Cultivation Physiology, Molecular Biology and Molecular Breeding of Solanaceae

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 17583

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College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang No. 1, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: efficient cultivation and molecular breeding of tomato
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Dear Colleagues,

The Solanaceae family includes crops such as tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato, wolfberry, alkekengi, etc. Several crops in the Solanaceae family are very important foods or horticultural crops, widely consumed worldwide, as they are important sources of dietary compounds and several nutrients, including lycopene, capsaicinoids, anthocyanidin, vitamins A and C, minerals and essential oils. Solanaceae crops, especially tomatoes and potatoes, are in a leading position in horticultural research. Great progress has been achieved in genomics, gene editing technology and haploidy breeding (potato). However, there are still a lot of unknown aspects that require investigating. Therefore, we aim to clarify the cultivation physiology, molecular biology and molecular breeding of Solanaceae crops. Cultivation physiology includes photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS), enzyme activity, etc., of Solanaceae plants under open-field or protected cultivation conditions. Molecular biology includes the regulation of key genes, noncoding RNAs (miRNAs, circRNAs and lncRNAs), DNA methylation, protein phosphorylation, etc., for growth and development, yield, quality, or biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular breeding includes molecular marker-assisted breeding and genetic modification breeding. All of the abovementioned topics are within the scope of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Fangling Jiang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • solanaceae
  • cultivation physiology
  • molecular biology
  • molecular breeding

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4102 KiB  
Article
The TIR1/AFB Family in Solanum melongena: Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling under Stresses and Picloram Treatment
by Wenchao Du, Umer Karamat, Liuqing Cao, Yunpeng Li, Haili Li, Haoxin Li, Lai Wei, Dongchen Yang, Meng Xia, Qiang Li and Xueping Chen
Agronomy 2024, 14(7), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14071413 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
TIR1/AFB proteins are a class of auxin receptors with key roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress responses; several have been identified as targets of the auxin-mimicking herbicide picloram. In this study, we identified five putative TIR1/AFB gene family members in [...] Read more.
TIR1/AFB proteins are a class of auxin receptors with key roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress responses; several have been identified as targets of the auxin-mimicking herbicide picloram. In this study, we identified five putative TIR1/AFB gene family members in the important vegetable crop Solanum melongena (eggplant) and characterized them using bioinformatics tools and gene expression analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of the TIR1/AFBs classified them into three subgroups based on their Arabidopsis and Solanum lycopersicum homologs. AFB6 homologs were present only in S. melongena and S. lycopersicum, whereas AFB2/3 homologs were found only in Arabidopsis. One pair of S. melongena TIR1 homologs were located in syntenic regions in the genome and appeared to have arisen by segmental duplication. Promoter analysis revealed 898 cis-elements in the TIR1/AFB promoters, 125 of which were related to hormones, stress, light, or growth responses, but only SmAFB5 had a cis-acting regulatory element involved in auxin responsiveness (AuxRR-core). RNA sequencing and expression profiling showed that the TIR1/AFB genes were differentially expressed at different growth stages and in response to light, temperature, and drought. Only SmTIR1A expression was significantly induced by picloram treatment and different growth stages. TIR1/AFB expression is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) in other plant species, and we identified 6 or 29 miRNAs that potentially targeted the five TIR1/AFB genes on the basis of comparisons with S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum miRNAs, respectively. Three-dimensional protein structure predictions revealed that all the TIR1/AFB proteins were very similar in structure, differing only in the numbers of alpha helices and in one angle linking an α helix and a β sheet. For measuring the function of TIR1/AFB genes in response to drought, SmAFB5 was selected, and knockdown by virus-induced gene silence (VIGS) 35S::SmAFB5 lines showed resistance to drought compared to controls. These analyses provide insight into the potential functions of TIR1/AFBs during growth and in response to stress; they highlight differences among the SmTIR1/AFBs that may be useful for eggplant breeding. Full article
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17 pages, 2753 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Different Lights on Energy Acquisitions, Microtuber Formation, and Growth of In Vitro-Grown Solanum tuberosum L.
by Jiahuan Long, Fan Yu, Yinyue Wu, Zhigang Xu and Xiaoying Liu
Agronomy 2024, 14(6), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14061232 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Limited research has been conducted on the regulation of light quality on heterotrophy in in vitro-grown potato plantlets. Here, we investigated the effect of light quality on photosynthetic and heterotrophic abilities as well as microtuber formation and growth of potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum [...] Read more.
