Topical Collection "Cattle Diseases"

A topical collection in Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This collection belongs to the section "Cattle".

Editor

Dr. Steven Van Winden
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Farm Animal Health and Production, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK
Interests: cattle; production; infectious diseases; epidemiology; population medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cattle are the most common type of hooved production animal across the globe, with over 1 billion domesticated animals under our care. In different levels, they form a livelihood for families and create a stream of high-quality nutrition, through the beef and dairy sector. Keeping animals tends not to go perfectly all of the time. This creates the need for husbandry systems, balanced nutrition, pathogen control, and veterinary care to look after our cattle as well as we can. Understanding the interplay between these elements is essential for us to improve the care of our cattle even further.

The overall aim of this Special Issue is to create a base for better-informed disease management options. We are inviting papers presenting original research that advances our understanding of cattle disease and cattle health. This could include studies on infectious as well as production diseases in beef and dairy cattle, of all ages. Research at molecular, cellular, and animal levels furthering our knowledge of pathophysiology, as well as works advancing our knowledge at the population level are welcome in this Special Issue.

Dr. Steven Van Winden
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cattle
  • infection
  • production
  • disease
  • pathophysiology
  • population
  • prevention

Published Papers (19 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Theileria annulata: Its Propagation in Rabbits for the Attenuation of Piroplasms in Cross-Bred Calves
Animals 2022, 12(7), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070813 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Tropical theileriosis caused by the protozoan; Theileria annulata is a tick-borne disease (TBD) transmitted by ticks of genus Hyalomma; is clinically characterized by fever, anemia, and lymphadenopathy; and is responsible for heavy economic losses in terms of high morbidity and mortality rates [...] Read more.
Tropical theileriosis caused by the protozoan; Theileria annulata is a tick-borne disease (TBD) transmitted by ticks of genus Hyalomma; is clinically characterized by fever, anemia, and lymphadenopathy; and is responsible for heavy economic losses in terms of high morbidity and mortality rates with reduced production. Infected red blood cells of T. annulata were inoculated into rabbits intraperitoneally, and propagation of T. annulata has been investigated. The current study has shown an association between induced tropical theileriosis and variation of body temperature in rabbits. A significant rise in temperature (39.92 ± 0.33 °C) was seen on day 8 onwards, with the maximum temperature (40.27 ± 0.44 °C) on day 14 post-inoculation. In the current study, in vivo trials in susceptible cross-bred calves to investigate the attenuation and comparison with the infected group were also conducted. All the infected calves (n = 5) showed a significant rise in temperature (40.26 ± 0.05 °C) on day 10 onwards, with the maximum temperature (40.88 ± 0.05 °C) on day 16. The temperature of inoculated calves increased gradually post-inoculation, but the difference was not significant. A maximum parasitemia of 20% was observed in infected calves, but no piroplasm parasitemia was observed in inoculated calves. The prescapular lymph nodes of infected calves were enlarged, while the lymph nodes of inoculated calves remained normal throughout the trial. Analysis of clinical and parasitological responses of infected and inoculated calves showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in terms of temperature, parasitemia, and lymph node scoring between two groups. The current study was primarily aimed to attenuate T. annulata in rabbit and to check its virulence in susceptible calves. It is concluded that propagation of Theileria annulata in rabbits made it attenuated. Rabbit can be used as an in vivo model to weaken the virulence of T. annulata. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

Article
Infectious Bovine Respiratory Diseases in Adult Cattle: An Extensive Necropsic and Etiological Study
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082280 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
In young cattle, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major cause of death and Mannheimia haemolytica is a frequent pathogen. Knowledge of fatal BRD in adult cattle is more limited. We assessed the importance of infectious BRD as a cause of death in [...] Read more.
