Spirulina platensis Reduced Oxidative Damage Induced by Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Department of and Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Toukh, Elqaliobiya 13736, Egypt
Chrono-Environment Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, F-25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 8 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the popular crop pests that is widely used in the agriculture sector. In the aquaculture sector, several strategies were applied to mitigate the negative impacts of CPF on aquatic animals through the application of feed additives. Spirulina platensis (SP) is well reported as a functional feed additive to enhance the physiological, immunological, and anti-oxidative status in farmed fish. In the current study, fish were randomly stocked in five groups where the first and second groups reared in clean water without CPF toxicity and were fed the basal diet without SP or with SP at 1%, respectively. Meanwhile, the third, fourth, and fifth groups were exposed to CPF (15 μg/L) in rearing water and fed SP at 0, 0.5, and 1%, respectively. Under CPF exposure, SP displayed preventive and restorative impacts against toxicity in Nile tilapia. Fish fed SP-supplemented diet showed decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, and creatinine as well as increased total protein, albumin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. The outcomes suggested that SP is efficient in protecting Nile tilapia from CPF toxicity by increasing the antioxidative response.