Special Issue "8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Kontis

Mechan Chair of Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, James Watt Building South, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +441413304337
Interests: aerodynamic technologies; flow and flight control systems; shock physics; aerospace design and optimization; flow diagnostics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Spiros Pantelakis

Chairman of the European Aeronautics Science Network Association (EASN), Head of the Laboratory of Technology and Strength of Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Panepistimioupolis Rion, 26500 Patras, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aeronautical materials and structures; mechanical behaviour of materials; structural integrity; damage mechanics; experimental fracture mechanics; fatigue of aircraft materials and structures; ageing aircraft; characterization and manufacturing processes of polymers, thermosetting and thermoplastic composites; nanocomposites and nanocrystalline alloys; multifunctional and self-healing materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 8th EASN-CEAS International Workshop aims to build on the success of the series of EASN and CEAS events by becoming an even broader and even more comprehensive gathering.

The conference will include a number of Plenary Talks by distinguished personalities of the European Aviation sector from academia, industry, the research community and policy makers. It will also include Thematic Sessions on a series disciplines of the A&AT Manufacturing domain, along with Technical Workshops, where evolving ideas, technologies, products, services and processes will be discussed. Research projects are invited to exploit the opportunity and disseminate their results and achievements in dedicated Sessions.

This Special Issue is cooperating with the 8th EASN-CEAS International Workshop on “Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation” (https://easnconference.eu/), to be held in Glasgow, UK, 4–7 September, 2018. Authors of outstanding papers related to aerospace manufacturing are invited to submit extended versions of their work to this Special Issue for publication.

Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Kontis
Prof. Dr. Spiros Pantelakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Factory of the future
  • Industry 4.0 for manufacturing
  • Electrification
  • Robotics and automation
  • Nanofabrication
  • Cyber-security
  • Advanced structures and materials
  • Modelling and simulation
  • Integrated aircraft design
  • Sustainable manufacturing growth
  • Vehicle health management and through-life engineering services
  • Green manufacturing
  • Design and prototyping
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Augmented reality
  • Virtual reality
  • Precision engineering
  • NDT
  • Virtual Factory
  • Surface Engineering
  • Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies
  • Self-healing materials and structures
  • Disruptive design concepts
  • Virtual testing through the scales
  • Multi-scale models

