Special Issue "Effects of Pollutants on Fish"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Francesco Fazio
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: Aquatic Physiology; transport stress livestock; biomarkers stress.
Dr. Stefano Cecchini
Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Department of Science, Potenza, Italy
Interests: small ruminants; Flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus); Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
Dr. Gioele Capillo
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
University of Messina, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: Biodiversity; Environmental Conservation; Fish Respiration; Fish immunology; Marine Zoology; Zoomorphology; Aquaculture
Dr. Gaetano Cammilleri
Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, 90129 Palermo, Italy
Interests: seafood analysis; heavy metals; parasitology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems of our planet and it causes serious harm to many aquatic organisms. A great part of pollutants exhibit biomagnification and bioaccumulation capabilities with a broad spectrum of impacts and can stress aquatic organisms. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality. The analyses of bioaccumulation of contaminants in the biotic components of ecosystems and of modifications of blood parameters represent an important and useful tool for understanding persistence, movement, and allocation of pollutants. This Special Issue also welcomes epidemiological studies on the presence and accumulation of pollutants in wild and farmed fish in order to give a comprehensible comparison on the presence of toxicants, such as heavy metals, POPs, veterinary drugs, etc., in fish reared in different conditions. Epidemiological studies focused on the analysis of the accumulation levels of pollutants in the tissues of benthonic, demersal, and pelagic fish are also welcome.

Potential topics include:

  1. Hematological response to environmental pollution in fish
  2. Chemical pollution in aquatic environment and oxidative stress in teleost
  3. Pollution and immune response in fish
  4. Aquatic animal (fish) models for bioaccumulation
  5. The toxicological effects of pollutants on physiological functions in fish
  6. Effects of chemical stressors at the biochemical and cellular levels
  7. Epidemiological studies on the presence of pollutants in fish
  8. Morpho-physiological adaptations of fish to water pollutants

Assoc. Prof. Francesco Fazio
Dr. Stefano Cecchini
Dr. Gioele Capillo
Dr. Gaetano Cammilleri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Aquatic environment
  • fish
  • hematological and hemato-chemical parameters
  • immunity
  • oxidative stress
  • pollutions
  • xenobiotics.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Selected Marine Fish Species of Gadani Shipbreaking Area and Pakistan
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101738 - 24 Sep 2020
Abstract
Gadani shipbreaking area, located on the coastline of Pakistan, is an important fish production area. In this study, levels of four metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn) in 148 muscle and gill samples of seven fish species (Small-scale terapon, Torpedo scade, Sicklefish, Saddle [...] Read more.
Gadani shipbreaking area, located on the coastline of Pakistan, is an important fish production area. In this study, levels of four metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn) in 148 muscle and gill samples of seven fish species (Small-scale terapon, Torpedo scade, Sicklefish, Saddle grunt, Gold silk seabream, Indian mackerel, Spotted sickle fish) and seawater samples, taken from 9 sampling sites in the shipbreaking area, were determined. In addition, multiple approaches were used to assess human health risks from fish consumption. Trace metal concentration in seawater ranged from 0.05 to 1.96 mg/L in shipbreaking vicinity and 0.03 to 0.97 mg/L in the reference site (Miani Hor). However, metal accumulations in fish species ranged from 1.33 to 5.26 μg/g. Among trace metals, the level of Pb in all fish species was highest, followed by Ni, Mn, and Cd. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for both gills and muscles displayed the order: Mn > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Based on target hazard quotient (THQ), the investigated fish species were safe regarding Pb and Mn (THQ < 1), while they may cause potential risk regarding Cd and Ni (THQ > 1). After comparison with maximum permissible limits, heavy metal concentration in the edible muscle tissues of all the analyzed fish species from the Gadani coast were found safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Xenosteroid Pollutants Biomarker Changes in Cultured Nile Tilapia Using Wastewater Effluents as Their Primary Water Source
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091475 - 22 Aug 2020
Abstract
This study was undertaken to screen levels of xenosteroids (estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals/E-EDCs) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish farms subjected to water fill from the drain at three sites S1 (highly polluted), S2 (moderately polluted), and a putative reference site [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to screen levels of xenosteroids (estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals/E-EDCs) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish farms subjected to water fill from the drain at three sites S1 (highly polluted), S2 (moderately polluted), and a putative reference site (RS). Biometric, hormonal, gene expression, and histopathological analysis were investigated. Testosterone, progesterone, and zeranol residues were detected at (0.12–3.44 µg/L) in water samples of different sites. Bisphenol-A (BPA) exhibited a very high concentration (6.5 µg/mL) in water samples from S1. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol residues were detected in fish tissues from all sites at (0.16–3.8 µg/Kg) and (1.05–5.01 µg/Kg), respectively. BPA residues were detected at a very high concentration in the liver and muscle of fish collected from S1 at higher levels of 25.9 and 48.07 µg/Kg, respectively. The detected E-EDCs, at different sites, particularly BPA, reduced the somatic and testicular growth among sites and oversampling time points. Meanwhile, hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly increased in S1 compared to S2. All analyzed genes estrogen receptor-type I (er-I, er-ɑ) and II (er-II, er-ß1), polypeptide 1a (cyp19a1), SRY-box containing gene 9 (sox9), and vitellogenin (vtg) and gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)), testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) were significantly expressed at S1 compared to other sites. Histopathology was more evident in S1 than other sites. These findings warrant immediate strategies development to control aquatic pollution and maintain fish welfare and aquaculture sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Related Gene Expression Following Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Exposure to Dimethyl Phthalate
Animals 2020, 10(4), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040717 - 20 Apr 2020
Abstract
Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is a widespread environmental contaminant that poses potential toxicity risks for animals and humans. However, the toxicological effects of DMP on fish have not been adequately examined. In this study, the acute toxicity, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, and relative [...] Read more.
Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is a widespread environmental contaminant that poses potential toxicity risks for animals and humans. However, the toxicological effects of DMP on fish have not been adequately examined. In this study, the acute toxicity, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, and relative gene expression patterns were investigated in the liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to DMP. We found that the lethal concentration (LC50) of DMP for zebrafish after 96 h of exposure was 45.8 mg/L. The zebrafish that were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of DMP (0.5, 4.6, and 22.9 mg/L, respectively) for 96 h had an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and a lower antioxidant capacity compared with the control solvent group. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher than 0 h after initial exposure for 24 h at low concentrations, and then decreased at high concentrations after exposure for 96 h. The catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly reduced after 96 h of exposure to high concentrations of DMP, with the up- or down-regulation of the related transcriptional expression. These findings indicated that DMP could cause physiological effects in zebrafish by disturbing the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results might contribute to the identification of biomarkers to monitor phthalate pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Herbicide Diuron as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) through Histopathalogical Analysis in Gonads of Javanese Medaka (Oryzias javanicus, Bleeker 1854)
Animals 2020, 10(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030525 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The expeditious augmentation of the agriculture industry is leaving a significant negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, the awareness of the impacts of herbicide Diuron toxicities on the non-targeted aquatic organism, especially fish is still lacking. Javanese medaka, a new model fish species [...] Read more.
The expeditious augmentation of the agriculture industry is leaving a significant negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, the awareness of the impacts of herbicide Diuron toxicities on the non-targeted aquatic organism, especially fish is still lacking. Javanese medaka, a new model fish species were exposed under sublethal levels and the long-term effects on gonads were investigated via histological studies. A total of 210 sexually mature fish were exposed to Diuron at seven different concentrations; control, solvent control, 1, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/L for 21 days. In this study, Diuron caused histopathological alterations in gonads (ovary and testis) of Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) by decreasing in gonadal staging and maturity of germ cells in oogenesis and spermatogenesis of female and male Javanese medaka. The results obtained in this study had proven our hypothesis that long-term exposure of herbicide Diuron can cause alterations in the gonadal histology of the adults of Javanese medaka. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Spirulina platensis Reduced Oxidative Damage Induced by Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Animals 2020, 10(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030473 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
Due to the numerous pharmacological impacts of Spirulina platensis (SP), the effects of SP on the oxidative status of Nile tilapia farmed under chlorpyrifos (CPF) ambient toxicity were considered in this study. Fish (60 ± 6.1 g) was randomly stocked in five groups [...] Read more.
Due to the numerous pharmacological impacts of Spirulina platensis (SP), the effects of SP on the oxidative status of Nile tilapia farmed under chlorpyrifos (CPF) ambient toxicity were considered in this study. Fish (60 ± 6.1 g) was randomly stocked in five groups where the SP free diet was fed to the control group while the second one was fed 1% SP without CPF exposure. Additionally, CPF (15 μg/L) was added in water and fish were fed with SP at 0, 0.5, and 1% (third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively). Samples of blood and gills, kidneys, and liver tissues were assayed for biochemical measurements. Fish exposed to CPF exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) increments of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA), while significantly decreased total protein, albumin, and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed in tilapia exposed to CPF (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, SP feeding resulted in decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine as well as increased total protein, albumin, SOD, and CAT activities. Based on the obtained results, it can be suggested that SP is efficient in protecting Nile tilapia from CPF toxicity by increasing the antioxidative response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Dietary Organic and Inorganic Mercury Threshold Levels on Induced Mercury Toxicity in a Marine Fish Model
Animals 2020, 10(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030405 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mercury as one of the most toxic elements can be present in organic or inorganic form in marine fishes, which may cause a potential threat to public health. In this study, we investigated to determine the dietary organic (O-Hg) and inorganic (I-Hg) mercury [...] Read more.
