but these were worsened with 50/12% O2 IH. CoQ10 and n-3 PUFAs reduced the severity of OIR, as well as ocular growth factors in both IH paradigms, but CoQ10 was more effective in 50/12% O2 IH. Supplementation with either CoQ10 or n-3 PUFAs targeting IH-induced retinal injury is individually effective for ameliorating specific characteristics consistent with ROP. Given the complexity of ROP, further studies are needed to determine whether combined CoQ10 and n-3 PUFAs supplementation would optimize their efficacy and result in a better outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nitrosative Stress in Retinal Pathologies: Review
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110543 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas molecule with diverse physiological and cellular functions. In the eye, NO is used to maintain normal visual function as it is involved in photoreceptor light transduction. In addition, NO acts as a rapid vascular endothelial relaxant, is [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas molecule with diverse physiological and cellular functions. In the eye, NO is used to maintain normal visual function as it is involved in photoreceptor light transduction. In addition, NO acts as a rapid vascular endothelial relaxant, is involved in the control of retinal blood flow under basal conditions and mediates the vasodilator responses of different substances such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, histamine, substance P or insulin. However, the retina is rich in polyunsaturated lipid membranes and is sensitive to the action of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products generated from NO (i.e., dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) and peroxynitrite) have great oxidative damaging effects. Oxygen and nitrogen species can react with biomolecules (lipids, proteins and DNA), potentially leading to cell death, and this is particularly important in the retina. This review focuses on the role of NO in several ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Is There A Role for Abscisic Acid, A Proven Anti-Inflammatory Agent, in the Treatment of Ischemic Retinopathies?
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040104 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ischemic retinopathies (IRs) are the main cause of severe visual impairment and sight loss, and are characterized by loss of blood vessels, accompanied by hypoxia, and neovascularization. Actual therapies, based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strategies, antioxidants or anti-inflammatory therapies are only [...] Read more.
Ischemic retinopathies (IRs) are the main cause of severe visual impairment and sight loss, and are characterized by loss of blood vessels, accompanied by hypoxia, and neovascularization. Actual therapies, based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strategies, antioxidants or anti-inflammatory therapies are only partially effective or show some adverse side effects. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone present in vegetables and fruits that can be naturally supplied by the dietary intake and has been previously studied for its benefits to human health. It has been demonstrated that ABA plays a key role in glucose metabolism, inflammation, memory and tumor growth. This review focuses on a novel and promising role of ABA as a potential modulator of angiogenesis, oxidative status and inflammatory processes in the retina, which are the most predominant characteristics of the IRs. Thus, this nutraceutical compound might shed some light in new therapeutic strategies focused in the prevention or amelioration of IRs-derived pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Progesterone, Lipoic Acid, and Sulforaphane as Promising Antioxidants for Retinal Diseases: A Review
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030053 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Oxidative stress has been documented to be a key factor in the cause and progression of different retinal diseases. Oxidative cellular unbalance triggers a sequence of reactions which prompt cell degeneration and retinal dysfunction, both hallmarks of several retinal pathologies. There is no [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress has been documented to be a key factor in the cause and progression of different retinal diseases. Oxidative cellular unbalance triggers a sequence of reactions which prompt cell degeneration and retinal dysfunction, both hallmarks of several retinal pathologies. There is no effective treatment, yet, for many retinal diseases. Antioxidant treatment have been pointed out to be an encouraging palliative treatment; the beneficial effects documented involve slowing the progression of the disease, a reduction of cell degeneration, and improvement of retinal functions. There is a vast information corpus on antioxidant candidates. In this review, we expose three of the main antioxidant treatments, selected for their promising results that has been reported to date. Recently, the sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate molecule, has been unveiled as a neuroprotective candidate, by its antioxidant properties. Progesterone, a neurosteroid has been proposed to be a solid and effective neuroprotective agent. Finally, the lipoic acid, an organosulfur compound, is a well-recognized antioxidant. All of them, have been tested and studied on different retinal disease models. In this review, we summarized the published results of these works, to offer a general view of the current antioxidant treatment advances, including the main effects and mechanisms described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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