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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2022, la ValSe-Food 2022

IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link

La Plata and Jujuy, Argentina | 14–18 November 2022

Volume Editors: Norma Sammán, Mabel Cristina Tomás, Loreto Muñoz and Claudia Monika Haros

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume brings together the complete presentations of the IV International Ia-ValSe-Food Conference and VII Symposium of Chia-Link Network, held in the cities of La Plata and Jujuy, Argentina, on [...] Read more.
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Proceeding Paper
Preparation of Corn Starch Nanoparticles by Wet-Stirred Media Milling for Chia Oil Vehiculization
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017001 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
An organic-free method was applied to produce corn starch nanoparticles, which were designed to stabilize Pickering emulsions containing chia oil, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids. The liquid stream resulting from a laboratory-scale mill assisted by zirconia beads was filtered, centrifuged [...] Read more.
An organic-free method was applied to produce corn starch nanoparticles, which were designed to stabilize Pickering emulsions containing chia oil, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids. The liquid stream resulting from a laboratory-scale mill assisted by zirconia beads was filtered, centrifuged and homogenized to prepare the continuous phase of the emulsions. Experiments were performed as follows: 24 h (milling time), 0.1–0.2 mm (beads’ diameter), 1600 rpm (impeller speed), 25% (volume occupied by the grinding media), 1–7% w/v (starch concentration) and 0–1% w/v of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Particle sizes in the obtained nanosuspensions were reduced from 376–432 nm to 160–200 nm after centrifugation and homogenization. The product formulated with 0.01% w/v of SDS showed the most stable particle size during storage. Hence, this latter formulation was selected to prepare Pickering emulsions. Oil droplets showed surface mean diameters and polydispersity indexes of 283.33 ± 1.53 nm and 1.36 ± 0.03, respectively, with no significant variations during storage for around two weeks. Finally, nanosuspensions containing 7% w/v of starch, and the above three concentrations of SDS, were filtered, centrifuged, homogenized and spray-dried to obtain redispersible powders able to stabilize Pickering emulsions. The most stable particle size after redispersion (385.83 ± 5.85 nm) was obtained with the highest concentration of SDS. Moreover, SEM images revealed the presence of round-shaped particles with sizes below 1 μm. These results highlight that wet-stirred media milling can be applied as a green-method to produce new food-grade starch nanoparticles, which are able to deliver bioactive compounds from chia oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Amaranth and Chia: Two Strategic Ancestral Grains for Mexico’s Sustainability
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017002 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The demand for food worldwide due to population growth, rising hunger and malnutrition, the adverse effects of climate change, the overexploitation of natural resources, biodiversity loss, and food loss and waste are severe challenges faced by global food and agricultural production systems. A [...] Read more.
The demand for food worldwide due to population growth, rising hunger and malnutrition, the adverse effects of climate change, the overexploitation of natural resources, biodiversity loss, and food loss and waste are severe challenges faced by global food and agricultural production systems. A transition to sustainable food and agriculture that ensures global food security and provides economic and social opportunities, while protecting the ecosystem, must occur to achieve sustainability. Due to their numerous nutritional, agronomical, and health advantages, amaranth and chia are attractive grains for sustainable development and product patenting. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of a legal framework and relevant policies to encourage their cultivation. The objective of this study was to summarize the current production state, intellectual property, and legal and political frameworks of both grains. A revision of the most recent literature on the therapeutic potential and nutrient composition of amaranth and chia was conducted. The current production, production value data, intellectual property, legal framework, and policy information were retrieved from public consultation websites and then analyzed. The results of this revision indicate that the production of amaranth and chia grains significantly increased between 2010 and 2016, along with the publication of intellectual property patent applications. Chia and chia-derived products are not regulated by any current law, while amaranth has received more political attention due to its positive results in production numbers. More evidence of the sustainable features of both grains, along with a political framework that encourages their cultivation, may help Mexico to achieve food sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Nutrient Composition of Fresh Pasta Enriched with Chia (Salvia hispanica L.)
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017003 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 170
Abstract
Pasta is traditionally made from durum wheat semolina, but this can be substituted with other flour or semolina types and pasta can contain other ingredients. The nutritional characteristics depend on the ingredients, but, generally, pasta contains about 70% carbohydrate, mainly starch. Chia ( [...] Read more.