In young cattle, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major cause of death and Mannheimia haemolytica is a frequent pathogen. Knowledge of fatal BRD in adult cattle is more limited. We assessed the importance of infectious BRD as a cause of death in adult cattle and determined the associated pathogens. We analyzed data from 737 adult cattle necropsies at the Pathology Unit for Large Animals at Oniris, Nantes, France over a 6 year period (2013–2019). Each carcass was subjected to a complete necropsy. Lungs showing macroscopic lesions were classified into three categories: infectious primary pulmonary (IPP) lesions, thromboembolic pneumonia (TEP) and others (aspiration pneumonia, verminous pneumonia, and local extension of an extra-pulmonary inflammatory process). Half of the lungs with IPP macroscopic lesions were sampled for histology and submitted for polymerase chain reaction. BRD was the second leading cause of death (15.7%) after digestive diseases (32.2%). A strong predominance of IPP lesions (42.3%) and TEP lesions (39.6%) was also demonstrated. In IPP macroscopic lesions, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and/or hecrotic (FHN) bronchopneumonia accounted for 77.6% of macroscopic lesions. Mannheimia haemolytica was significantly associated with FHN bronchopneumonia macroscopic lesions. This study suggests that Mannheimia haemolytica should be included in the differential diagnosis of BRD in adult cattle. Full article
Article
High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis and Trypanosoma evansi
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082235 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (70/130); Theileria orientalis (65/130); Theileria sinensis (32/130); Anaplasma marginale (49/130); Anaplasma platys (7/130); and Trypanosoma evansi (4/130). The GM-CSF/IL-10 ratio showed significantly higher values in all the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups except for symptomatic A. platys infected cattle groups. Anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses were notable findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis characterized by low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 (p < 0.05). Therefore, high serum GM-CSF:IL:10 in the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle, low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios in asymptomatic cattle, high MDA level, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be useful predictive tools for outcome of natural blood parasite infections in cattle. Full article
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Article
Identifying Health Status in Grazing Dairy Cows from Milk Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy by Using Machine Learning Methods
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082154 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
The early detection of health problems in dairy cattle is crucial to reduce economic losses. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry has been used for identifying the composition of cow milk in routine tests. As such, it is a potential tool to detect diseases at an [...] Read more.
The early detection of health problems in dairy cattle is crucial to reduce economic losses. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry has been used for identifying the composition of cow milk in routine tests. As such, it is a potential tool to detect diseases at an early stage. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) has been widely applied to identify illness such as lameness by using MIR spectrometry data. However, this method suffers some limitations. In this study, a series of machine learning techniques—random forest, support vector machine, neural network (NN), convolutional neural network and ensemble models—were used to test the feasibility of identifying cow sickness from 1909 milk sample MIR spectra from Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and crossbreed cows under grazing conditions. PLS-DA was also performed to compare the results. The sick cow records had a time window of 21 days before and 7 days after the milk sample was analysed. NN showed a sensitivity of 61.74%, specificity of 97% and positive predicted value (PPV) of nearly 60%. Although the sensitivity of the PLS-DA was slightly higher than NN (65.6%), the specificity and PPV were lower (79.59% and 15.25%, respectively). This indicates that by using NN, it is possible to identify a health problem with a reasonable level of accuracy. Full article
Article
Changing Veterinary Attitudes towards Delivering Biosecurity Advice to Beef Farmers
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071969 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Biosecurity advice is an important way veterinarians can help farmers to reduce disease burdens on their farms. Many different factors are at play when delivering this advice, one being veterinary competence and their communication skills. This study looked at the private veterinary practitioners’ [...] Read more.
Biosecurity advice is an important way veterinarians can help farmers to reduce disease burdens on their farms. Many different factors are at play when delivering this advice, one being veterinary competence and their communication skills. This study looked at the private veterinary practitioners’ perceptions of their own competence to deliver biosecurity advice as part of a longitudinal biosecurity project. Their responses were collected in the form of a telephone questionnaire. The results showed significant increases in private veterinary practitioners’ responses to comfort (p = 0.022), capability (p = 0.002), and consistency (p = 0.006) as well as an increase of uptake of advice (p = 0.015) as the project progressed. The mean time spent delivering biosecurity advice increased and dropped subsequently, suggesting an initially more thorough and later on a more efficient process. The overall perceptions of the veterinarians of the study were also assessed. The results suggest development of the participating veterinarians following the conscious-competence learning model showing a need to improve the knowledge and training of future generations of private veterinary practitioners in the area of biosecurity with, in particular, an increased focus on the importance of the veterinarian–farmer relationship. Full article
Review
Cryptosporidium spp. Infections in Combination with Other Enteric Pathogens in the Global Calf Population
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061786 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The most common worldwide diarrhoea-causing agents in neonatal calves are Cryptosporidium spp. (Crypto), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F5 (K99) (ETEC). Crypto is a zoonotic pathogen of diarrhoea in humans, particularly for children and immunocompromised adults. Four weighted-stratified [...] Read more.