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Verification of Boundary Conditions Applied to Active Flow Circulation Control
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Inclusion of Active Flow Control (AFC) into Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is usually highly time-consuming and requires extensive computational resources and effort. In principle, the flow inside of the fluidic AFC actuators should be incorporated into the problem under consideration. However, for [...] Read more.
Inclusion of Active Flow Control (AFC) into Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is usually highly time-consuming and requires extensive computational resources and effort. In principle, the flow inside of the fluidic AFC actuators should be incorporated into the problem under consideration. However, for many applications, the internal actuator flow is not crucial, and only its effect on the outer flow needs to be resolved. In this study, the unsteady periodic flow inside the Suction and Oscillatory Blowing (SaOB) actuator is analyzed, using two CFD methods of ranging complexity (URANS and hybrid RANS-LES). The results are used for the definition and development of the simplified surface boundary condition for simulating the SaOB flow at the actuator’s exit. The developed boundary condition is verified and validated, in the case of a low-speed airfoil with suction applied on the upper (suction) side of the airfoil and oscillatory blowing applied on the lower (pressure) side, close to the trailing edge—a fluidic Gurney flap. Its effect on the circulation is analyzed and compared to the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergy Effects in Electric and Hybrid Electric Aircraft
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
The interest in electric and hybrid electric power system has been increasing, in recent times, due to the benefits of this technology, such as high power-to-weight ratio, reliability, compactness, quietness, and, above all, elimination of local pollutant emissions. One of the key factors [...] Read more.
The interest in electric and hybrid electric power system has been increasing, in recent times, due to the benefits of this technology, such as high power-to-weight ratio, reliability, compactness, quietness, and, above all, elimination of local pollutant emissions. One of the key factors of these technologies is the possibility to exploit the synergy between powertrain, structure, and mission. This investigation addresses this topic by applying multi-objective optimization to two test cases—a fixed-wing, tail-sitter, Vertical Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTOL-UAV), and a Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MALE-UAV). Cruise time and payload weight were selected as goals for the first optimization problem, while fuel consumption and electric endurance were selected for the second one. The optimizations were performed with Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and S-Metric Selection Evolutionary Multiobjective Algorithm (SMS-EMOA), by taking several constraints into account. The VTOL-UAV optimization was performed, at different levels (structure only, power system only, structure and power system together). To better underline the synergic effect of electrification, the potential benefit of structural integration and multi-functionalization was also addressed. The optimization of the MALE-UAV was performed at two different levels (power system only, power system, and mission profile together), to explore the synergic effect of hybridization. Results showed that large improvements could be obtained, either in the first test case when, both, the powertrain design and the aircraft structure were considered, and in the optimization of the hybrid electric UAV, where the optimization of the aircraft flight path gave a strong contribution to the overall performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing Aspects of Creating Low-Curvature Panels for Prospective Civil Aircraft
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
For this study, structural and manufacturing schemes for low-curvature pressurized fuselage panels were proposed, making it possible to provide high weight efficiency for the airframes of prospective civil blended wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The manufacturing scheme for low-curvature panels helped to achieve high strength [...] Read more.
For this study, structural and manufacturing schemes for low-curvature pressurized fuselage panels were proposed, making it possible to provide high weight efficiency for the airframes of prospective civil blended wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The manufacturing scheme for low-curvature panels helped to achieve high strength characteristics of the composite details as well as decreased the labor input necessary for manufacturing and assembling. The beneficial features of the proposed structure are that the panels have a low weight, incur low manufacturing costs, and satisfy the demands of repairability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing Process of High Performance–Low Cost Composite Structures for Light Sport Aircrafts
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
This work describes the technological and scientific efforts on designing, manufacturing and testing validation for high performance-low cost composite structures for Light Sport Aircrafts (LSA). A Mexican initiative to conceive, manufacture and assembly a Light Sport Aircraft has been developed by using Computational [...] Read more.
This work describes the technological and scientific efforts on designing, manufacturing and testing validation for high performance-low cost composite structures for Light Sport Aircrafts (LSA). A Mexican initiative to conceive, manufacture and assembly a Light Sport Aircraft has been developed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Liquid Composite Manufacturing (LCM). These consolidated techniques are used to characterize novel approaches to manufacturing and assembly carbon-fiber based structural components. As large structures are manufactured via Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI), impregnation strategies are studied to minimize inner flaws and also to improve the manufacturing time and surface quality of each component. The first case of study, to validate this methodology, involves non-structural components such as the cowling. Control surfaces (ailerons, rudder, elevator and flaps) have been manufactured, each of them having common issues but also unique challenges. As an example, a second case of study, the aileron main beam is analyzed. Furthermore, test portfolio will be developed with the goal to perform 1-to-1 scale mechanical tests for validation in compliance with ASTM standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges of Fully-Coupled High-Fidelity Ditching Simulations
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
An important element of the process of aircraft certification is the demonstration of the crashworthiness of the structure in the event of an emergency landing on water, also referred to as ditching. Novel numerical simulation methods, that incorporate the interaction between fluid and [...] Read more.
