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Progesterone, Lipoic Acid, and Sulforaphane as Promising Antioxidants for Retinal Diseases: A Review

Departamento Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, 46115 Valencia, Spain
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Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030053
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Abstract

Oxidative stress has been documented to be a key factor in the cause and progression of different retinal diseases. Oxidative cellular unbalance triggers a sequence of reactions which prompt cell degeneration and retinal dysfunction, both hallmarks of several retinal pathologies. There is no effective treatment, yet, for many retinal diseases. Antioxidant treatment have been pointed out to be an encouraging palliative treatment; the beneficial effects documented involve slowing the progression of the disease, a reduction of cell degeneration, and improvement of retinal functions. There is a vast information corpus on antioxidant candidates. In this review, we expose three of the main antioxidant treatments, selected for their promising results that has been reported to date. Recently, the sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate molecule, has been unveiled as a neuroprotective candidate, by its antioxidant properties. Progesterone, a neurosteroid has been proposed to be a solid and effective neuroprotective agent. Finally, the lipoic acid, an organosulfur compound, is a well-recognized antioxidant. All of them, have been tested and studied on different retinal disease models. In this review, we summarized the published results of these works, to offer a general view of the current antioxidant treatment advances, including the main effects and mechanisms described. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulforaphane; progesterone; lipoic acid; retinitis pigmentosa; retinal diseases; antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; macular degeneration; diabetes retinopathy sulforaphane; progesterone; lipoic acid; retinitis pigmentosa; retinal diseases; antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; macular degeneration; diabetes retinopathy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hernández-Rabaza, V.; López-Pedrajas, R.; Almansa, I. Progesterone, Lipoic Acid, and Sulforaphane as Promising Antioxidants for Retinal Diseases: A Review. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 53.

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