Limited research has been conducted on the regulation of light quality on heterotrophy in in vitro-grown potato plantlets. Here, we investigated the effect of light quality on photosynthetic and heterotrophic abilities as well as microtuber formation and growth of potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Shepody). Potato plantlets pre-cultivated under white light for 30 days were then transferred to grow under blue (B), green (G), red (R), yellow (Y), and white (W) lights, and parameters including dry weight, photosynthetic pigment, medium solute consumption, δ13C value, root activity, and sucrose transport (SUT) gene expression of these plantlets were measured. The results showed that B, G, and W were conducive to the rapid induction of microtubers, while R, and especially Y, delayed microtuber formation. Higher photosynthetic ability was observed in the W treatment, whereas the opposite effect was seen in the monochromatic light treatments. Microtuber growth was primarily dependent on heterotrophy, and B was conducive to microtuber growth. The delay in microtuber formation was related to the high expression of StSUT4 in the root, and better microtuber growth was associated with higher root activity, more medium solute consumption, and a higher expression level of StSUT1 in the roots. Full article
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15 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
An Optimized Protocol for Comprehensive Evaluations of Salt Tolerance in Crop Germplasm Accessions: A Case Study of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
by Zheng Chen, Xin Li, Rong Zhou, Enmei Hu, Xianghan Peng, Fangling Jiang and Zhen Wu
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040842 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
The comprehensive evaluation of crop germplasm serves to scientifically and objectively assess the quality of different genetic accessions against certain standards. Here, we propose an optimized approach to enhance the result’s stability when assessing salt tolerance in crop germplasm. This protocol was applied [...] Read more.
The comprehensive evaluation of crop germplasm serves to scientifically and objectively assess the quality of different genetic accessions against certain standards. Here, we propose an optimized approach to enhance the result’s stability when assessing salt tolerance in crop germplasm. This protocol was applied to a case study involving 249 tomato genotypes, systematically refining the processes involved in constructing an evaluation index system, data preprocessing, statistical method selection, and weight calculation. The optimization process reduced the system variance of salt tolerance evaluation results and achieved an 85.42% concordance with a classical approach, across a tomato population covering 241 genotypes, suggesting the improved stability and high accuracy of the optimized protocol. Moreover, an 83.82% consistency rate between pre- and post-optimization results also suggested the high accuracy of the optimized protocol. The enhanced stability was further confirmed by a secondary validation on a subpopulation (covering 39 genotypes), which demonstrated a consistency rate of 83.87% between the two populations. The study identified 8.43% of the evaluated germplasm as salt-tolerant accessions, providing valuable parental materials for breeding programs. The findings underscore the potential of our protocol for the precise identification of stress-resistant germplasm, contributing to the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties. Full article
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14 pages, 7746 KiB  
Article
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) in Tobacco Affects 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline
by Mingli Chen, Siyu Shen, Zhiyuan Li, Huashun Wang, Jin Wang, Guangyu Yang, Wenwu Yang, Lele Deng, Daping Gong and Jianduo Zhang
Agronomy 2024, 14(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14020321 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a highly effective volatile compound that gives fragrance to numerous plant species and food. Mutation(s) in the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) gene results in the accumulation of 2AP. However, the function of BADH genes in tobacco ( [...] Read more.
2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a highly effective volatile compound that gives fragrance to numerous plant species and food. Mutation(s) in the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) gene results in the accumulation of 2AP. However, the function of BADH genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) remains poorly understood. In this study, we successfully obtained four betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) genes from tobacco. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences showed that two of the four BADH genes were closely related to the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) BADH gene (LbBADH1), so we named them NtBADH1a and NtBADH1b, respectively. The other two BADH genes were orthologues of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (SlAMADH2) gene, and were named NtBADH2a and NtBADH2b, respectively. Expression analysis revealed that the biological functions of NtBADH1a and NtBADH1b were different from those of genes NtBADH2a and NtBADH2b. We introduced mutations into NtBADH1a, NtBADH1b, NtBADH2a and NtBADH2b in tobacco using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and identified transgenic Ntbadh mutant tobacco lines. Single mutants (Ntbadh1a, Ntbadh1b, Ntbadh2a and Ntbadh2b) and double mutants (Ntbadh1a-Ntbadh1b and Ntbadh2a-Ntbadh2b) harbored deletion or insertion of nucleotides, both of which led to the production of a frameshift, preventing protein accumulation. A popcorn-like scent was noticeable in tobacco leaves from the Ntbadh2a-Ntbadh2b double mutant, but not from any single mutant or the Ntbadh1a-Ntbadh1b double mutant or the wild type. Consistent with this observation, we only detected 2AP in fresh leaves from the Ntbadh2a-Ntbadh2b double mutant. These findings indicate that only the combined inactivation of NtBADH2a and NtBADH2b results in 2AP accumulation in tobacco, which was not related to NtBADH1. Full article
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24 pages, 6918 KiB  
Article
Integrated miRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Eggplant’s (Solanum melongena L.) Responses to Waterlogging Stress
by Zheng Jiang, Xin Xia, Yiyong Liu, Jie He and Xu Yang
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092215 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Waterlogging stress poses a significant threat to eggplants (Solanum melongena L.), causing root oxygen deficiency and subsequent plant damage. This study aims to explore the morphological changes and chlorophyll and lignin indicators of eggplant seedlings under different time points (0, 3, 6, [...] Read more.
