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Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 23 articles

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Entry
Inhabited Institutionalism
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1494-1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030101 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 260
Definition
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to [...] Read more.
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to nested yet binary arguments about individual agency and structural conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Entry
T’amar Bagrationi (1184–1210)
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1483-1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030100 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 207
Definition
T’amar Bagrationi, Queen of Georgia (1184–1210). T’amar Bagrationi was the ninth monarch from the royal house of Bagrationis who ruled over the united Georgian Kingdom. She reigned as a co-monarch alongside her father, Giorgi III, from 1178, assuming full authority in 1184. During [...] Read more.
T’amar Bagrationi, Queen of Georgia (1184–1210). T’amar Bagrationi was the ninth monarch from the royal house of Bagrationis who ruled over the united Georgian Kingdom. She reigned as a co-monarch alongside her father, Giorgi III, from 1178, assuming full authority in 1184. During her reign, dynastic legitimacy necessitated the appearance of the monumental royal portraits displaying the monarch with immediate predecessors and heirs. T’amar’s gender required introduction of meticulous visual language that would re-gender her with all signs of a male ruler and justify her status and sole right to rule. This notion was embodied in her portraits that were carefully incorporated in the overall programmes of the churches. T’amar’s five monumental depictions survive where she is identified in inscriptions; two other monumental images are presumed to depict her. Of all the depictions, only one can be determined to have been commissioned directly by her. T’amar’s imagery relies on Byzantine elements and adheres to established Georgian models for the local royal portraiture; however, it also adopted sophisticated visual means that was aptly used for manifesting royal power and manipulating authority over the nobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Entry
Evolutionary Perspective on Improving Mental Health
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1464-1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030099 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 179
Definition
Mental issues are by many considered the main challenge for health authorities in industrialized nations. In this entry, I discuss an approach that may prove useful for ameliorating the situation and thereby improving quality of life. The analysis uses an understanding of the [...] Read more.
Mental issues are by many considered the main challenge for health authorities in industrialized nations. In this entry, I discuss an approach that may prove useful for ameliorating the situation and thereby improving quality of life. The analysis uses an understanding of the brain based on evolution and neurobiology, so consequently the ideas presented differ somewhat from traditional psychological thinking. Briefly, it appears likely that the problems with psychopathology are partly due to a lifestyle at odds with human nature. The key for finding preventive measures then is to identify the contributing mismatches. Based on the present perspective, therapeutic interventions can be construed as altering the brain by exercising functions that ought to be strengthened. By understanding brain plasticity, and the functions that are likely to need improvement in relation to mental health, we stand a better chance at devising interventions that work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Sciences)
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Entry
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Fungal Spores and Plant Bioactive Compounds
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1453-1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030098 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 210
Definition
Fungi, and their spores, are responsible for the spoilage of several foods and plants and are susceptible to contamination with mycotoxins, which have associated health hazards. In this context, proper methodologies for inactivating such fungi and controlling mycotoxin production are critical. High-pressure processing [...] Read more.
Fungi, and their spores, are responsible for the spoilage of several foods and plants and are susceptible to contamination with mycotoxins, which have associated health hazards. In this context, proper methodologies for inactivating such fungi and controlling mycotoxin production are critical. High-pressure processing (HPP) has recently become popular as a nonthermal alternative to conventional thermal pasteurization processes. Even though HPP can effectively eliminate some fungal spores, some species, such as those from the genera Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, and Aspergillus, are quite resistant to this treatment. Additionally, high pressure can also be used as a cold extraction technique for bioactive compounds from medicinal plants and other matrices (termed high pressure-assisted extraction, HPE). With this method, safe use for food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications is guaranteed. This method simultaneously works (depending on the applied pressure level) as an extraction technique and induces the pasteurization effect on the extracts. This encyclopedia entry aims to highlight the effects of nonthermal HPP on fungal spores, the prevalence of mycotoxins in plant materials and how high pressure can be used as an extraction technique to produce high-value cold pasteurized extracts with biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Entry
Solar Architecture in Energy Engineering
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1432-1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030097 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 230
Definition
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy [...] Read more.