Pasta is traditionally made from durum wheat semolina, but this can be substituted with other flour or semolina types and pasta can contain other ingredients. The nutritional characteristics depend on the ingredients, but, generally, pasta contains about 70% carbohydrate, mainly starch. Chia (Salvia hispanica) and their byoproducts are well-known for their high nutritional value, containing essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), a high mineral and vitamin content, and a high amount of fibre. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different chia byproducts on pasta’s technological parameters, their nutritional/functional characteristics (proximate composition, phytic acid) and a sensory evaluation (hedonic scale of nine points). The results showed a higher contribution of minerals in formulations with chia byproducts compared to the control sample. However, the mineral bioavailability could be compromised, as indicated by the phytic acid increment in formulations with chia byproducts. However, the glycaemic indexes were significantly similar to the control sample, with the exception of the samples with chia seeds. Regarding the technological characteristics of the formulations with chia, they did not show significant differences compared to the control sample. In this sense, the chia byproducts could be nutritional ingredients for use in pasta enrichment without depletion of the product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Preparation of Fresh Noodles with Chia and Amaranth
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017004 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Current nutritional recommendations lead to reformulate traditional products, such as fresh noodles, in order to improve the nutrients, they provide. The objective of this work was to determine the variation of the nutritional profile of fresh noodles by partially replacing wheat flour with [...] Read more.
Current nutritional recommendations lead to reformulate traditional products, such as fresh noodles, in order to improve the nutrients, they provide. The objective of this work was to determine the variation of the nutritional profile of fresh noodles by partially replacing wheat flour with chia and amaranth flour. For this purpose, wheat flour was partially substituted with 15% chia flour and 11% amaranth flour, respecting the proportions of the rest of the ingredients (called FS) and fresh noodles with unsubstituted wheat flour, which is taken as the standard (F). Once prepared, protein, total fat, ash, moisture, and fiber were determined by official analytical techniques, including carbohydrates by difference, energy value by calculation, and fatty acid profile by gas chromatography. From the analytical results, it appears that protein increased from 7.76 g% (F) to 10.87 g% (FS), carbohydrates decreased from 51.68 g% (F) to 39.87 g% (FS), and fiber increased from 3.19 g% (F) to 8.68 g% (FS). Total fats increased from 13.18 g% (F) to 18.68 g% (FS), of which omega-3 fatty acids increased from 0.67 g% (F) to 4.03 g% (FS). Energy value varies from 356 kcal/100 g (F) to 369 kcal/100 g (F). With the partial substitution of wheat flour with chia and amaranth, it was possible to improve the nutritional profile of the noodles, making them a feasible option for both industrial and home use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
Proceeding Paper
Utilization of Hydrothermally Treated Flours in Gluten-Free Doughs
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017005 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Hydrothermal treatments are suitable for modifying the physicochemical properties of flours because they favor the total or partial gelatinization of starch, allowing products with different rheological and water absorption capacities to be obtained. The objective of the study was to apply the processes [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal treatments are suitable for modifying the physicochemical properties of flours because they favor the total or partial gelatinization of starch, allowing products with different rheological and water absorption capacities to be obtained. The objective of the study was to apply the processes of extrusion cooking (CE), alkaline extrusion (OHE) and traditional nixtamalization (N) in four races of native maize from the province of Jujuy, Argentina (perlita, cuzco, chulpi and culli) to obtain flours with adequate aptitudes for use in gluten-free doughs. The different processes and the characteristics of each race had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the hydration properties of the flours, both factors showing a greater effect on flour from the chulpi race, indicated by the increase in its hydration properties. Therefore, in the textural properties, the elasticity and the viscosity indices of the dough were dependent on the races and the processes, influencing these properties by the subjective water capacity. CE gives greater elasticity to the dough, presenting the highest values for the dough of the perlita race (5.58 mm). OHE provided a lower viscosity index (0.03 N × s) in the dough of the perlita race, indicating a poor integration of the flour components. The N did not confer remarkable properties to the dough, showing breakage of the dough touched. It is important to note that the OHE process provided dough with adequate properties due to intermediate values of elasticity (4.47–4.5 mm) and resistance to kneading (0.34–0.078 N × s). This study will optimize the development of extensible dough from the chulpi and culli races. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Nutritional Characterization of Ancestral Organic Wheats: Emmer, Khorasan and Spelt
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017006 - 23 Oct 2022
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Nowadays, consumers show a growing interest in the consumption of foods made with ancestral grains, the main components of the diet of our ancestors. The ancestral grains come from millenary cultivars and have now burst onto the international market as part of a [...] Read more.
