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Open AccessArticle

Spirulina platensis Reduced Oxidative Damage Induced by Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

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Department of and Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
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Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Toukh, Elqaliobiya 13736, Egypt
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Chrono-Environment Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, F-25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030473
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 8 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the popular crop pests that is widely used in the agriculture sector. In the aquaculture sector, several strategies were applied to mitigate the negative impacts of CPF on aquatic animals through the application of feed additives. Spirulina platensis (SP) is well reported as a functional feed additive to enhance the physiological, immunological, and anti-oxidative status in farmed fish. In the current study, fish were randomly stocked in five groups where the first and second groups reared in clean water without CPF toxicity and were fed the basal diet without SP or with SP at 1%, respectively. Meanwhile, the third, fourth, and fifth groups were exposed to CPF (15 μg/L) in rearing water and fed SP at 0, 0.5, and 1%, respectively. Under CPF exposure, SP displayed preventive and restorative impacts against toxicity in Nile tilapia. Fish fed SP-supplemented diet showed decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, and creatinine as well as increased total protein, albumin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. The outcomes suggested that SP is efficient in protecting Nile tilapia from CPF toxicity by increasing the antioxidative response.
Due to the numerous pharmacological impacts of Spirulina platensis (SP), the effects of SP on the oxidative status of Nile tilapia farmed under chlorpyrifos (CPF) ambient toxicity were considered in this study. Fish (60 ± 6.1 g) was randomly stocked in five groups where the SP free diet was fed to the control group while the second one was fed 1% SP without CPF exposure. Additionally, CPF (15 μg/L) was added in water and fish were fed with SP at 0, 0.5, and 1% (third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively). Samples of blood and gills, kidneys, and liver tissues were assayed for biochemical measurements. Fish exposed to CPF exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) increments of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA), while significantly decreased total protein, albumin, and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed in tilapia exposed to CPF (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, SP feeding resulted in decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine as well as increased total protein, albumin, SOD, and CAT activities. Based on the obtained results, it can be suggested that SP is efficient in protecting Nile tilapia from CPF toxicity by increasing the antioxidative response. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorpyrifos; Spirulina platensis; Nile tilapia; oxidative stress; blood biochemistry chlorpyrifos; Spirulina platensis; Nile tilapia; oxidative stress; blood biochemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Dawood, M.A.; Elbadawy, M.; Aleya, L.; Alkahtani, S. Spirulina platensis Reduced Oxidative Damage Induced by Chlorpyrifos Toxicity in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Animals 2020, 10, 473.

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