Special Issue "10th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation & Space to the Satisfaction of the European Citizens"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Spiros Pantelakis
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Guest Editor
Honorary Chairman of the European Aeronautics Science Network Association (EASN), Head of the Laboratory of Technology and Strength of Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Panepistimioupolis Rion, 26500 Patras, Greece
Interests: aeronautical materials and structures; mechanical behaviour of materials; structural integrity; damage mechanics; experimental fracture mechanics; fatigue of aircraft materials and structures; ageing aircraft; characterization and manufacturing processes of polymers, thermosetting and thermoplastic composites; nanocomposites and nanocrystalline alloys; multifunctional and self-healing materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Andreas Strohmayer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chairman of the European Aeronautics Science Network Association (EASN), Head of Department Aircraft Design, Institute of Aircraft Design (IFB), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: aircraft design; conventional and unconventional configurations; aircraft systems; operational aspects; certification; electric and hybrid-electric flight; alternative propulsion systems; flight testing; unmanned aerial vehicles; scaled flight testing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Liberata Guadagno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
Interests: smart materials; study of the correlations between chemical-physical properties, structure, morphology and durability of macromolecular systems with different types of organizational architectures; design and development of new materials and materials applicable in the field of sensors; carbon–carbon composites (CCCs); thermosetting resins; mechanical properties; supramolecular interactions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is cooperating with the 10th EASN International Conference on “Innovation in Aviation & Space to the Satisfaction of the European Citizens” (https://easnconference.eu), which will take place in Salerno, Italy from the 2nd until the 5th of September, 2020. The conference venue will be located at the Fisciano Campus of the University of Salerno.

The aim of this gathering is dual: to act as a forum where innovative ideas, breakthrough concepts, and disruptive technologies are presented, while in parallel to be the place for disseminating the knowledge and results achieved in the frame of research projects of the aviation and space field. The previous EASN International Conference, held in Athens, Greece in September 2019, was the most successful amongst the events organized by EASN so far and was attended by more than 450 participants from various disciplines.  

Like its predecessors, the 10th EASN International Conference will include a number of Plenary Talks by distinguished personalities of the European Aviation and Space sectors from the academia, industry, research community and policy makers. It will also include Thematic Sessions, along with Technical Workshops where evolving ideas, technologies, products, services and processes will be discussed.

Furthermore, the conference is expected to be a major European Dissemination and Exploitation event of aviation and space-related research. The majority of the currently running research projects will exploit the 3-day technical program to present their activities and achieved goals, discuss on current trends and future needs of the aviation and space-related research, and try to identify possible synergies with each other. Additionally, a number of policy development projects will also be given the floor with the aim to present the strategic priorities of the European aviation sector with regard to the challenges of FlightPath2050 and the expected “Horizon Europe” Framework Programme.

Last but not least, the 10th EASN International Conference will be accompanied by a small exhibition where the overview of the aviation and space ecosystem in Italy will be presented.

Authors of outstanding papers related to aviation and space are invited to submit extended versions of their work to this Special Issue for publication.

Prof. Dr. Spiros Pantelakis
Prof. Dr. Andreas Strohmayer
Prof. Dr. Liberata Guadagno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aerostructures: Manufacturing
  • Aerostructures: Materials
  • Flight Physics
  • Propulsion
  • Avionics, Systems & Equipment
  • Air Traffic Management & Airports
  • Human Factors
  • Innovative Concepts & Scenarios
  • Industry 4.0 & Factories of the Future
  • Space Technologies
  • Space Applications and Operations
  • Space Policies
  • Environmental, Recycling and Disposal strategies
  • Safety, Regulation and Standards
  • Synergies and Technology Transfer with the Automotive Industry
  • European Policy Actions in the Field of Aviation & Space