Nowadays, consumers show a growing interest in the consumption of foods made with ancestral grains, the main components of the diet of our ancestors. The ancestral grains come from millenary cultivars and have now burst onto the international market as part of a nutritious and healthy diet. Some of these crops refer to ancestral wheats. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional characteristics of ancient wheats compared to the modern one. Ancient crops such as emmer (Triticum dicoccum, known as “farro medio” or “farro”), khorasan (Triticum turanicum, the best known kamut) and/or spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta, known as “escanda” or “farro grande”) were the raw materials of the current investigation. Characterization of wheat seeds/whole flours in terms of moisture, ash, total dietary fiber, proteins, and lipids, phytates and phytase activity were determined. In general, these analyses do not support the suggestion that ancient wheats are generally more nutritious and/or healthy than modern wheats. The results support the consumption recommendation of the intake of whole grains (modern or ancients) to prevent non-transmissible illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Quinoa Germination on Its Nutritional Properties
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017007 - 23 Oct 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of desaponification, soaking, germination and refrigerated storage on the phytase activity, phytic acid content, and nutritional properties of three varieties of quinoa: white, red and black. Desaponification and soaking reduced the amount [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of desaponification, soaking, germination and refrigerated storage on the phytase activity, phytic acid content, and nutritional properties of three varieties of quinoa: white, red and black. Desaponification and soaking reduced the amount of minerals and the nutritional content. Germination of the seeds was carried out in desaponified samples. Quinoa nutritional values, phytase activity and phytic acid content were measured during the first 7 days of germination, plus 7 days on refrigerated storage. Germination increased fibre and protein content as well as mineral contents. Germination significantly increased the phytase activity of all varieties and reduced the phytic acid content. The phytic acid content decreased during germination to between 32 and 74%. Refrigerated storage had no significant effect on most of the factors studied. Germination boosted nutritional content and phytase activity while decreasing phytic acid content. Germination can be a simple method to reduce phytic acid in quinoa and may also improve the nutritional quality of this pseudo-cereal, with potential for use in functional foods and vegetarian diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Acid-Extrusion Cooking on Some Properties of Quinoa Starch
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017008 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 214
Abstract
According to the FAO, the economic potential of quinoa relies on the extraction and processing of its by-products. Starch in quinoa represents a major component. Although it has a limited application (due to its low solubility, high reactivity to hydrolysis or reactive hydroxyl [...] Read more.
According to the FAO, the economic potential of quinoa relies on the extraction and processing of its by-products. Starch in quinoa represents a major component. Although it has a limited application (due to its low solubility, high reactivity to hydrolysis or reactive hydroxyl groups), certain technological processes can modify or even improve the techno-functional or healthy properties. In this work, the effect of acid extrusion cooking on the molecular, chemical and morphological properties of quinoa starch was evaluated. A quinoa sub product from protein extraction (73% starch) was acid extruded (100 °C and 0, 10 and 40% of citric acid) and milled. Native (NS) and extruded (ES) samples were taken as the control. The resistant starch (RS) and free glucose (FG) content were measured though enzymatic methods. Molecular, structural and morphological characterization was assessed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, particle size analysis by laser diffraction and optical microphotography. The results showed that an acid esterification at 40% caused a two-fold increase (1.10 g/100 starch dry basis) in the RS content, reduced the FG (mg/100 g db) from 801.36 (NS) to 368.56 and changed the IR spectrum due to the formation of new ester groups at a wavelength of 1712 cm−1 (carbonyl groups). Although, no significant differences were observed in the particle size distribution of the samples, microphotographs showed semi-crystalline structures (extruded and citrate starches) formed from native starch (starch aggregates). These data suggest that acid extrusion increased the RS content, formed citrate starch esters and changed the molecular and structural conformation of native quinoa starch. The evaluation of the additional properties would elucidate the effect of these changes on the bio and techno-functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Gluten-Free Couscous Made from Quinoa Sprouts: Study of Shelf Life
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017009 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 177
Abstract
The aim of this work was to determine the shelf life of a gluten-free couscous made from germinated quinoa. Desaponified quinoa of the Tunkahuan variety from Ecuador was used. Quinoa kernels were germinated, dried, milled, agglomerated, and finally steamed in controlled conditions. A [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to determine the shelf life of a gluten-free couscous made from germinated quinoa. Desaponified quinoa of the Tunkahuan variety from Ecuador was used. Quinoa kernels were germinated, dried, milled, agglomerated, and finally steamed in controlled conditions. A designed particle agglomeration equipment was used to produce the couscous. The shelf life of the product was determined by accelerated testing. Product quality changes were evaluated during storage for 90 days in different types of packaging (cardboard, polyethylene polyester, and metallized polypropylene) under different conditions (15, 25, 35, and 45 °C). The moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value showed a significant increase with time and temperature, while the maximum compression force showed a significant decrease. Analysis of total aerobes, total coliforms, molds, and yeasts showed that the product complies with the microbiological parameters established in the three types of packaging during storage. An increase in Aw and free fatty acids was found, whose kinetics of deterioration presented a first-order reaction. Aw activity was selected to estimate the shelf life of germinated quinoa couscous. Hence, the results suggest that this product can extend its shelf life at 20 °C up to 85 days and 136 days in cardboard and polyester polyethylene packaging, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
Proceeding Paper
Chia Oil Microencapsulation by Spray Drying Using Modified Soy Protein as Wall Material
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017010 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Chia seed is the richest vegetable source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A diet rich in these fatty acids decreases the risk of many chronic non-communicable diseases. The incorporation of omega-3-rich oils in processed foods seems to be an efficient way to increase its [...] Read more.