Waterlogging stress poses a significant threat to eggplants (Solanum melongena L.), causing root oxygen deficiency and subsequent plant damage. This study aims to explore the morphological changes and chlorophyll and lignin indicators of eggplant seedlings under different time points (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h) of waterlogging stress. High-throughput sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in response to waterlogging stress in eggplants. The results showed that the content of chlorophyll a significantly decreased during the early stage of waterlogging stress, while the degradation of chlorophyll b intensified with prolonged stress, and carotenoid content remained relatively stable. Additionally, this study investigated changes in root lignin, indicating its role in enhancing cell wall stability and tolerance to cope with hypoxic stress. Using DESeq2, 246 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, among which significant changes were observed in the miR156, miR166, miR167, and miR399 families. These miRNAs may play a crucial regulatory role in eggplant’s adaptation to the hypoxic environment after waterlogging stress. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that differentially expressed genes were mainly related to cellular physiological processes, metabolic processes, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, influencing the seedlings’ stress resistance under different waterlogging conditions. Furthermore, by constructing a regulatory miRNA–target gene network that pertains to eggplant’s response to waterlogging stress, we have laid the foundation for revealing the molecular mechanisms of eggplant’s response to waterlogging stress. Full article
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20 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Salicylic Acid Effects on Growth, Biochemical, Yield, and Anatomical Characteristics of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Plants under Salt Stress Conditions
by Emad Mady, Ahmed H. M. Abd El-Wahed, Asaad H. Awad, Turky O. Asar, Ammar Al-Farga, Hany S. Abd El-Raouf, Reena Randhir, Ehab S. Alnuzaili, Ahmed M. El-Taher, Timothy O. Randhir and Fatma A. Hamada
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092213 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Salt stress is a major issue in agriculture and crop production that influences global food security. Mitigation options to address salt stress through agronomic practices can help manage this issue. Experiments were performed in two summer seasons in an experimental farm to test [...] Read more.
Salt stress is a major issue in agriculture and crop production that influences global food security. Mitigation options to address salt stress through agronomic practices can help manage this issue. Experiments were performed in two summer seasons in an experimental farm to test the impact of three salinity levels (S): 300 (control), 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm, and two salicylic acid (SA) levels, including 1.0 and 1.50 mM, and their interaction on growth and yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) hybrid Suma. The results showed that increasing S levels up to 3000 ppm reduced plant and fruit physical characteristics, as well as leaf and fruit chemical characteristics, especially leaf total chlorophyll, carotenoids, relative water, fruit nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents, which led to a reduction in total yield per plant. However, an insignificant effect was observed in the control level and 1000 ppm saline water in leaf area, fruit length, leaf total chlorophyll content, fruit phosphorus content, and total yield per plant. In contrast, leaf sugars, proline contents, electrolyte leakage, fruit TSS (total soluble solids), and ascorbic acid contents were improved with S levels up to the concentration of 3000 ppm compared to the control. However, tested parameters were significantly higher due to the SA foliar spray of 1.0 mM besides photosynthetic pigments of leaves enhanced by using 1.0 and 1.50 mM. Using 1.0 mM SA concentration alleviated the adverse impact of S on eggplant plants until 1000 ppm saline water, reflecting an increase in eggplant yield. The anatomical structure of eggplant leaves revealed positive variations in mature leaf blades in both the stressed and SA-treated plants. Based on these results, the use of SA at a concentration of 1.0 mM may lessen the negative impacts of salt on the growth of eggplant, which increases the overall yield. Full article
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12 pages, 5650 KiB  
Article
A CRISPR-Cas9-Derived Male Sterility System for Tomato Breeding
by Ming Zhou, Lei Deng, Guoliang Yuan, Wei Zhao, Mingyang Ma, Chuanlong Sun, Minmin Du, Chuanyou Li and Changbao Li
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071785 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Male sterility can reduce cost and enable high seed purity during hybrid seed production. However, the commercial application of male sterility in hybrid seed production has not been widely used in tomatoes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing can facilitate acceleration for the practical application of [...] Read more.
