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High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis and Trypanosoma evansi

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Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria
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Animal Science Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Centre for Ruminant Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven van Winden
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082235
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Cattle Diseases)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the proinflammatory (interleukin 12, GM-CSF, interferon-γ) to anti-inflammatory (interleukins 10, 4) cytokine ratios, oxidant level (malondialdehyde) and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activities in sera from symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with blood parasites relative to clinically healthy cattle. Elevations in serum GM-CSF level was recorded in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with blood parasites. Cattle naturally infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis but without clinical signs had anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses characterized by low proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios which favor parasite persistence and resistance in the host. Serum activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and malondialdehyde concentration were elevated in all the symptomatic and asymptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups. Therefore, a high GM-CSF:IL10 response alongside marked antioxidative enzyme responses were predominant findings in cattle with clinical signs of natural blood parasite infections.
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (70/130); Theileria orientalis (65/130); Theileria sinensis (32/130); Anaplasma marginale (49/130); Anaplasma platys (7/130); and Trypanosoma evansi (4/130). The GM-CSF/IL-10 ratio showed significantly higher values in all the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups except for symptomatic A. platys infected cattle groups. Anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses were notable findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis characterized by low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 (p < 0.05). Therefore, high serum GM-CSF:IL:10 in the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle, low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios in asymptomatic cattle, high MDA level, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be useful predictive tools for outcome of natural blood parasite infections in cattle. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; serum; ELISA; asymptomatic and symptomatic cattle; blood parasites; oxidant/antioxidant cytokines; serum; ELISA; asymptomatic and symptomatic cattle; blood parasites; oxidant/antioxidant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Agina, O.A.; Cheah, K.T.; Sayuti, N.S.A.; Shaari, M.R.; Isa, N.M.M.; Ajat, M.; Zamri-Saad, M.; Mazlan, M.; Hamzah, H. High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis and Trypanosoma evansi. Animals 2021, 11, 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082235

AMA Style

Agina OA, Cheah KT, Sayuti NSA, Shaari MR, Isa NMM, Ajat M, Zamri-Saad M, Mazlan M, Hamzah H. High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis and Trypanosoma evansi. Animals. 2021; 11(8):2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agina, Onyinyechukwu A., Kim T. Cheah, Nurul S.A. Sayuti, Mohd R. Shaari, Nur M.M. Isa, Mokrish Ajat, Mohd Zamri-Saad, Mazlina Mazlan, and Hazilawati Hamzah. 2021. "High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis and Trypanosoma evansi" Animals 11, no. 8: 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082235

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