Chia seed is the richest vegetable source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A diet rich in these fatty acids decreases the risk of many chronic non-communicable diseases. The incorporation of omega-3-rich oils in processed foods seems to be an efficient way to increase its consumption; however, when these are exposed to processing conditions, oxidation reactions occur. Microencapsulation technology is an alternative method to enhance lipid stability. The use of vegetable proteins as wall materials is being widely developed. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of the microencapsulation using chemically modified soy protein as wall material on chia oil oxidative stability. The crosslinking effect on soy protein with different concentrations of gallic and tannic acids was evaluated. Chia oil was incorporated into the dispersions using a high-speed homogenizer and the emulsions were dried by Spray-Drying. The microcapsule moisture content and water activity were around 2.96–5.86% and 0.17, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was among 54–78%. The oxidative stability determined by the Rancimat analysis showed a positive correlation between the amount of cross-linking agent used and the induction time, reaching a maximum of 11.97 h. In a storage test, the peroxide value was markedly lower for those crosslinked microcapsules respect to pure SPI wall material after 90 days. The results demonstrated that use of these polyphenols as crosslinkers of the wall material exerts a positive effect in the protection of the chia oil derived from obtaining an optimized wall material and from the intrinsic antioxidant properties of these crosslinkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Obtaining a Functional Food from Andean Grains through Lactic Acid Fermentation
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017011 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Quinoa and amaranth have excellent nutritional compositions. Lactic fermentation is capable of transforming the functional, structural, organoleptic and nutritional properties of raw materials. The objective of this study was to develop a product analogous to yogurt, which would be suitable for special diets. [...] Read more.
Quinoa and amaranth have excellent nutritional compositions. Lactic fermentation is capable of transforming the functional, structural, organoleptic and nutritional properties of raw materials. The objective of this study was to develop a product analogous to yogurt, which would be suitable for special diets. The product was formulated with quinoa and amaranth flours, water, sugar and strawberries, and it was fermented with an exopolysaccharide-producing strain of Lactobacillus Plantarum. Chemical parameters and BAL growth were monitored. Sensory analysis determined the best formulation and fermentation time. In the final product, the proximal composition, microbial count, pH, antioxidant activity, color, viscosity and content of exopolysaccharides (EPS) were determined. The formulation of the selected product was 15 g quinoa/amaranth (50:50) flour, 12 g sugar, 25 g strawberry pulp and 85 g water, fermented for 8 h. The composition of the functional product was 19.60 g carbohydrates and 1.74 g protein/100 g of the puree. The viable cell count was 7.60 × 108 CFU/g; the pH was 3.86; and IC50 = 10.3 mg/mL. The color parameters L*, a* and b* were 43.85, 15.24 and 11.72, respectively, with a reddish-brown color. During fermentation, the viscosity increased to 5029 mPa*s at 10 rpm due to the production of EPS (6.78 g EPS/L fermented pure). However, EPS production was not enough to significantly modify the viscosity, probably due to the amylolytic capacity of BAL. Fermented pure was described as having a rich, fruity and acidic flavor, with a mild and pleasant smell and a viscous texture. The food obtained was analogous to yogurt with acceptable sensory characteristics and was suitable for vegetarians, coeliacs and lactose intolerants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Antioxidant Properties of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Protein Hydrolysates: The In Vitro Evaluation of SOD Activity in THP-1 Cell Line
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017012 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are the third most important grain legume in the world in terms of their area coverage, the volume of production and the amount of trade. The crop is primarily grown in India, being USA, Argentina and Mexico the [...] Read more.
Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are the third most important grain legume in the world in terms of their area coverage, the volume of production and the amount of trade. The crop is primarily grown in India, being USA, Argentina and Mexico the main producers of chickpea in the American continent. It can be considered as a cheap, sustainable, and healthy source of nutrients with a high content of proteins. In addition, the hydrolysis of chickpea proteins (CPH) can release bioactive peptides with immunomodulatory properties. Hence, the in vitro study of CPH in the monocytic cell line would be a relevant strategy to recognise the immunomodulatory hydrolysates. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of CPH. A chickpea protein concentrate was hydrolysed using Bioprotease-660LA under specific conditions. The resulting hydrolysates were evaluated to search for the potentially bioactive CPHs. The study led to the identification of one bioactive hydrolysate, which was used on THP-1 cell line as it was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the inflammatory status of it. The ELISA and RT-qPCR techniques were used to analyse the levels of inflammatory cytokine production. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was also evaluated using a commercial determination kit. Our data showed that the selected CPH down-regulated the mRNA transcriptional levels of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in the LPS-stimulated THP-1 cell line. In addition, CPH increased the SOD activity, in contrast to the LPS control. This study suggests that CPH may improve the inflammatory state and play a significant role in the regulation of the SOD signalling pathways in THP-1 cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Study of the Residue from Salvia hispanica (Chia) Seed Oil Extraction by Cold Pressing for Repurposing as Functional Food to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017013 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Despite its high nutritional value, the residue obtained by cold pressing of the chia seeds (expeller) is still undervalued. Expeller is rich in proteins and fibers and contains about 7% omega-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Considering that chia seed has been reported to improve [...] Read more.