Mercury as one of the most toxic elements can be present in organic or inorganic form in marine fishes, which may cause a potential threat to public health. In this study, we investigated to determine the dietary organic (O-Hg) and inorganic (I-Hg) mercury threshold levels on induced mercury toxicity in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus as a marine fish model. Twenty-eight fish averaging 3.1 ± 0.05 g (mean ± SD) were arbitrarily assigned to each of 27 tanks. Each tank was arbitrarily restricted to triplicates of nine experimental diets for eight weeks. The experimental diets were manufactured to contain 0 (Control), 10 (I-Hg10, O-Hg10), 20 (I-Hg20, O-Hg20), 40 (I-Hg40, O-Hg40) and 160 (I-Hg160, O-Hg160) mg/kg diet in organic form as methylmercury (MeHg) or in inorganic form as mercuric chloride (HgCl2). At the termination of the experimental trial, weight gains (WGs) of fish fed the control and 10 (I-Hg10, O-Hg10) diets were remarkably higher than those of fish fed the 20 (I-Hg20, O-Hg20), 40 (I-Hg40, O-Hg40) and 160 (I-Hg160, O-Hg160) (p < 0.05). Specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed control and 10 (I-Hg10, O-Hg10) diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed 40 (I-Hg40, O-Hg40) and 160 (I-Hg160, O-Hg160) diets. In comparison to the dietary inorganic mercury, dietary MeHg bioaccumulation rates were significantly higher in the tissue levels according to the dietary inclusion levels. MeHg accumulated mostly in kidney, followed by liver and gill tissues. HgCl2 accumulated in tissues, in decreasing order, liver > kidney > gills. A broken-line regression model for percentage of WG indicated that the threshold toxicity level for an Hg-incorporated diet of juvenile olive flounder could be 13.5 mg Hg/kg in the form of HgCl2 and 8.7 mg Hg/kg in the form of MeHg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Total Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on the Survival of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis)
Animals 2020, 10(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010166 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
To assess the effect of TDG on the survival of different sizes of pelagic fish, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) were subjected to TDG supersaturated water at levels of 125, 130, 135, and 140%. The results showed that apparent abnormal behaviours and [...] Read more.
To assess the effect of TDG on the survival of different sizes of pelagic fish, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) were subjected to TDG supersaturated water at levels of 125, 130, 135, and 140%. The results showed that apparent abnormal behaviours and symptoms of gas bubble disease (GBD) were observed in bighead carp. The survival probability of large and small juvenile bighead carp declined with increasing TDG levels. The median survival time (ST50) values of large juvenile bighead carp were 74.97 and 31.90 h at 130% and 140% TDG, respectively. While the ST50 of small fish were 22.40 and 6.72 h at the same TDG levels. In comparison to the large juvenile bighead carp, the small juvenile bighead carp showed weaker tolerance to TDG supersaturated water. Furthermore, acute lethality experiments after chronic exposure to TDG were initiated to further investigate the effect of TDG on bighead carp. The juveniles were first subjected to 115% TDG supersaturated water for 96 h. After chronic exposure, live fish were immediately transferred to TDG supersaturated water at levels of 125, 130, 135, and 140%. The results demonstrated that no fish died under chronic exposure and few fish exhibited slight GBD symptoms. The ST50 values for bighead carp subjected to acute exposure after chronic exposure were 61.23 and 23.50 h at 130 and 140%, respectively. Compared with the bighead carp subjected to acute exposure, bighead carp subjected to multiple exposures were more vulnerable to TDG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessCommunication
Mercury Detection in Benthic and Pelagic Fish Collected from Western Sicily (Southern Italy)
Animals 2019, 9(9), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090594 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In highly polluted water, fish can accumulate mercury up to a concentration of 10 mgKg−1. This has occurred on the eastern coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy), probably due to the intense industrial activity of this area. However, little is known about [...] Read more.