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy mix. The principles of Solar Architecture include maximizing solar energy harvesting from solution’s surfaces with a positive balance of energy, carbon, and cost provided by the solution. Solar Architecture application selection is built on two major cornerstones, features and groups, defining the best options in energy engineering of a solar solution. Solar surfaces are key to solar architecture. They are the “heart”, and balance-of-system components are the “muscles” of solar solutions. Addressing energy losses in photovoltaic, solar to thermal, and solar to chemical energy conversion allows for increasing energy harvesting yield. Life Cycle Assessment and solar energy harvesting methodologies based on solar surface characteristics define Solar Architecture Balance. This balance allows for defining energy, carbon, and cost return on investment for solar solutions and selecting the best solution for related assets/environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Lichen as Multipartner Symbiotic Relationships
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1421-1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030096 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 316
Definition
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance [...] Read more.
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance is the existence of the lichen microbiome, which is a community of microorganisms that can be found living together on the lichen surface. This community performs a growing number of functions. In this entry, we explore the journey of lichens being considered from a dual partnership to a multi-species symbiotic relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Entry
Bioplastic as a Substitute for Plastic in Construction Industry
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1408-1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030095 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 432
Definition
Bioplastics have proven to be a viable substitute for plastics in some sectors, although their use in construction is still limited. The construction sector currently uses 23% of the world’s plastic production, both for the materials themselves and for their packaging and protection. [...] Read more.
Bioplastics have proven to be a viable substitute for plastics in some sectors, although their use in construction is still limited. The construction sector currently uses 23% of the world’s plastic production, both for the materials themselves and for their packaging and protection. A considerable part is not recycled and is dispersed into the environment or ends up in landfills. In response to the environmental problems caused by oil-based plastic pollution, the development of biocomposite materials such as bioplastics represents a paradigm shift. This entry aims to explain what bioplastics are, providing a classification and the description of the different properties and applications. It also lays out the most interesting uses of these materials in the construction field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Entry
Cultures of Spalting
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1395-1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030094 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 264
Definition
Wood decayed and colored by fungi, colloquially known as ‘spalted wood’, has been a source of art and folklore across numerous cultures. From intarsia and marquetry in Italy and Germany to woodturning in the U.S. and carving and mythology in Chile, the uses [...] Read more.
Wood decayed and colored by fungi, colloquially known as ‘spalted wood’, has been a source of art and folklore across numerous cultures. From intarsia and marquetry in Italy and Germany to woodturning in the U.S. and carving and mythology in Chile, the uses of, and stories about, spalted wood are explored, as well as how those have shaped their surrounding cultures as well as modern science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Entry
Society, Work and Precarity
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1384-1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030093 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 299
Definition
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand [...] Read more.
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand how work creates and changes the social conditions we call societies. However, work also creates different levels of freedom and equality; which manifest as different types and degrees of precarity in what I call ‘work societies’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
Entry
Telework: Before and after COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1370-1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030092 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 379
Definition
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis [...] Read more.
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis of an agreed supervisory mechanism and an online reporting system on the work undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Review
Can Bioenergy Once again Become a Major Global Energy Source?
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1357-1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030091 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
For all of human history except the past two centuries or so, bioenergy provided nearly all the world’s primary energy. Then, fossil fuels largely replaced bioenergy, but concern about climate change and fossil fuel depletion will force a move back to renewable energy, [...] Read more.
For all of human history except the past two centuries or so, bioenergy provided nearly all the world’s primary energy. Then, fossil fuels largely replaced bioenergy, but concern about climate change and fossil fuel depletion will force a move back to renewable energy, including bioenergy. The main method used here to study the future of global bioenergy was a literature surview of relevant published papers, with emphasis both on those published after 2020, and those having a global focus. The key finding is that bioenergy is unlikely to greatly increase its share of global energy consumption, for several reasons. Liquid biofuel production for transport is likely to almost disappear as countries progressively phase out internal combustion engine vehicles. Traditional firewood use is also projected to fall. There are also doubts about the technical potential of bioenergy, not only because it must compete with the other uses for biomass—food, fodder, fibre and timber—but also because in many cases its climate change mitigation impact is less than for other approaches, including alternative renewable energy sources. The overall conclusion is that bioenergy will have a minor but still useful role in the future global energy system, but global energy reductions are likely to be more important for climate stability than bioenergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Review
Syndemic: A Synergistic Anthropological Approach to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1344-1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030090 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic [...] Read more.