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “10th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation & Space to the Satisfaction of the European Citizens”
Aerospace 2021, 8(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8040111 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
This Special Issue contains selected papers from works presented at the 10th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation & Space to the Satisfaction of the European Citizens, which was held successfully from the 2nd until the 4th of September, 2020 [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Strength Analysis of Alternative Airframe Layouts of Regional Aircraft on the Basis of Automated Parametrical Models
Aerospace 2021, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8030080 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 419
Abstract
This publication presents the results of complex parametrical strength investigations of typical wings for regional aircrafts obtained by means of the new version of the four-level algorithm (FLA) with the modified module responsible for the analysis of aerodynamic loading. This version of FLA, [...] Read more.
This publication presents the results of complex parametrical strength investigations of typical wings for regional aircrafts obtained by means of the new version of the four-level algorithm (FLA) with the modified module responsible for the analysis of aerodynamic loading. This version of FLA, as well as a base one, is focused on significant decreasing time and labor input of a complex strength analysis of airframes by using simultaneously different principles of decomposition. The base version includes four-level decomposition of airframe and decomposition of strength tasks. The new one realizes additional decomposition of alternative variants of load cases during the process of determination of critical load cases. Such an algorithm is very suitable for strength analysis and designing airframes of regional aircrafts having a wide range of aerodynamic concepts. Results of validation of the new version of FLA for a high-aspect-ratio wing obtained in this work confirmed high performance of the algorithm in decreasing time and labor input of strength analysis of airframes at the preliminary stages of designing. During parametrical design investigation, some interesting results for strut-braced wings having high aspect ratios were obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aircraft Requirements for Sustainable Regional Aviation
Aerospace 2021, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8030061 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Recently, the new Green Deal policy initiative was presented by the European Union. The EU aims to achieve a sustainable future and be the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. It targets all of the continent’s industries, meaning aviation must contribute to these changes [...] Read more.
Recently, the new Green Deal policy initiative was presented by the European Union. The EU aims to achieve a sustainable future and be the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. It targets all of the continent’s industries, meaning aviation must contribute to these changes as well. By employing a systems engineering approach, this high-level task can be split into different levels to get from the vision to the relevant system or product itself. Part of this iterative process involves the aircraft requirements, which make the goals more achievable on the system level and allow validation of whether the designed systems fulfill these requirements. Within this work, the top-level aircraft requirements (TLARs) for a hybrid-electric regional aircraft for up to 50 passengers are presented. Apart from performance requirements, other requirements, like environmental ones, are also included. To check whether these requirements are fulfilled, different reference missions were defined which challenge various extremes within the requirements. Furthermore, figures of merit are established, providing a way of validating and comparing different aircraft designs. The modular structure of these aircraft designs ensures the possibility of evaluating different architectures and adapting these figures if necessary. Moreover, different criteria can be accounted for, or their calculation methods or weighting can be changed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-flight Lift and Drag Estimation of an Unmanned Propeller-Driven Aircraft
Aerospace 2021, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020043 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
The high-power density and good scaling properties of electric motors enable new propulsion arrangements and aircraft configurations. This results in distributed propulsion systems allowing to make use of aerodynamic interaction effects between individual propellers and the wing of the aircraft, improving flight performance [...] Read more.
The high-power density and good scaling properties of electric motors enable new propulsion arrangements and aircraft configurations. This results in distributed propulsion systems allowing to make use of aerodynamic interaction effects between individual propellers and the wing of the aircraft, improving flight performance and thus reducing in-flight emissions. In order to systematically analyze these effects, an unmanned research platform was designed and built at the University of Stuttgart. As the aircraft is being used as a testbed for various flight performance studies in the field of distributed electric propulsion, a methodology for precise identification of its performance characteristics is required. One of the main challenges is the determination of the total drag of the aircraft to be able to identify an exact drag and lift polar in flight. For this purpose, an on-board measurement system was developed which allows for precise determination of the thrust of the aircraft which equals the total aerodynamic drag in steady, horizontal flight. The system has been tested and validated in flight using the unmanned free-flight test platform. The article provides an overview of the measuring system installed, discusses its functionality and shows results of the flight tests carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Control of a Modular Iron Bird
Aerospace 2021, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020039 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
This paper describes the control architecture and the control laws of a new concept of Modular Iron Bird aimed at reproducing flight loads to test mobile aerodynamic control surface actuators for small and medium size aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The iron bird [...] Read more.