Despite its high nutritional value, the residue obtained by cold pressing of the chia seeds (expeller) is still undervalued. Expeller is rich in proteins and fibers and contains about 7% omega-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Considering that chia seed has been reported to improve insulin resistance, among other cardiovascular risk factors, the aim of this work was to study the effects of a diet enriched with the expeller on a rabbit model of metabolic syndrome. A nutritional analysis of the expeller was evaluated. Rabbits were fed a standard diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD) and a HFD in which 20% of the calories from fat were replaced by the expeller (ED). At the end of the 6-week feeding period, clinical, biochemical, and vascular reactivity studies were performed. Results: The ED did not modify body weight or visceral fat, and reached to control fasting glucose (mg/dL; CD: 113 ± 3; HFD: 1261 ± 5; ED: 90 ± 7), insulin resistance (area under the curve of glucose tolerance, CD: 612 ± 23; HFD: 676 ± 17; ED: 517 ± 38), triglycerides (mg/dL CD: 113 ± 14; HFD: 192 ± 22; ED = 98 ± 22) and the TyG index (CD: 8.3 ± 0.2; HFD: 9.3 ± 0.3; ED: 8.28 ± 0.23). With respect to the vascular studies, a blunted norepinephrine response was found. In conclusion, the results showed a promising use of the expeller to develop functional foods that improve metabolic syndrome symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Chia Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Produced by Microfluidization
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017014 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions (d < 200 nm) are systems with considerable potential for protecting and delivering sensible ingredients such as chia seed oil rich in ω-3 fatty acids (~64% α-linolenic acid). These systems can be formed by applying either low- or high-energy methods. [...] Read more.
Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions (d < 200 nm) are systems with considerable potential for protecting and delivering sensible ingredients such as chia seed oil rich in ω-3 fatty acids (~64% α-linolenic acid). These systems can be formed by applying either low- or high-energy methods. High-pressure homogenization, microfluidization and sonication are included within the latter. The main aim of this research work was to obtain and characterize chia oil-in-water nanoemulsions by microfluidization. Therefore, O/W nanoemulsions with 10% (w/w) chia oil and 2% (w/w) sodium caseinate were prepared at three levels of microfluidization pressure: 600, 1000 and, 1200 bar. Droplet sizes of the nanoemulsions expressed as the Sauter mean diameter, were found between 108 to 125 nm. Additionally, the resulting superficial droplet charge was between −37 to −41 mV. The global stability of the different systems was evaluated through the evolution of their backscattering for 50 days. In this sense, nanoemulsions obtained at 1000 and 1200 bar recorded high global stability, while those obtained at 600 bar showed some signs of destabilization. In terms of oxidative stability, all systems studied recorded low values of primary and secondary oxidation products as a function of storage, as determined by peroxide value index (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) assays, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acid content of the nanosystems was also evaluated, without significant changes during the storage period. Thus, chia O/W nanoemulsions obtained by microfluidization proved to be suitable delivery systems for bioactive compounds of chia seed, with potential applications in the development of functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Substitution of Critical Ingredients of Cookie Products to Increase Nutritional Value
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017015 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 232
Abstract
In accordance with the current technological advances in the bakery industry, to increase the nutritional value of cookies without affecting their technological and sensorial parameters, critical ingredients of cookie products (flour, sugar, butter) were substituted with whole quinoa flour and by-products of chia [...] Read more.
In accordance with the current technological advances in the bakery industry, to increase the nutritional value of cookies without affecting their technological and sensorial parameters, critical ingredients of cookie products (flour, sugar, butter) were substituted with whole quinoa flour and by-products of chia (oil and fibre). To optimize the formulation of the cookie (% substitution of critical ingredients) and the baking conditions, factorial design and the response surface methodology were applied. The optimal formulation presented significantly higher amounts of protein content with an improved amino acid profile and ash and fibre contents, while caloric values decreased compared to the control sample. Concerning baking conditions, 170–180 °C and 11 min were found to be the most appropriate conditions for the control formulation. The same conditions were then applied to the optimized formula. As cereal products are one the sources of acrylamide and as many studies have indicated its carcinogen potential, its concentration in the cookie products was investigated. The International Agency of Research on Cancer classified acrylamide as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). The results indicated that the acrylamide levels were lower than the limit concentrations of the regulation (EU) 2017/2158 (350 μg/kg). The results showed that all cookies have acceptable technological and sensorial quality, and the new cookies have highly nutritious properties and health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Chia Germplasm in La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017016 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancestral crop currently revalued for its nutritional properties, is one of the main sources of omega-3 fatty acids. It is a short-day plant and sensitive to frost. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility [...] Read more.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancestral crop currently revalued for its nutritional properties, is one of the main sources of omega-3 fatty acids. It is a short-day plant and sensitive to frost. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of growing chia in La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) (34°54′29″ S, 58°2′25″ W) by analyzing interpopulation variability between four accessions of this species. Chia was sown on February 11 in a randomized complete block design (three replicates). Ten uniform and representative plants per plot were labeled and monitored throughout the crop cycle. Phenological stages and morphological characteristics (plant height, width of the main stem, number of pairs of folded leaves and number of pairs of side shoots, and length of central inflorescence) were recorded from seedling emergence to harvest. The emergence and the first pair of unfolded leaves were recorded 3 and 10 days after sowing, respectively. The beginning of verticillaster emergence was detected after 50 days and the beginning of flowering after 66 days of sowing. The highest growth rates were achieved in CMP and EMP. After 77 days of sowing, CMP presented the highest values for the width of the main stem (10.4 mm) and height (90.89 cm), which were statistically different from EMP. The lowest variability between populations was found for the number of pairs of unfolded leaves and side shoots. The observed variability is promising for plant breeding to obtain cultivars capable of completing their cycle at this latitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Cooking on the Content and Bioaccessibility of Minerals in Pseudocereals
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017017 - 23 Oct 2022
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Abstract
The cooked Andean cereals can be considered a good source of minerals, contributing to the recommended daily intakes as observed in previous works. This study evaluated quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat’s chemical and nutritional compositions and their bioaccessibility through an in vitro gastric digestion [...] Read more.