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic pandemic”. The term “syndemic” was originally developed by the medical anthropologist Merrill Singer in the 1990s in order to recognize the correlation between HIV/AIDS, illicit drug use, and violence in the United States. This complex interplay exacerbated the burden of the disease and the prognosis of the patient. Similarly, in COVID-19 infection, socio-economic, ethnic, and racial inequities result in higher morbidity and mortality in certain sections of society. Unfortunately, such differences are becoming too common during the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of the incidence and prevalence of the disease, as well as inequal access to new medical advances and life-saving therapeutics for those with COVID-19, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibody treatment. Lockdown measures, imposed internationally as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, are causing economic inequities, which complicate the issue even further. An appropriate syndemic anthropological approach is necessary to ensure that this pandemic does not increase health inequities in access to appropriate treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Hygiene and Applied Allergology)
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Entry
Mechanics and Natural Philosophy in History
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1333-1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030089 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 354
Definition
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for [...] Read more.
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for the development of modern physics and science in general. Since we are not concerned with the summation of the histories of natural philosophy and mechanics, but only with their interrelations, this makes a detailed description of the two disciplines unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
Entry
Sharing Economy
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1322-1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030088 - 07 Jul 2022
Viewed by 337
Definition
Sharing economy is a new type of economic performance with its main characteristic being the sharing among peers. This can be regarded as a new economical approach with the individuals sharing their remainder resources. In this way, there is less need for the [...] Read more.
Sharing economy is a new type of economic performance with its main characteristic being the sharing among peers. This can be regarded as a new economical approach with the individuals sharing their remainder resources. In this way, there is less need for the possession of resources leading to a decrease in redundant production. However, many implications arise from this type of economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
Review
A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1296-1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030087 - 07 Jul 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive review of past and existing works on 5G systems with a laser focus on 5G Satellite Integration (SATis5) for commercial and defense applications. The holistic survey approach is used to gain an in-depth understanding of 5G-Terrestrial Network (5G-TN), [...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive review of past and existing works on 5G systems with a laser focus on 5G Satellite Integration (SATis5) for commercial and defense applications. The holistic survey approach is used to gain an in-depth understanding of 5G-Terrestrial Network (5G-TN), 5G-Non-Terrestrial Network (5G-NTN), SATis5 testbeds, and projects along with related SATis5 architectures. Based on the survey results, the review provides (i) outlook perspectives on potential SATis5 architectures for current and future integrated defense and commercial satellite communication (SATCOM) with 5G systems, and (ii) a thorough understanding of problems associated with anticipated outlooks and corresponding studies addressing these problems. The commercial SATis5 architectures discussed here can be extended to civilian SATCOM applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Entry
Organizational Justice: Typology, Antecedents and Consequences
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1287-1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030086 - 06 Jul 2022
Viewed by 344
Definition
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational [...] Read more.
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational justice perceptions have consequences for the employee and the organization: increasing job satisfaction, commitment, and trust; and decreasing turnover, counterproductive work behaviors, and even workplace violence. Contemporary organizational justice research seeks to understand how to restore justice after an injustice has occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
Entry
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1260-1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030085 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 355
Definition
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure [...] Read more.
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure in the 1960s allowed buildings to be built taller with low material consumption. Due to the obstructive nature of the closely spaced exterior columns of framed tubes and bracings of braced tubes, the core-outrigger system gained acceptance by the architects as it allowed them to freely articulate the façade design. However, the conventional tubular structures continued to retain their use for tall buildings to a lesser degree and later underwent a resurgence in modified forms. These and other advanced tubular forms in cutting-edge structural systems developed later continue to find application in modern times. This study presents a detailed narrative of different structural systems for tall buildings that is expected to assist structural engineers and architects to collaboratively select appropriate structural systems for tall buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Three Kinds of Butterfly Effects within Lorenz Models
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1250-1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030084 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 673
Definition
Within Lorenz models, the three major kinds of butterfly effects (BEs) are the sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC), the ability of a tiny perturbation to create an organized circulation at large distances, and the hypothetical role of small-scale processes in contributing to [...] Read more.