This paper describes the control architecture and the control laws of a new concept of Modular Iron Bird aimed at reproducing flight loads to test mobile aerodynamic control surface actuators for small and medium size aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The iron bird control system must guarantee the actuation of counteracting forces. On one side, a hydraulic actuator simulates the hinge moments acting on the mobile surface due to aerodynamic and inertial effects during flight; on the other side, the actuator to be tested applies an active hinge moment to control the angular position of the same surface. Reference aerodynamic and inertial loads are generated by a flight simulation module to reproduce more realistic conditions arising during operations. The design of the control action is based on a dynamic model of the hydraulic plant used to generate loads. This system is controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative control algorithm tuned with an optimization algorithm taking into account the closed loop dynamics of the actuator under testing, uncertainties and disturbances in the controlled plant. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and control laws. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Simulation Tool for an Environmentally Friendly Aircraft Cargo Fire Protection System
Aerospace 2021, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020035 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
One of the objectives of the CleanSky-2 project is to develop an Environmentally Friendly Fire Protection (EFFP) system to substitute halon for the aircraft cargo hold. For this, an aircraft demonstrator including the cargo hold was equipped with a nitrogen-based fire suppression system. [...] Read more.
One of the objectives of the CleanSky-2 project is to develop an Environmentally Friendly Fire Protection (EFFP) system to substitute halon for the aircraft cargo hold. For this, an aircraft demonstrator including the cargo hold was equipped with a nitrogen-based fire suppression system. The demonstrator is located in the Flight Test Facility (FTF) low-pressure vessel and can thus be subjected to realistic cruise pressure conditions and take-off and descent pressure profiles. As a design tool, a zonally refined simulation model to predict the local oxygen and nitrogen concentration distribution in the cargo hold has been developed using the Indoor Environment Simulation Suite (IESS). The model allows for fast transient simulations of the suppression system operation. This paper presents a model validation case of knockdown during cruising, followed by a holding phase and descent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance and Emissions of a Microturbine and Turbofan Powered by Alternative Fuels
Aerospace 2021, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020025 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Alternative fuels containing biocomponents produced in various technologies are introduced in aviation to reduce its carbon footprint but there is little data describing their impact on the performance and emissions of engines. The purpose of the work is to compare the performance and [...] Read more.
Alternative fuels containing biocomponents produced in various technologies are introduced in aviation to reduce its carbon footprint but there is little data describing their impact on the performance and emissions of engines. The purpose of the work is to compare the performance and gas emissions produced from two different jet engines—the GTM-140 microturbine and the full-size DGEN380 turbofan, powered by blends of Jet A-1 and one of two biocomponents: (1) Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) and (2) Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) produced from used cooking oil (UCO) in various concentrations. The acquired data will be used to develop an engine emissivity model to predict gas emissions. Blends of the mineral fuel with synthetic components were prepared in various concentrations, and their physicochemical parameters were examined in the laboratory. Measurements of emissions from both engines were carried out in selected operating points using the Semtech DS gaseous analyzer and the EEPS spectrometer. The impact of tested blends on engine operating parameters is limited, and their use does not carry the risk of a significant decrease in aircraft performance or increase in fuel consumption. Increasing the content of biocomponents causes a noticeable rise in the emission of CO and slight increase for some other gasses (HC and NOx), which should not, however, worsen the working conditions of the ground personnel. This implies that there are no contraindications against using tested blends for fuelling gas-turbine engines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proof of Concept Study for Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion
Aerospace 2021, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8010016 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Key results from the EU H2020 project CENTRELINE are presented. The research activities undertaken to demonstrate the proof of concept (technology readiness level—TRL 3) for the so-called propulsive fuselage concept (PFC) for fuselage wake-filling propulsion integration are discussed. The technology application case in [...] Read more.
Key results from the EU H2020 project CENTRELINE are presented. The research activities undertaken to demonstrate the proof of concept (technology readiness level—TRL 3) for the so-called propulsive fuselage concept (PFC) for fuselage wake-filling propulsion integration are discussed. The technology application case in the wide-body market segment is motivated. The developed performance bookkeeping scheme for fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion integration is reviewed. The results of the 2D aerodynamic shape optimization for the bare PFC configuration are presented. Key findings from the high-fidelity aero-numerical simulation and aerodynamic validation testing, i.e., the overall aircraft wind tunnel and the BLI fan rig test campaigns, are discussed. The design results for the architectural concept, systems integration and electric machinery pre-design for the fuselage fan turbo-electric power train are summarized. The design and performance implications on the main power plants are analyzed. Conceptual design solutions for the mechanical and aero-structural integration of the BLI propulsive device are introduced. Key heuristics deduced for PFC conceptual aircraft design are presented. Assessments of fuel burn, NOx emissions, and noise are presented for the PFC aircraft and benchmarked against advanced conventional technology for an entry-into-service in 2035. The PFC design mission fuel benefit based on 2D optimized PFC aero-shaping is 4.7%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Increased Cabin Recirculation Airflow Fraction on Relative Humidity, CO2 and TVOC
Aerospace 2021, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8010015 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