Male sterility can reduce cost and enable high seed purity during hybrid seed production. However, the commercial application of male sterility in hybrid seed production has not been widely used in tomatoes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing can facilitate acceleration for the practical application of male sterility in hybrid seed production. Here, by using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, two genes DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (SlDYT1) and Glutathione S-transferase (SlGSTAA), which underly the two closely linked loci Male sterile 10 (Ms10) and Anthocyanin absent (AA), were knocked out simultaneously in two tomato parental lines. The generated dyt1gstaa double mutants developed green hypocotyl owing to anthocyanin deficiency and exhibited stable male sterility. Up to 92% effectiveness in selecting male sterility was achieved using green hypocotyl as a morphological marker, and thereafter an efficient and stable propagation strategy of male sterility with the aid of the morphological marker selection was developed. Furthermore, dyt1gstaa-derived hybrid seeds were produced and found to have comparable yield, weight, and germination rate with the corresponding WT-derived F1 seeds. The dyt1gstaa system not only increased hybrid seed purity to 100% but also facilitated its rapid and cost-effective determination. Moreover, this system was discovered to have no evident side effects on important agronomic traits. This study suggested that our CRISPR/Cas9-created dyt1gstaa system can be deployed in tomato hybrid seed production. Full article
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15 pages, 3531 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanism of Grafting to Improve the Tolerance of Pepper to Low Temperature
by Huijun Long, Ziyu Li, Huan Suo, Lijun Ou, Wu Miao and Wenqiao Deng
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051347 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Pepper is a horticultural crop that does not tolerate low temperatures. To investigate how the grafted pepper responds to low temperature stress in the short term, transcriptome analysis was performed on grafted seedlings treated with low temperature for 1 h, 4 h, 12 [...] Read more.
Pepper is a horticultural crop that does not tolerate low temperatures. To investigate how the grafted pepper responds to low temperature stress in the short term, transcriptome analysis was performed on grafted seedlings treated with low temperature for 1 h, 4 h, 12 h and 24 h compared with those treated for 0 h. The results showed that genes related to CAM4, MPK8, RbohD and OXI1 might be related to the response of grafted seedlings to low temperature stress in the short term. To investigate how low temperature tolerant rootstocks can improve the low temperature tolerance of grafted peppers, morphological and physiological indices of self-rooted and grafted seedlings were analyzed under low temperature conditions for different days. The results showed that the degree of wilting, REL and MDA content of grafted seedlings were significantly lower than those of self-rooted seedlings, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher than those of self-rooted seedlings under low temperature stress. The results indicated that grafted pepper would activate ROS-related genes in a short period of time after low temperature stress and produce a large amount of ROS in response to the low temperature stress. When ROS accumulated to a certain level, the grafted pepper could increase the enzyme activity of antioxidant system to remove the ROS produced in the body, and help the pepper seedlings adapt to low temperature stress through osmoregulation mechanism, so as to resist the damage caused by low temperature. The results of the study provide ideas for growing pepper in low temperature environment. Full article
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15 pages, 1841 KiB  
Article
Transpiration Efficiency of Some Potato Genotypes under Drought
by Zohreh Salehi-Soghadi, Md. Saiful Islam, Ahmad M. Manschadi and Hans-Peter Kaul
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040996 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most consumed food crop after rice and wheat in the world. It is a short-duration crop, suitable for growing in a wide range of environments, but abiotic factors can limit potato production, and drought is [...] Read more.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most consumed food crop after rice and wheat in the world. It is a short-duration crop, suitable for growing in a wide range of environments, but abiotic factors can limit potato production, and drought is the main one. Therefore, managing drought stress is of utmost importance under climate change conditions. Potato as a drought-sensitive crop needs choice of suitable genotypes for dry environments. In this study, transpiration efficiency (TE), soil water conservation and drought tolerance were analysed for potato genotypes from different origins. Three glasshouse experiments under different Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) conditions with water-stressed (WS) and well-watered (WW) plants resulted in significantly different total amounts of transpiration among the genotypes and water supply levels. Transpiration in WS plants was the same as with WW plants up to a specific threshold “Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water” (FTSW) and then sharply decreased in response to soil drying. Genotypes showed a substantial variation in FTSW thresholds (0.19 to 0.36 FTSW) under low VPD condition, which narrowed down (0.19 to 0.29) when air humidity was lower. Furthermore, we observed hardly any relationships between TE and FTSW threshold (r = 0.125) or TE and water saving (r = 0.031). Our results provide insights into genotypic interactions with VPD on FTSW threshold and TE under dry-down conditions in potato. Full article
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15 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Yield Components and Development in Indeterminate Tomato Landraces: An Agromorphological Approach to Promoting Their Utilization
by Adolfo Donoso and Erika Salazar
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020434 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Nowadays, increments in tomato yield seem to have reached a plateau. Tomato genebank collections have been recognized as a novel source for yield increments. The use of the diversity in Latin America for novel improved varieties is limited by the knowledge gap regarding [...] Read more.