An important element of the process of aircraft certification is the demonstration of the crashworthiness of the structure in the event of an emergency landing on water, also referred to as ditching. Novel numerical simulation methods, that incorporate the interaction between fluid and structure, open up a promising way to model ditching in full scale. This study focuses on two main issues of high-fidelity ditching simulations: the development of a suitable fluid-structure coupling framework and the generation of the structural model of the aircraft. The first issue is addressed by implementing a partitioned coupling approach, which combines a finite volume hydrodynamic fluid solver as well as a finite element structural solver. The developed framework is validated by means of two ditching-like experiments, which consider the drop test of a rigid cylinder and a deformable cylindrical shell. The results of the validation studies indicate that an alternative to the standard Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning approach is needed if a strong added-mass effect is present. For the full-scale simulation of aircraft ditching, structural models become more complex and have to account for damage. Due to its high localization, the damage creates large differences in model scale and usually entails severe non-linearities in the model. To address the issue of increasing computational effort for such models, the process of developing a multi-scale model for the simulation of the failure of fuselage frames is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Critical Multifunctionality Threshold for Optimal Electrical, Thermal, and Nanomechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes/Epoxy Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Epoxy composites are widely used in primary aerospace structures, where high impact damage properties are necessary. However, challenges appear when multiple functionalities, including electrical and thermal conductivity, are needed in parallel with increased mechanical properties. The current study aims at the assessment of [...] Read more.
Epoxy composites are widely used in primary aerospace structures, where high impact damage properties are necessary. However, challenges appear when multiple functionalities, including electrical and thermal conductivity, are needed in parallel with increased mechanical properties. The current study aims at the assessment of a critical concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), incorporated in epoxy resin, which will indicate a threshold for optimal electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. For the evaluation of this optimal concentration, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and nanomechanical properties (Young modulus and nanohardness) have been assessed, for epoxy nanocomposites with 0 to 15 parts per hundred resin per weight (phr) MWCNTs. Percolation theory was applied to study the electrical conductivity for different contents of MWCNTs in the epoxy nanocomposite system. Thermogravimetric analysis was employed for the assessment of the epoxy composites’ thermal properties. Nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured, and the hardness versus modulus index was calculated. Emphasis was given to the dispersion of MWCNTs in the epoxy matrix, which was assessed by both microscopy techniques and X-ray micro–computed tomography. A correlation between the optimum dispersion and MWCNTs content in terms of electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and nanomechanical properties revealed a threshold concentration at 3 phr, allowing the manufacturing of aerospace structures with multifunctional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Environmental and Cost Analysis of Alternative Production Scenarios Associated with a Helicopter’s Canopy
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
In the present work the carbon footprint and the financial viability of different materials, manufacturing scenarios, as well as recycling scenarios, associated with the production of aeronautical structural components are assessed. The materials considered were carbon fiber reinforced epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced [...] Read more.
In the present work the carbon footprint and the financial viability of different materials, manufacturing scenarios, as well as recycling scenarios, associated with the production of aeronautical structural components are assessed. The materials considered were carbon fiber reinforced epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced PEEK (polyetheretherketone). The manufacturing techniques compared were the autoclave, resin transfer molding (RTM) and cold diaphragm forming (CDF). The recycling scenarios included mechanical recycling and pyrolysis. For this purpose, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) models were developed and implemented for the case of a helicopter’s canopy production. The results of the study pointed out that producing the canopy by using carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites and involving RTM as the manufacturing process is the optimal route both in terms of environmental and financial efficiency. The environmental and financial efficiency of the scenarios including thermoplastic composites as the material of choice is impaired from both the high embodied energy and raw material cost of PEEK. The scenarios investigated do not account for potential benefits arising from the recyclability and the improved reusability of thermoplastic matrices as compared to thermosetting ones. This underlines the need for a holistic aircraft structural optimization approach including not only performance and weight but also cost and environmental criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Analysis, and Design of a Novel Mechanism for the Trailing Edge of a Morphing Wing
Aerospace 2018, 5(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace5040127
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
In the design and analysis of morphing wings, several sciences need to be integrated. This article tries to answer the question, “What is the most appropriate actuation mechanism to morph the wing profile?” by introducing the synthesis, analysis, and design of a novel [...] Read more.
In the design and analysis of morphing wings, several sciences need to be integrated. This article tries to answer the question, “What is the most appropriate actuation mechanism to morph the wing profile?” by introducing the synthesis, analysis, and design of a novel scissor-structural mechanism (SSM) for the trailing edge of a morphing wing. The SSM, which is deployable, is created via a combination of various scissor-like elements (SLEs). In order to provide mobility requirements, a four-bar linkage (FBL) is assembled with the proposed SSM. The SSM is designed with a novel kinematic synthesis concept, so it follows the airfoil camber with minimum design error. In this concept, assuming a fully-compliant wing skin, various types of SLEs are assembled together, and emergent SSM provide the desired airfoil geometries. In order to provide the required aerodynamic efficiency of newly-created airfoil geometries and obtain pressure distribution over the airfoil, two-dimensional (2D) aerodynamic analyses have been conducted. The analyses show similar aerodynamic behavior with the desired NACA airfoils. By assigning the approximate link masses and mass centers, the dynamic force analysis of the mechanism has also been performed, and the required torque to drive the newly-developed SSM is estimated as feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Innovative Scaled Test Platform e-Genius-Mod—Scaling Methods and Systems Design
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Future aircraft design highly depends on the successful implementation of new technologies. However, the gap between conventional designs and new visions often comes with a high financial risk. This significantly complicates the integration of innovations. Scaled unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are an innovative [...] Read more.
Future aircraft design highly depends on the successful implementation of new technologies. However, the gap between conventional designs and new visions often comes with a high financial risk. This significantly complicates the integration of innovations. Scaled unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are an innovative and cost-effective way to get new configurations and technologies in-flight. Therefore the Institute of Aircraft Design developed the e-Genius-Mod taking into account all relevant similitude requirements. It is a scale model of the electric motor glider e-Genius. Since the Reynolds number for the free-flight model cannot be adhered to, an airfoil was developed with lift-to-drag and lift-to-angle-of-attack courses reproducing the full-scale e-Genius flight characteristics. This will enable testing and assessment of new aviation technologies in a scaled version with an opportunity for free-flight demonstration in relevant environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 8th EASN-CEAS Workshop on Manufacturing for Growth and Innovation)
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