The cooked Andean cereals can be considered a good source of minerals, contributing to the recommended daily intakes as observed in previous works. This study evaluated quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat’s chemical and nutritional compositions and their bioaccessibility through an in vitro gastric digestion simulation to understand their dietary changes. ICP-OES was used to quantify the mineral profile, and the impact of cooking on bioaccessibility was evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis. In this context, the contents of some essential minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese) were evaluated. The lowest cooking losses were noted for calcium in quinoa (67%), and the highest was found for zinc in buckwheat (73%). The calcium and manganese concentration varied considerably with boiling among Andean cereals. For copper, magnesium, iron and manganese, was observed a higher bioaccessibility in cooked quinoa and amaranth. The lowest bioaccessibility was detected for phosphorus in the boiled quinoa fraction (36%). The results highlight the need to consider the losses in bioavailability for minerals during digestion and the related influence on the estimation of proper nutrient intake. These results contribute to understanding the bioaccessibility of minerals in cooked Andean cereals and the changes in these nutrient contents through the boiling process. Other ongoing cooking processes lead to a scientific recommendation of the best cooking method for boosting nutrient intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Red and Gray Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Protein Hydrolysates: Food Prototypes with Pota (Dosidicus gigas) by-Product Meal
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017018 - 02 Nov 2022
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Abstract
The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) known as the ñuña, numia, or Andean popping bean, native to the central Andes of Peru, is often consumed as a snack food after a quick toasting process. The characterization of two of its varieties, red and [...] Read more.
The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) known as the ñuña, numia, or Andean popping bean, native to the central Andes of Peru, is often consumed as a snack food after a quick toasting process. The characterization of two of its varieties, red and gray ñuña beans, was performed to determine their proximate composition, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. Moisture content ranged from 12.67% (red ñuña bean) to 11.94% (gray ñuña bean); fat content varied from 1.77% (red ñuña bean) to 1.44% (gray ñuña bean); protein content was high, with a content range from 23.90% (red ñuña bean) to 26.81% (gray ñuña bean); ash content ranged from 4.04% (red ñuña bean) to 3.88% (gray ñuña bean); and a high content of carbohydrates was also found (from 57.60 to 55.94%). The phenolic compounds were consistently higher according to particle size, and the total phenolic content varied from 8589 µg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g powder (red ñuña bean) to 3478 µg GAE/g powder (gray ñuña bean), with antioxidant activity varying from 9879 µg trolox/g powder (red ñuña bean) to 5539 µg trolox/g powder (gray ñuña bean). Food prototypes were then developed with the hydrolyzed proteins from ñuña beans, mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tuber flour, purple corn (Zea mays L.) flour, and pota (Dosidicus gigas) by-product meal with a high content of protein and omega-3 acids (~50% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on total fat). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
Proceeding Paper
Development of Breads Fortified in Calcium and High Protein Content through the Use of Bean Flour and Regional Fruits
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017019 - 02 Nov 2022
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Abstract
The World Health Organization recommends the consumption of legumes and considers them good allies to achieve food security and reduce malnutrition worldwide. Bread offers the possibility of incorporating ingredients to improve one’s diet without changing their eating habits. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization recommends the consumption of legumes and considers them good allies to achieve food security and reduce malnutrition worldwide. Bread offers the possibility of incorporating ingredients to improve one’s diet without changing their eating habits. The objective of this study was to formulate and elaborate calcium-fortified bread, optimizing nutritional quality using protein supplementation with regionally produced ingredients, which are underutilized for domestic consumption. The variability of the protein quality of wheat flour and its mixtures with bean flour was studied. The proteins, fats, dietary fibre, ashes, and moisture were determined using AOAC methods. Volume, texture, and colour were also evaluated using a Vernier caliper, a TAXT plus Texturometer, and a Colour Quest XE spectrophotometer, respectively. The addition of calcium salts increased hardness, produced lighter crumbs and crust, and did not affect volume. The addition of fruit pulp did modify the colour and volume of the loaves. The moisture, protein, calcium, and sodium content of the baked goods were 42 g, 11.6 g, 443 mg, and 347 mg per 100 g of bread, respectively. A sodium reduction of 30% was obtained with the consequent increase in calcium, both critical nutrients by default. The breads produced are inexpensive and have higher contents of high-quality protein and calcium. Due to their ingredients and their nutritional and textural characteristics, the breads could be incorporated into the diets of vulnerable groups and contribute to the prevention of chronic and/or deficiency diseases. In addition, the use of regional products will encourage local production and therefore support the local economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Immunonutritional Benefits of Chenopodium quinoa’s Ingredients Preventing Obesity-Derived Metabolic Imbalances
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017020 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Over 1.6 billion people (aged 15 years and above) worldwide are currently either overweight or obese, and this number is predicted to increase to 2.3 billion by 2050 (WHO). Excessive or impaired energy storage in the liver incurs a high risk of liver [...] Read more.