In the CleanSky 2 ComAir study, subject tests were conducted in the Fraunhofer Flight Test Facility cabin mock-up. This mock-up consists of the front section of a former in-service A310 hosting up to 80 passengers. In 12 sessions the outdoor/recirculation airflow ratio was [...] Read more.
In the CleanSky 2 ComAir study, subject tests were conducted in the Fraunhofer Flight Test Facility cabin mock-up. This mock-up consists of the front section of a former in-service A310 hosting up to 80 passengers. In 12 sessions the outdoor/recirculation airflow ratio was altered from today’s typically applied fractions to up to 88% recirculation fraction. This leads to increased relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) levels in the cabin air, as the emissions by passengers become less diluted by outdoor, dry air. This paper describes the measured increase of relative humidity, CO2 and TVOC level in the cabin air for the different test conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Optimization of Ram Air–Based Thermal Management Systems for Hybrid-Electric Aircraft
Aerospace 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8010003 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Ram air–based thermal management systems (TMS) are investigated herein for the cooling of future hybrid-electric aircraft. The developed TMS model consists of all components required to estimate the impacts of mass, drag, and fuel burn on the aircraft, including heat exchangers, coldplates, ducts, [...] Read more.
Ram air–based thermal management systems (TMS) are investigated herein for the cooling of future hybrid-electric aircraft. The developed TMS model consists of all components required to estimate the impacts of mass, drag, and fuel burn on the aircraft, including heat exchangers, coldplates, ducts, pumps, and fans. To gain a better understanding of the TMS, one- and multi-dimensional system sensitivity analyses were conducted. The observations were used to aid with the numerical optimization of a ram air–based TMS towards the minimum fuel burn of a 180-passenger short-range partial-turboelectric aircraft with a power split of up to 30% electric power. The TMS was designed for the conditions at the top of the climb. For an aircraft with the maximum power split, the additional fuel burn caused by the TMS is 0.19%. Conditions occurring at a hot-day takeoff represent the most challenging off-design conditions for TMS. Steady-state cooling of all electric components with the designed TMS is possible during a hot-day takeoff if a small puller fan is utilized. Omitting the puller fan and instead oversizing the TMS is an alternative, but the fuel burn increase on aircraft level grows to 0.29%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Materials and Technologies for Compressor Blades of Small Turbofan Engines
Aerospace 2021, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Manufacturing costs, along with operational performance, are among the major factors determining the selection of the propulsion system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially for aerial targets and cruise missiles. In this paper, the design requirements and operating parameters of small turbofan engines [...] Read more.
Manufacturing costs, along with operational performance, are among the major factors determining the selection of the propulsion system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially for aerial targets and cruise missiles. In this paper, the design requirements and operating parameters of small turbofan engines for single-use and reusable UAVs are analysed to introduce alternative materials and technologies for manufacturing their compressor blades, such as sintered titanium, a new generation of aluminium alloys and titanium aluminides. To assess the influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the hardening efficiency of the proposed materials, the alloys with the coarse-grained and submicrocrystalline structure were studied. Changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials were taken into account. The thermodynamic analysis of the compressor was performed in a finite element analysis system (ANSYS) to determine the impact of gas pressure and temperature on the aerodynamic surfaces of compressor blades of all stages. Based on thermal and structural analysis, the stress and temperature maps on compressor blades and vanes were obtained, taking into account the physical and mechanical properties of advanced materials and technologies of their processing. The safety factors of the components were established based on the assessment of their stress-strength characteristics. Thanks to nomograms, the possibility of using the new materials in five compressor stages was confirmed in view of the permissible operating temperature and safety factor. The proposed alternative materials for compressor blades and vanes meet the design requirements of the turbofan at lower manufacturing costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Passenger Movement Model Depending On the Aircraft Cabin Geometry
Aerospace 2020, 7(12), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7120182 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The aircraft cabin and boarding procedures are steadily increasing focus points for both aircraft manufacturers and airlines, as they play a key part in the customer experience. In the German research project AVACON (AdVAnced Aircraft CONcepts), the boarding procedure is assessed using the [...] Read more.
The aircraft cabin and boarding procedures are steadily increasing focus points for both aircraft manufacturers and airlines, as they play a key part in the customer experience. In the German research project AVACON (AdVAnced Aircraft CONcepts), the boarding procedure is assessed using the PAXelerate boarding simulation. As the project demands an increased level of detail concerning the passenger movement model, this publication introduces an improved methodology. Additions to the model include the development of a method capable of describing the passenger walking speed in dependence of the surrounding objects, their proximity as well as the location of other passengers within the cabin. The validation of the model is performed using the AVACON research baseline and an Airbus A320. The model is then applied to an altered version of the Airbus A320 with an extended aisle and to a COVID-19 safe distance scenario. Regarding the results, an extended aisle width delivers boarding times reduced by up to 3%, whereas the COVID-19 assessment delivers a 67% increase in boarding times. Concluding, the integration of the newly developed model empowers PAXelerate to simulate a more detailed boarding process and enables a better understanding of the influence of cabin layout changes to an aircraft’s boarding performance. Full article
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