Within Lorenz models, the three major kinds of butterfly effects (BEs) are the sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC), the ability of a tiny perturbation to create an organized circulation at large distances, and the hypothetical role of small-scale processes in contributing to finite predictability, referred to as the first, second, and third kinds of butterfly effects (BE1, BE2, and BE3), respectively. A well-accepted definition of the butterfly effect is the BE1 with SDIC, which was rediscovered by Lorenz in 1963. In fact, the use of the term “butterfly” appeared in a conference presentation by Lorenz in 1972, when Lorenz introduced the BE2 as the metaphorical butterfly effect. In 2014, the so-called “real butterfly effect”, which is based on the features of Lorenz’s study in 1969, was introduced as the BE3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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Entry
The Role of GNSS-RTN in Transportation Applications
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1237-1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030083 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 325
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a broader geographic region. Such systems can provide geospatial location data with centimeter-level accuracy anywhere within the network. Geospatial location services are not only used in measuring ground distances and mapping topography; they have also become vital in many other fields such as aerospace, aviation, natural disaster management, and agriculture, to name but a few. The innovative and multi-disciplinary applications of geospatial data drive technological advancement towards precise and accurate location services available in real-time. Although GNSS-RTN technology is currently utilized in a few industries such as precision farming, construction industry, and land surveying, the implications of precise real-time location services would be far-reaching and more critical to many advanced transportation applications. The GNSS-RTN technology is promising in meeting the needs of automation in most advanced transportation applications. This article presents an overview of the GNSS-RTN technology, its current applications in transportation-related fields, and a perspective on the future use of this technology in advanced transportation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Photoremovable Protecting Groups
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1225-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030082 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 331
Definition
Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) (also often called photocages in the literature) are used for temporary inactivation of biologically active substrates. By photoirradiation the PPG could be cleaved off and the biological activity could be restored on-demand, with a high spatiotemporal precision. The on-site [...] Read more.
Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) (also often called photocages in the literature) are used for temporary inactivation of biologically active substrates. By photoirradiation the PPG could be cleaved off and the biological activity could be restored on-demand, with a high spatiotemporal precision. The on-site liberation of the biologically active substrate could be exploited for studying dynamic biological processes or for designing targeted pharmacological interventions in vitro or in vivo. Several chemical scaffolds have been described and tested as PPGs, operating at different wavelengths. The scope of potential substrates is very broad, spanning from small molecules to proteins. In a wider context, PPGs could be used for the design of various light-responsive materials as well, for diverse applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Entry
Culture and COVID-19: Impact of Cross-Cultural Dimensions on Behavioral Responses
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030081 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 413
Definition
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional [...] Read more.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional and policy-based responses to the pandemic. However, to gain a holistic understanding of the pandemic response strategy and its effectiveness, it is also important to understand the cultural foundations of a society driving its response behavior. Towards that end, this entry focuses on a few key cultural dimensions of difference across countries and proposes that national culture is related to the protective behavior adopted by societies during COVID-19. The cultural dimensions examined in relation to COVID-19 include the dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and femininity, and future orientation. Inferences are drawn from academic research, published data, and discernible indicators of social behavior. The entry provides pointers for each dimension of culture and proposes that cultural awareness be made an important element of policy making while responding to crises such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Otovestibular Symptoms of COVID-19 and Its Vaccines/Treatments
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1200-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030080 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 495
Definition
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of [...] Read more.
The rapidly developing literature regarding COVID-19 and its treatments has documented an impressive breadth of pathology across multiple organ systems. In this entry, researchers highlight the audiologic and vestibular manifestations that have been reported in association with COVID-19, its vaccines, and some of its treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Social, Cultural, and Economic Determinants of Well-Being
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1183-1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030079 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 444
Definition
Individual well-being is influenced by a number of economic and social factors that include income, mental health, physical health, education, social relationships, employment, discrimination, government policies, and neighborhood conditions. Well-being involves both physical and mental health as part of a holistic approach to [...] Read more.
Individual well-being is influenced by a number of economic and social factors that include income, mental health, physical health, education, social relationships, employment, discrimination, government policies, and neighborhood conditions. Well-being involves both physical and mental health as part of a holistic approach to health promotion and disease prevention. The well-being of a society’s people has the potential to impact the well-being and productivity of the society as a whole. Though it may be assessed at the individual level, well-being becomes an important population outcome at the macro level and therefore represents a public health issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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