Over 1.6 billion people (aged 15 years and above) worldwide are currently either overweight or obese, and this number is predicted to increase to 2.3 billion by 2050 (WHO). Excessive or impaired energy storage in the liver incurs a high risk of liver dysfunction and development of obesity, lipodystrophy, or cachexia, and impairs organismal homeostasis. Chenopodium quinoa seeds constitute a good source of immunonutritional compounds, enabling the selective functional differentiation and function of intrahepatic monocyte-derived macrophages. The latter play a key role in controlling adiposity associated with innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which determine the induction of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Herein, two immune-conditioned mouse models—Rag2−/− and Rag2−/−IL2−/−—were used to examine the influences preventing DIO with a protein-rich fraction (PRF) and oil obtained from C. quinoa seeds. Variations in myeloid cells and precursors of ILCs were evaluated by FACS analyses as well as the hepatosomatic index to estimate liver inflammation. Only the administration of C. quinoa PRF prevented alterations in the liver/body weight ratio, both in animals carrying ILCs (i.e., Rag2−/−) and not (Rag2−/−IL2−/−). These effects were associated with significantly decreased variations in the hepatic triglyceride content. FACS revealed that PRF from C. quinoa favors the hepatic infiltration of myeloid and enables the selective functional differentiation and function of intrahepatic monocyte-derived macrophages, preserving tissue integrity and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Chaco Prickly Pear (Cereus forbesii Otto ex C.F. Först): An Ancient Source of Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in the Diet of Indigenous Populations and Its Potential Application as an Ingredient in Derived Products
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017021 - 10 Nov 2022
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Abstract
In regions with a majority population of people belonging to indigenous peoples, the solutions to nutritional challenges such as overweight and obesity can go through the implementation of public policies that encourage the use of local and ancestral crops, which would also entail [...] Read more.
In regions with a majority population of people belonging to indigenous peoples, the solutions to nutritional challenges such as overweight and obesity can go through the implementation of public policies that encourage the use of local and ancestral crops, which would also entail the protection of food traditions. However, these foods can also be added to diets as processed products with high nutritional value. This work describes the centesimal composition and antioxidant potential of a wild prickly pear (Cereus forbesii Otto ex C.F. Först) from the Paraguayan Chaco, ancestral food of indigenous peoples, and the jam of this native fruit, a derived product, with the aim of making its nutritional potential known, its potential application in feeding programs and its incorporation in minimally processed foods. These foods mainly show an interesting contribution of micronutrients, soluble sugars, dietary fiber, and antioxidants as anthocyanins with an attractive color, that can replace critical nutrients such as artificial additives and excess sugars in the diet of the regional population. Knowledge of the nutritional and technological properties of regional foods will help strengthen and develop national and regional policies and programs for the development and promotion of local and indigenous products, within the framework of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Obtaining Integral Kurugua Flour with Antioxidant Potential as Ingredient Foodstuffs
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017022 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the drying process conditions on the antioxidant properties of the integral fruit of kurugua (Sicana odorifera Naud.). The experiments showed that the antioxidant activity of fresh samples of whole kurugua [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the drying process conditions on the antioxidant properties of the integral fruit of kurugua (Sicana odorifera Naud.). The experiments showed that the antioxidant activity of fresh samples of whole kurugua could vary significantly depending on the fruit batch used. The statistical analyses showed no significant differences in antioxidant activity among the drying conditions studied. However, it is important to highlight that the drying process conducted at 80 °C and at an average air speed of 5.8 m/s presented the lowest cost (2.2 USD kW/h), and after 10 h, the raw material reached an aw level of 0.297, which is enough to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. As it is known, a low aw allows for a longer shelf-life of a product and prevents the proliferation of molds and yeasts. There was no significant difference in the concentration of β-carotene between drying times; nevertheless, the resulting flour showed a decrease in luminosity and color variation (b*) with respect to the fresh samples, with a typical browning due to the effects of temperature and air drying. The influence of the drying conditions on the integral kurugua flour is discussed in order to obtain the best dry product. A field of work has opened for future research on the sensory profile and its potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Three-Layer Microcapsules of Chia Seed Oil Obtained for Electrostatic Deposition Technology
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017023 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Oils with high omega-3 fatty acids are known for their multiple health benefits. For this reason, new strategies have been developed to protect these fatty acids from lipid oxidation to incorporate them into foods. Microencapsulation is an attractive alternative for protecting and incorporating [...] Read more.