Nowadays, increments in tomato yield seem to have reached a plateau. Tomato genebank collections have been recognized as a novel source for yield increments. The use of the diversity in Latin America for novel improved varieties is limited by the knowledge gap regarding field-grown tomatoes. As yield has complex, unresolved trade-offs, agromorphological traits become useful for further improvement. In this study, the development of successive clusters was studied in twenty-four Chilean tomato landraces to elucidate the relationships among agromorphological traits of flowers, inflorescences, and fruits. Plants yielded an average of 3297 g m−2, with a variation coefficient of 0.44. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between yield components and plant phenology. Findings suggested a two-level compensation between average fresh fruit weight and the number of fruits, one on a plant basis and the second on a cluster basis. All traits evaluated had significant phenotypic correlations with yield traits. Growing degree days for a cluster to develop had a low negative phenotypic correlation with yield (−0.33***) and a high genetic correlation with the number of clusters (−0.90***). The number of set flowers, as opposed to the number of flowers, was significantly correlated with average fresh fruit weight (−0.17***), supporting the initiation of the trade-off after the fruit set. This study provides new insight into the plant agromorphology of indeterminate plants. In a global climate change context, further study of trade-off relationships is important for identifying genotypes able to sustain their productivity. Full article
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13 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Upregulated Expression of Aux/IAA Genes Is Associated with Defective Leaf Growth of the slf Mutant in Eggplant
by Wenchao Du, Yang Lu, Shuangxia Luo, Ping Yu, Jiajia Shen, Xing Wang, Shuxin Xuan, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, Na Li, Xueping Chen and Shuxing Shen
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112647 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Leaf size is a crucial trait in eggplant breeding, as it influences photosynthesis, plant biomass and management. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating leaf size in eggplant. This study reports a small leaf mutant (slf) generated with the [...] Read more.
Leaf size is a crucial trait in eggplant breeding, as it influences photosynthesis, plant biomass and management. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating leaf size in eggplant. This study reports a small leaf mutant (slf) generated with the mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). The slf mutant showed restricted cell proliferation and an increased content of auxin. Transcriptome analysis revealed that several genes involved in auxin signaling are upregulated in slf. Exogenous application of auxinole, an auxin antagonist of TIR1/AFB receptors, repressed the expression of these genes and restored leaf growth of slf, suggesting that the small leaf size of slf is likely associated with auxin signaling. This study provides essential clues to unveil the molecular mechanism of leaf size regulation in eggplant. Full article
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11 pages, 31270 KiB  
Article
The Solanum torvum Transcription Factor StoWRKY6 Mediates Resistance against Verticillium Wilt
by Yu Zhang, Lei Shen, Liangjun Li and Xu Yang
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081977 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
WRKY is a transcription factor family that has attracted much attention in recent studies of plant disease resistance, but there are few reports in the study of eggplant resistance to Verticillium wilt. Here, we retrieved an up-regulated WRKY transcription factor, StoWRKY6, from [...] Read more.
WRKY is a transcription factor family that has attracted much attention in recent studies of plant disease resistance, but there are few reports in the study of eggplant resistance to Verticillium wilt. Here, we retrieved an up-regulated WRKY transcription factor, StoWRKY6, from the transcriptome sequencing data of Solanum torvum response to Verticillium dahliae infection. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the highest homology species of StoWRKY6 in the WRKY family is Solanum melongena. Based on the quantitative real-time PCR analysis, StoWRKY6 was highly expressed in the roots but barely expressed in the leaves. Transient expressions of StoWRKY6 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a nuclear localization. A virus-mediated gene silencing experiment indicated that the silencing of StoWRKY6 reduced the resistance to Verticillium wilt in Solanum torvum. To further verify the immune response function, we introduced StoWRKY6 into Nicotiana benthamiana using transient transformation technology and found obvious spots under UV light. In summary, these results showed that StoWRKY6 played an important role in the resistance to Verticillium wilt of Solanum torvum, which may function mainly by inducing an immune response. Our study provided strong evidence for the mechanism of eggplant resistance to Verticillium wilt and laid a foundation for the potential molecular breeding of eggplant disease resistance. Full article
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