The most common worldwide diarrhoea-causing agents in neonatal calves are Cryptosporidium spp. (Crypto), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F5 (K99) (ETEC). Crypto is a zoonotic pathogen of diarrhoea in humans, particularly for children and immunocompromised adults. Four weighted-stratified random-effect meta-analyses including meta-regression analyses were performed to calculate the worldwide mean prevalence of Crypto and associated concurrent infections with BRV, BCoV and ETEC, as well as their potential influencing factors. The meta-analysis incorporated 28 studies (56 substudies) in 17 countries that determined the presence or absence of concurrent infections with Crypto in the global calf population. Approximately half of all considered studies presented here were conducted in Europe independently of the type of infections with Crypto. Within Europe, the highest estimated mean Crypto-BRV prevalence was identified in Ireland (16.7%), the highest estimated mean Crypto-BCoV prevalence was detected in the United Kingdom (4.3%), and the highest estimated mean Crypto-ETEC prevalence across the literature was determined in Turkey (4.7%). The chance of detecting BRV, BCoV, and ETEC in calves with diarrhoea was 0.8 (confidence interval (CI): 0.6–1.0), 0.7 (CI: 0.5–1.0) and 0.6 (CI: 0.4–0.9) lower in the presence of Crypto compared to calves without Crypto. This may indicate an inhibitory effect between BRV, BCoV, ETEC, and Crypto in calves. The variance in the published prevalence across the literature can mainly be explained by the “diagnostic” factor (R2 min–max: 0.0–40.3%), followed by the “health status of the sampled animals” (R2 min–max: 1.4–27.3%) and “geographical region” (R2 min–max: 5.9–23.6%). Full article
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Article
Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis in District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061744 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Bovine brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease that causes economic losses through abortion and infertility. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in district Gujranwala of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 220 bovine sera [...] Read more.
Bovine brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease that causes economic losses through abortion and infertility. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in district Gujranwala of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 220 bovine sera (112 from buffaloes, 108 from cattle) from 46 unvaccinated herds were collected. Parallel testing by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) showed a 58.7% (27/46) herd-level and 22.7% (50/220) animal-level seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was higher (p < 0.001, OR = 7.62) in adult animals (37.2%) compared to younger animals (4.9%). A herd size of >10 animals (p = 0.021, OR = 7.83), less housing space (p = 0.037, OR = 6.39) and history of abortion at the farm (p = 0.023, OR = 5.6) were found as risk factors associated with the seropositivity of brucellosis. There was a substantial agreement between the RBPT and I-ELISA results (Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) = 64.16, percent agreement = 89.5%). In conclusion, a relatively higher seroprevalence was found compared to the previous reports from the country. Standardization and validation of the advanced diagnostic tests would be needed. Biosecurity, personal protection, quarantine measures and routine screening of animals at the farm level and disease awareness programs and consumption of pasteurized milk in the human population will be helpful in preventing the transmission/zoonosis of the disease. Full article
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Article
Longitudinal Metabolic Biomarker Profile of Hyperketonemic Cows from Dry-Off to Peak Lactation and Identification of Prognostic Classifiers
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051353 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Currently about 30% to 50% of all dairy cows are affected by a metabolic or infectious disease during the transition period. A key factor for preventive actions is the ability to precisely predict metabolic diseases at an early stage. We report the longitudinal [...] Read more.
Currently about 30% to 50% of all dairy cows are affected by a metabolic or infectious disease during the transition period. A key factor for preventive actions is the ability to precisely predict metabolic diseases at an early stage. We report the longitudinal metabolic profile of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total bilirubin, and aspartate aminotransferase in hyperketonemic dairy cows. Aiming for a novel measurement regime to improve metabolic health in dairy cows, we evaluated prognostic classifiers for hyperketonemia. In the observational longitudinal study, 99 healthy adult primiparous and multiparous Simmental dairy cows were included. Every cow was monitored weekly for 14 consecutive weeks, beginning two weeks prior to the expected day of parturition until peak lactation. Cows with serum concentrations of BHB > 0.8 mmol/L were considered hyperketonemic. Biomarker profiles were fitted by the maximum likelihood method using a mixed effects natural cubic spline model. In the hyperketonemic group, the BHB profile remained significantly higher than that of the control group until the end of the study period. As a prognostic classifier, the cut-off level of 0.54 mmol/L BHB measured on the 10th day post partum had the highest area under the curve. These results provide new longitudinal insights into the metabolic biomarker progression of dairy cows and enable an early onset diagnosis of hyperketonemia. Full article
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Article
The Specific Immune Response after Vaccination against Neonatal Calf Diarrhoea Differs between Apparent Similar Vaccines in a Case Study
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051238 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD) is a major health challenge with a negative impact on farm profitability, calf welfare and antimicrobial use. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to enteric infections. Thus, a key point for prevention is minimising infectious pressure and maximising specific immune [...] Read more.
Neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD) is a major health challenge with a negative impact on farm profitability, calf welfare and antimicrobial use. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to enteric infections. Thus, a key point for prevention is minimising infectious pressure and maximising specific immune responses. An amount of 120 dams not previously vaccinated against NCD were randomly allocated to one of three study groups: negative control versus two vaccinated groups (A and B). In the control group, the average level of antibodies was significantly low for both BoCV and ETEC (15.6 and 13.9% in the colostrum samples, respectively), demonstrating the importance of dam vaccination. Indeed, the level of specific immunity was significantly increased for BoCV and ETEC with dam vaccination using both one-shot vaccines versus the control group. Moreover, the statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher level of antibodies for BoCV and ETEC in colostrum samples in vaccine A versus vaccine B and the control group. In accordance, the calf serum demonstrated a significantly higher level and greater homogeneity of antibodies against BoCV and ETEC in the Vaccine A group versus other experimental groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated a different specific immune response for the pathogens depending on the vaccine used to control NCD in cows. Full article
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Article
The Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Positive Milk Antibody ELISA Results in Dairy Cattle under Varying Time Periods after Skin Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051224 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to screen cows for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infections, informing Johne’s disease (JD) management practices in dairy herds. The causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, and MAP share multiple antigens. Moreover, Mycobacterium avium [...] Read more.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to screen cows for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infections, informing Johne’s disease (JD) management practices in dairy herds. The causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, and MAP share multiple antigens. Moreover, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium is used in the single intradermal cervical comparative tests (SICCT) that are routinely used in early detection of cows infected with bTB. Although these are different types of immune responses, potentially the SICCT may interfere with the levels of MAP antibodies. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the SICCT-MAP milk ELISA testing interval and apparent prevalence of JD risk statuses. Data from 51 herds were used, totalling 46,738 cow observations. The Poisson models showed that MAP milk ELISA testing at 14 day intervals post-SICCT statistically significantly increased the odds of detecting JD-positive cows compared to JD testing 85+ days post-SICCT. The odds ratio (OR) started at 2.5 in the first 14 day interval post-SICCT, increasing each two-week period to an OR of 4.0 at 57–70 days, to subsequently drop. Additionally, a herd history of bTB increased the odds of detecting JD-positive cows (OR = 1.2); this was relatively limited compared to the magnitude of the post-SICCT effect. Full article
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Article
A Retrospective Case Study into the Effect of Hoof Lesions on the Lying Behaviour of Holstein–Friesian in a Loose-Housed System
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041120 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The association between hoof lesions and lying behaviour was assessed on a Holstein–Friesian dairy farm in England. Twenty-nine cows were included in the study. Cows with claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL, n = 8), soft tissue lesions (STL, n = 6), and no [...] Read more.
The association between hoof lesions and lying behaviour was assessed on a Holstein–Friesian dairy farm in England. Twenty-nine cows were included in the study. Cows with claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL, n = 8), soft tissue lesions (STL, n = 6), and no lesions (NL, n = 15) were assessed. Data were collected on parity, days in milk (DIM), and mobility scores. Cows were trimmed and treated, and lesions were recorded by a professional foot trimmer. Lying behaviour was assessed before and after claw trimming. The milking herd (n = 96) prevalence of lameness was 32.3%. Mobility was scored using the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB) Mobility Scoring system. Mobility scores were significantly different across lesions groups (p = 0.022). CHDL cows had a mean mobility score of 2.0 ± 0.9 (mean ± SD), STL were scored 1.2 ± 1.3, and NL cows were 0.9 ± 0.7. CHDL were associated with longer lying times (15.00 ± 1.04 h/d; p = 0.0006) and shorter standing times (9.68 ± 2.38 h/d; p = 0.0351) compared with NL lying times (11.77 ± 1.67 h/d) and standing times (12.21 ± 1.67 h/d). STL cows spent significantly less time lying (11.30 ± 2.44; p = 0.0013) than CHDL but not NL cows. No significant differences were found with any of the other lying behaviours. After trimming, CHDL cows spent significantly less time lying down than before trimming (13.66 ± 0.98; p = 0.0125). Cows with NL spent significantly more time lying down (12.57 ± 1.90; p = 0.0398) and had a shorter minimum lying bout duration (0.17 ± 0.09; p = 0.0236) after trimming. In conclusion, lying behaviour in dairy cattle was impacted by type of hoof lesions and hoof trimming. Full article
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Article
Reproductive Performance and Partial Budget Analysis of a Prostaglandin or a Modified Ovsynch Protocol in Autumn Calving Dairy Herds
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041031 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
In autumn calving dairy herds, treatment of cattle not observed in estrus prior to the breeding season is common. Routinely, a single prostaglandin or a modified Ovsynch (MOFT) protocol are used—without evidence of their relative effectiveness. This study compares the effects on conception, [...] Read more.