In highly polluted water, fish can accumulate mercury up to a concentration of 10 mgKg−1. This has occurred on the eastern coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy), probably due to the intense industrial activity of this area. However, little is known about Hg accumulation in fish of the western Sicilian coasts. In this work, we examined the Hg accumulation of 108 fish samples belonging to 14 species collected from western Sicilian coasts using a direct mercury analyzer. The samples showed a mean mercury concentration of 0.165 ± 0.22 mg kg−1 with a maximum in Lepidopus caudatus (1.72 mgKg−1), exceeding the limits provided by EC Reg. 1881/2006. The lowest Hg levels were found in Sparus aurata samples (0.001 mgKg−1). A significant difference was found between the fish species examined (p < 0.05). The comparison between benthic and pelagic species did not show statistical differences (p < 0.05). Fish food constitutes the main route of Hg uptake for humans. Only four of the 130 samples examined reached a mercury concentration over the European limits. The comparative analysis of Hg pollution for benthic and pelagic species did not confirm a different trend in metal contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing River Temperature Shifts Impact the Yangtze Ecosystem: Evidence from the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon
Animals 2019, 9(8), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080583 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Yangtze River has the third greatest water flow and is one of the most human-influenced rivers in the world. Since 1950, this river system has experienced drastic human interventions, leading to various environmental changes, including water temperature. In this study, based on [...] Read more.
The Yangtze River has the third greatest water flow and is one of the most human-influenced rivers in the world. Since 1950, this river system has experienced drastic human interventions, leading to various environmental changes, including water temperature. In this study, based on observations during the past sixty years, we found that the seasonal temperature regime has been altered, both temporally (1–5 °C variation) and spatially (>626 km distance). Temperature shifts not only delay the timing of fish spawning directly, but also lead to degeneration in gonad development. Temperature regime alterations have delayed the suitable spawning temperature window by approximately 29 days over a decade (2003–2016). It confirmed that a period of lower temperature, higher cumulative temperature, and relatively higher temperature differences promoted the maturation of potential spawners based on the correlation analysis (p < 0.05). Also, thermal alterations were highly correlated with reservoir capacity upstream (R2 = 0.866). On-going cascade dam construction and global warming will lead to further temperature shifts. Currently, rigorous protection measures on the breeding population of the Chinese sturgeon and its critical habitats is urgently needed to prevent the crisis of the species extinction. Increasing river thermal shifts not only threaten the Chinese sturgeon but also affect the entire Yangtze aquatic ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
The Change of Metallothionein and Oxidative Response in Gills of the Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Copper
Animals 2019, 9(6), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060353 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present study, we investigated the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) on the levels of metallothionein (MT) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in gills of cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. The Cu concentrations [...] Read more.
In the present study, we investigated the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) on the levels of metallothionein (MT) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in gills of cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. The Cu concentrations in gills were measured using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The sandwich-ELISA was used to measure MT, SOD, CAT, and MDA. The Cu concentrations in gills of fish that were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 mg Cu/L were significantly increased at day 1 (D1), then gradually decreased starting from D2, and reaches the similar value with the controls at D5. A similar tendency has been observed in the MT levels in the gills. All of the Cu-exposed fish showed the highest level of MT on D1, and then decreased at D3 and a plateau at D4 and D5. The levels of SOD and CAT in gills in all Cu-exposed fish showed a similar pattern: increased significantly at D1, then gradually decreased starting from D2, and increased again at D4 and D5. The levels of MDA in gills of all Cu-exposed fish showed no significant difference. The indifference levels of MDA in gills of all Cu-exposed fish suggested the antioxidant defense systems (SOD and CAT) combined with the induction of MT were able to completely scavenge the increased ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Updated Review of Toxicity Effect of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Aquatic Organisms
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091663 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
Rare earth elements (REEs) or “technology metals” were coined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a group of seventeen elements found in the Earth’s crust. These chemical elements are vital and irreplaceable to the world of technology owing to their unique physical, chemical, [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements (REEs) or “technology metals” were coined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a group of seventeen elements found in the Earth’s crust. These chemical elements are vital and irreplaceable to the world of technology owing to their unique physical, chemical, and light-emitting properties, all of which are beneficial in modern healthcare, telecommunication, and defense. Rare earth elements are relatively abundant in Earth’s crust, with critical qualities to the device performance. The reuse and recycling of rare earth elements through different technologies can minimize impacts on the environment; however, there is insufficient data about their biological, bioaccumulation, and health effects. The increasing usage of rare earth elements has raised concern about environmental toxicity, which may further cause harmful effects on human health. The study aims to review the toxicity analysis of these rare earth elements concerning aquatic biota, considering it to be the sensitive indicator of the environment. Based on the limited reports of REE effects, the review highlights the need for more detailed studies on the hormetic effects of REEs. Aquatic biota is a cheap, robust, and efficient platform to study REEs’ toxicity, mobility of REEs, and biomagnification in water bodies. REEs’ diverse effects on aquatic life forms have been observed due to the lack of safety limits and extensive use in the various sectors. In accordance with the available data, we have put in efforts to compile all the relevant research results in this paper related to the topic “toxicity effect of REEs on aquatic life”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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