Oils with high omega-3 fatty acids are known for their multiple health benefits. For this reason, new strategies have been developed to protect these fatty acids from lipid oxidation to incorporate them into foods. Microencapsulation is an attractive alternative for protecting and incorporating chia oil in food matrices. A three-layer microencapsulation process was performed using a layer-by-layer technique with the addition of sunflower lecithin, chitosan, and chia mucilage by spray-drying. The microcapsules obtained were studied and stored in darkness at a controlled temperature and relative humidity for 90 days. The ζ-potential evidenced the electrostatic deposition of the layers in powders through the change of the values in the electric charge. Microcapsules showed a high microencapsulation efficiency and low moisture content and water activity levels. Microencapsulated chia oil presented low oxidation values (<10 meq hydroperoxides/kg oil) and high omega-3 fatty acid content after storage. These results suggest that the three-layer microcapsules studied are suitable to provide high stability against the oxidative deterioration of functional lipid components in chia oil and constitute a promising application in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
Proceeding Paper
Molecular Encapsulation of Hydrolyzed Chia Seed Oil by Ultrasonically Treated Amylose Inclusion Complexes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017024 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil is a naturally rich source of α-linolenic (~65%) and linoleic (~20%) essential fatty acids, which are known for their beneficial effects on health. However, they are highly susceptible to oxidative deterioration. Amylose, the linear component of [...] Read more.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil is a naturally rich source of α-linolenic (~65%) and linoleic (~20%) essential fatty acids, which are known for their beneficial effects on health. However, they are highly susceptible to oxidative deterioration. Amylose, the linear component of starch, has the ability to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules (ligand), which may act as delivery systems of sensitive bioactive compounds, including essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In the present work, the hydrolytic effectiveness of Candida rugosa and porcine pancreatic lipases to obtain chia seed oil-free fatty acids was compared, which were complexed with high-amylose starch through the alkaline method with and without the incorporation of ultrasonic treatment. The highest level of free fatty acids released (>80%) was reached with Candida rugosa lipase. The inclusion complexes formed with this hydrolysate displayed a typical V-type X-ray diffraction pattern (peaks at ~7.5, 13, and 20° (2θ)), which confirmed an effective complexation. Moreover, ultrasonically treated complexes displayed a small peak at ~21°, from crystallized saturated fatty acids. Through attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the presence of typical bands of fatty acids in the complexes was verified, whose intensity increased after the application of ultrasonic treatment. The dissociation temperature determined using differential scanning calorimetry was >90 °C. According to this, Candida rugosa lipase showed better hydrolytic effectiveness on chia seed oil, and the fatty acids released were able to form amylose inclusion complexes with high thermal stability, whose properties varied after ultrasonic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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Proceeding Paper
Variations in the Composition of “Algarrobas” (Prosopis sp.) Flours from Paraguayan Chaco
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 17(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2022017025 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Prosopis alba and Prosopis chilensis, popularly called carob trees in the South American Chaco, are arboreal species. Carob fruits are an ancestral food for human consumption, mainly in the form of flour. In recent years, the study of carob trees in Paraguay [...] Read more.
Prosopis alba and Prosopis chilensis, popularly called carob trees in the South American Chaco, are arboreal species. Carob fruits are an ancestral food for human consumption, mainly in the form of flour. In recent years, the study of carob trees in Paraguay has been based on the development of silvo-pastoral systems for livestock or as animal feed; very little is known about the compositional characteristics of the different varieties of carob that are part of the food systems, and that are used for the production of flours. Samples of flour from three autochthonous varieties of carob trees from the Central Chaco are evaluated for human consumption as a potential food ingredient in processed foods. They are evaluated for nutritional contribution, antioxidant potential and the preliminary evaluation of safety at the microbiological level. Official AOAC methods were used. The carob flour samples presented low humidity (less than 6%) and water activity (less than 0.45). The flours of the three species analyzed presented significant differences in their content of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber and, consequently, in their caloric value, with a high content of polyphenols and antioxidant potential detected by ABTS. Presence of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms and yeasts in the samples was observed. These results demonstrate the great food potential of carob flour from the Paraguayan Chaco, and indicate the need to address the food safety aspects of this type of wild-harvested food, to enhance their added value as ingredients for foodstuffs in the diet of regional populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference Ia ValSe-Food CYTED and VII Symposium Chia-Link)
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