In autumn calving dairy herds, treatment of cattle not observed in estrus prior to the breeding season is common. Routinely, a single prostaglandin or a modified Ovsynch (MOFT) protocol are used—without evidence of their relative effectiveness. This study compares the effects on conception, associated timing, and profitability of administering cows with prostaglandin or MOFT treatment. A hundred and ninety-two Holstein-Friesian cows from three herds without an observed estrus within 28-days before mating start date were randomly treated with d-cloprostenol (PGOD) or an 8-day MOFT protocol. The association of treatment and calving-breeding start-date interval (CBSI) on the risk of conception were investigated. Partial budget, sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess economic performance, identify critical input variables, and explore the effects of input uncertainties on model output. There was a significant association between MOFT treatment and conception during 21 and 84 days after mating start date, compared to PGOD. MOFT treatment was associated with a mean net benefit of £58.21 (sd £19.42) and £27.29 (sd £17.75) per cow for herds with a fixed or variable dry-off date, respectively. The relative profitability of an MOFT protocol is dependent on its effects on barren rate and herd dry-off strategy. Full article
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Review
Prevalence of Worldwide Neonatal Calf Diarrhoea Caused by Bovine Rotavirus in Combination with Bovine Coronavirus, Escherichia coli K99 and Cryptosporidium spp.: A Meta-Analysis
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041014 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Multiple enteropathogens such as bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), Escherichia coli K99 (ETEC) and Cryptosporidium spp. (Crypto) are the most common causes of calf diarrhoea during the first 30 days of animal age. Three weighted-stratified random-effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate the [...] Read more.
Multiple enteropathogens such as bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), Escherichia coli K99 (ETEC) and Cryptosporidium spp. (Crypto) are the most common causes of calf diarrhoea during the first 30 days of animal age. Three weighted-stratified random-effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate the worldwide prevalence of mixed infections of the causative agents (i.e., BRV-BCoV, BRV-ETEC, BRV-Crypto) and their potential influencing factors. The meta-analysis covered 41 studies (94 sub-studies) in 21 countries that determined the presence or absence of mixed infections in global calf populations. The highest worldwide estimated pooled prevalence was identified for BRV-Crypto (6.69%), followed by BRV-BCoV (2.84%), and BRV-ETEC (1.64%). The chance of detecting BCoV in calves with diarrhoea was 1.83 higher in the presence of BRV compared to calves without BRV, whereby an inhibition effect (odds ratio: 0.77) was determined between BRV and Crypto infections. The diagnostic methods were identified as a significant influencing factor in the detection of all considered mixed infections, while the other analysed factors differed in relation to their effect on prevalence. In contrast to BRV-BCoV, the prevalence of BRV-ETEC and BRV-Crypto mixed infections followed the course of individual ETEC and Crypto prevalence related to the age class of the sampled animals. Full article
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Article
Leptospira Seroprevalence in Colombian Dairy Herds
Animals 2021, 11(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030785 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Leptospirosis in cattle has important economic effects on the infected farms. Moreover, livestock farming is considered a major occupational risk factor for the transmission of Leptospira infection to humans. A survey was performed to determine the overall and within-herd seroprevalence and mapping of [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis in cattle has important economic effects on the infected farms. Moreover, livestock farming is considered a major occupational risk factor for the transmission of Leptospira infection to humans. A survey was performed to determine the overall and within-herd seroprevalence and mapping of different Leptospira serovars in dairy cattle from farms located in some municipalities of the Colombian department of Boyacá. Nine hundred and fifty-nine animals, from 20 unvaccinated and one vaccinated herd, were included in the study. Anti-Leptospira serum antibodies were detected by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Only one herd was seronegative. Overall seroprevalence to at least one serovar of Leptospira was 24.1% for unvaccinated animals and 62.3% for animals from the vaccinated herd. A very high within-herd seroprevalence (>60%) was present in 20% of the unvaccinated herds. The presence in the vaccinated herd of 20/398 animals showing high titers, between 1000 and 4000, to at least one serovar of Leptospira suggest that some animals could have been infected. Moreover, due to the presence of seronegative animals, a failure of vaccination immunity or the presence of unvaccinated animals in the vaccinated herd cannot be excluded. In all farms, domestic animals other than cattle were present. Considering the farming practices occurring on dairy farms in the study area, higher hygienic standards and stricter biosecurity measures are suggested. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Allelic Heterozygosity in BoLA-DRB3 and Proviral Loads in Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Cattle
