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Open AccessArticle

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Selected Marine Fish Species of Gadani Shipbreaking Area and Pakistan

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Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
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Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101738
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
Protection of the coastal ecosystem from hazardous heavy metals is vital as it provides valuable habitat for numerous fish species and is a key resource for the coastal communities. Gadani shipbreaking is the third largest shipbreaking in the world, located on the coastline of Balochistan, Pakistan. The impact of this dismantling on the quality of the local fish species is still unknown. This is the first study to determine heavy metals’ content in fish and seawater of Gadani shipbreaking area. Metal accumulations in fish species both in gills and muscles ranged from 1.33 to 5.26 μg/g. Among trace metals, the level of Pb in all fish species was highest, followed by Ni, Mn, and Cd. However, all the analyzed fish species from the Gadani coast were found safe for human consumption, but there is a need for continuous monitoring of the coastal environment.
Gadani shipbreaking area, located on the coastline of Pakistan, is an important fish production area. In this study, levels of four metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn) in 148 muscle and gill samples of seven fish species (Small-scale terapon, Torpedo scade, Sicklefish, Saddle grunt, Gold silk seabream, Indian mackerel, Spotted sickle fish) and seawater samples, taken from 9 sampling sites in the shipbreaking area, were determined. In addition, multiple approaches were used to assess human health risks from fish consumption. Trace metal concentration in seawater ranged from 0.05 to 1.96 mg/L in shipbreaking vicinity and 0.03 to 0.97 mg/L in the reference site (Miani Hor). However, metal accumulations in fish species ranged from 1.33 to 5.26 μg/g. Among trace metals, the level of Pb in all fish species was highest, followed by Ni, Mn, and Cd. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for both gills and muscles displayed the order: Mn > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Based on target hazard quotient (THQ), the investigated fish species were safe regarding Pb and Mn (THQ < 1), while they may cause potential risk regarding Cd and Ni (THQ > 1). After comparison with maximum permissible limits, heavy metal concentration in the edible muscle tissues of all the analyzed fish species from the Gadani coast were found safe for human consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; fish; seawater; risk assessment; Gadani shipbreaking heavy metals; fish; seawater; risk assessment; Gadani shipbreaking
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Kakar, A.; Hayat, M.T.; Abbasi, A.M.; Pervez, A.; Mahmood, Q.; Farooq, U.; Akbar, T.A.; Ali, S.; Rizwan, M.; El-Serehy, H.A.; Abdel-Daim, M.M. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Selected Marine Fish Species of Gadani Shipbreaking Area and Pakistan. Animals 2020, 10, 1738.

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