Animals 2021, 11(3), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030647 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Enzootic bovine leukosis is a lethal neoplastic disease caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), belongs to family Retroviridae. The BLV proviral load (PVL) represents the quantity of BLV genome that has integrated into the host’s genome in BLV-infected cells. Bovine leukocyte antigen ( [...] Read more.
Enzootic bovine leukosis is a lethal neoplastic disease caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), belongs to family Retroviridae. The BLV proviral load (PVL) represents the quantity of BLV genome that has integrated into the host’s genome in BLV-infected cells. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class II allelic polymorphisms are associated with PVLs in BLV-infected cattle. We sought to identify relationships between BoLA-DRB3 allelic heterozygosity and BLV PVLs among different cattle breeds. Blood samples from 598 BLV-infected cattle were quantified to determine their PVLs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results were confirmed by a BLV-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction identified 22 BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling was used to test for associations between BLV PVLs and BoLA-DRB3 alleles. BoLA-DRB3.2*3, *7, *8, *11, *22, *24, and *28 alleles were significantly associated with low PVLs. BoLA-DRB3.2*10 was significantly associated with high PVLs. Some heterozygous allele combinations were associated with low PVLs (*3/*28, *7/*8, *8/*11, *10/*11, and *11/*16); others were associated with high PVLs (*1/*41, *10/*16, *10/*41, *16/*27, and *22/*27). Interestingly, the BoLA-DRB3.2*11 heterozygous allele was always strongly and independently associated with low PVLs. This is the first reported evidence of an association between heterozygous allelic combinations and BLV PVLs. Full article
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2020

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Article
Production Significance of Bovine Respiratory Disease Lesions in Slaughtered Beef Cattle
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101770 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is still a serious concern in feedlots, where it exerts a negative effect on farm productivity. There is a shortage of studies focused on the evaluation of BRD-associated lesions at the slaughterhouse in clinically healthy animals. The objective of [...] Read more.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is still a serious concern in feedlots, where it exerts a negative effect on farm productivity. There is a shortage of studies focused on the evaluation of BRD-associated lesions at the slaughterhouse in clinically healthy animals. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence and type of subclinical pneumonic lesions in slaughtered beef cattle, according to the age range and management system, and its impact on carcass weight. A total of 1101 beef cattle intended for human consumption were examined at slaughter. Information on age, sex, management system and carcass weight was recorded. The presence and type of pneumonia were evaluated according to gross and microscopic findings and etiological agents by PCR. Lung pneumonic lesions appeared in 17.9% of animals and were predominant among veal calves. According to the type, chronic catarrhal pneumonia prevailed in the majority of animals, and mixed and extensively reared cattle were more likely to suffer acute fibrinous pneumonia. The presence of pneumonic lesions was associated with a significant decrease in carcass weight that had more of an impact in veal male calves coming from intensive systems. Bacterial infections were the predominant infectious agent and the only cause of acute fibrinous pneumonia, while viruses were infrequent and only found in lesions with chronic catarrhal pneumonia. This study shows the importance of BRD in beef feedlots upon production values and points out the feasibility of slaughterhouse assessment of pneumonia as a method for the evaluation of BRD significance. Full article
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Article
Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Control and Prevention in South-East Australia
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091630 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
In Australia, the responsibility and associated costs for the control and prevention of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) rest solely with producers. Veterinarians provide producers with farm-specific options for BVDV management and support BVDV control and elimination in their region. We surveyed veterinarians [...] Read more.
In Australia, the responsibility and associated costs for the control and prevention of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) rest solely with producers. Veterinarians provide producers with farm-specific options for BVDV management and support BVDV control and elimination in their region. We surveyed veterinarians to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) associated with BVDV control in south-east Australia. We found that veterinarians’ recommendations do not always align with producers’ control measures. Veterinarians were uncertain about BVDV prevalence and the proportion of producers using BVDV control measures in their regions. Veterinarians generally promoted biosecurity and vaccination, and were concerned about the welfare and additional disease risks associated with persistently infected (PI) cattle. Veterinarians highlighted concerns about disease risks associated with a previously undocumented practice in which producers collect blood from PI cattle to administer to BVDV naïve cattle; termed “vampire vaccination” in this study. A greater understanding of the burden, impact and economics of BVDV is needed to align veterinarians’ and producers’ KAP to improve BVDV management on farms, and more appreciation of veterinarians’ and producers’ values is needed before BVDV control could be implemented at a regional or country level. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae on the Development of Whey Protein Levels and Oxidative Stress Markers in Cows with Diagnosed Mastitis
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091591 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases of high-yielding dairy cows, and over 90% of cases are caused by Streptococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, or Staphylococcus spp. Certain groups of proteins are very significant in terms of the cow’s antioxidant, bacteriostatic, and germicidal [...] Read more.
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases of high-yielding dairy cows, and over 90% of cases are caused by Streptococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, or Staphylococcus spp. Certain groups of proteins are very significant in terms of the cow’s antioxidant, bacteriostatic, and germicidal properties: lysozyme (Lz), lactoferrin (Lf), and β-lactoglobulin (BLG). This study aimed to determine the influence of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterobacteriaceae on the secretion of bioactive whey proteins and oxidative stress markers. From the herd, 60 multiparous cows with diagnosed mastitis were selected. Samples were taken individually from each quarter and pooled, which gave 60 samples. Enterobacteriaceae did not affect the BLG synthesis, whereas lysozyme and lactoferrin responded to a high concentration of these bacterial strains. In the case of Staphylococcus spp. infection, the BLG level increased. These strains did not affect the levels of di-malonic aldehyde (MDA), lactoferrin, and lysozyme. In contrast, they were significantly influenced by Streptococcus spp. In summary, the levels of whey proteins and oxidative stress markers changed depending on the bacterial strain inducing inflammation. Lysozyme and lactoferrin may be markers of udder inflammation caused by Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp., whereas β-lactoglobulin may prove useful in diagnosing Staphylococcus spp. induced mastitis. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Endolysin LyJH307 with Antimicrobial Activity against Streptococcus bovis
Animals 2020, 10(6), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060963 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) is one of the critical initiators of acute acidosis in ruminants. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize the endolysin LyJH307, which can lyse ruminal S. bovis. We tested the bactericidal activity of recombinant LyJH307 against [...] Read more.
Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) is one of the critical initiators of acute acidosis in ruminants. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize the endolysin LyJH307, which can lyse ruminal S. bovis. We tested the bactericidal activity of recombinant LyJH307 against S. bovis JB1 under a range of pH, temperature, NaCl, and metal ion concentrations. In silico analyses showed that LyJH307 has a modular design with a distinct, enzymatically active domain of the NLPC/P60 superfamily at the N-terminal and a cell wall binding domain of the Zoocin A target recognition domain (Zoocin A_TRD) superfamily at the C-terminal. The lytic activity of LyJH307 against S. bovis JB1 was the highest at pH 5.5, and relatively higher under acidic, than under alkaline conditions. LyJH307 activity was also the highest at 39 °C, but was maintained between 25°C and 55°C. LyJH307 bactericidal action was retained under 0-500 mM NaCl. While the activity of LyJH307 significantly decreased on treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), it was only restored with supplementation of 10 mM Ca2+. Analyses of antimicrobial spectra showed that LyJH307 lysed Lancefield groups D (S. bovis group and Enterococcus faecalis) and H (S. sanguinis) bacteria. Thus, LyJH307 might help to prevent acute ruminal acidosis. Full article
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