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Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 32 articles

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13 pages, 561 KiB  
Entry
Metal-Ion Batteries
by Yi Liu and Rudolf Holze
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1611-1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030110 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4481
Definition
Metal-ion batteries are systems for electrochemical energy conversion and storage with only one kind of ion shuttling between the negative and the positive electrode during discharge and charge. This concept also known as rocking-chair battery has been made highly popular with the lithium-ion [...] Read more.
Metal-ion batteries are systems for electrochemical energy conversion and storage with only one kind of ion shuttling between the negative and the positive electrode during discharge and charge. This concept also known as rocking-chair battery has been made highly popular with the lithium-ion battery as its most popular example. The principle can also be applied with other cations both mono- and multivalent. This might have implications and advantages in terms of increased safety, lower expenses, and utilizing materials, in particular metals, not being subject to resource limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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9 pages, 396 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 Pandemic as a Transitional Event: From the Perspective of the Transition Theory
by Eamin Z. Heanoy, Tugba Uzer and Norman R. Brown
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1602-1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030109 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3936
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of people’s lives across the globe. It is also unique in the way it changed their lives. In this entry, a framework, the Transition Theory, is outlined, which is used to interpret the transitional properties of this pandemic, the ways it differs from other transitional events, and how it impacts the lives and well-being of the individuals. The prediction is that people might consider the pandemic as an important life transition event only if there is a little similarity between their pre-pandemic and post-pandemic lives. Individual differences also need to be considered as those whose lives have been directly affected by the pandemic experience a greater COVID-related change (e.g., job loss vs. no job loss). Lastly, the transitional impact of the pandemic might have a strong link with people’s mental outcomes. These notions call for a longitudinal approach to get an accurate understanding of the pandemic experience while this world-changing event unfolds rather than in retrospect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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12 pages, 854 KiB  
Entry
Fungal Metabolites in Human Health and Diseases—An Overview
by Manal Esheli, Bathini Thissera, Hesham R. El-Seedi and Mostafa E. Rateb
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1590-1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030108 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3583
Definition
Fungi produce a wide range of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites are toxic to humans and cause various health disorders, ranging from acute poisoning to chronic diseases. Contrary to this, some fungal metabolites are valuable sources in therapeutics, such as penicillin. Herein, [...] Read more.
Fungi produce a wide range of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites are toxic to humans and cause various health disorders, ranging from acute poisoning to chronic diseases. Contrary to this, some fungal metabolites are valuable sources in therapeutics, such as penicillin. Herein, researchers briefly highlight the role played by different fungal metabolites in human health and diseases and give an overview of the most common fungal genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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13 pages, 1244 KiB  
Review
Benefits of Table Tennis for Brain Health Maintenance and Prevention of Dementia
by Takao Yamasaki
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1577-1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030107 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 19937
Abstract
Table tennis is an extremely popular sport throughout the world as it requires no expensive equipment, specialized amenities, or physical contact among players, and the pace of play can be adapted to allow participation by players of all skill levels, ages, and abilities. [...] Read more.
Table tennis is an extremely popular sport throughout the world as it requires no expensive equipment, specialized amenities, or physical contact among players, and the pace of play can be adapted to allow participation by players of all skill levels, ages, and abilities. It is an aerobic-dominant sport driven primarily by the phosphagen system because rallies are relatively brief (several seconds) and separated by longer rest periods. Several studies have shown that physical interventions including table tennis can help prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Accordingly, the present paper provides an overview of the basic physical and cognitive demands of table tennis, reviews previous studies reporting improvements in physical and brain health across different non-clinical and clinical populations, and critically evaluates the usefulness of table tennis intervention for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. This review suggests that table tennis intervention could be a powerful strategy to prevent cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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18 pages, 4441 KiB  
Entry
Mismatch Repair Deficiency and Microsatellite Instability
by Sandra Schöniger and Josef Rüschoff
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1559-1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030106 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5442
Definition
Mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd) is caused by the biallelic inactivation of an MMR gene, which can be attributed either to an inherited or an acquired pathway. MMRd is characterized by the inability of cells to repair spontaneous mutations in microsatellites that occur during [...] Read more.
Mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd) is caused by the biallelic inactivation of an MMR gene, which can be attributed either to an inherited or an acquired pathway. MMRd is characterized by the inability of cells to repair spontaneous mutations in microsatellites that occur during replication. Microsatellites are repetitive nucleotide sequences composed of one to six base pairs. Mutations in microsatellites lead to deletions or insertions of sequence units that are designated as microsatellite instability (MSI). MMRd is diagnosed by immunochemistry and is characterized by loss of nuclear immunostaining for at least one of the four MMR proteins that are routinely examined, i.e., MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2. Available tests for MSI are PCR and next generation sequencing. MMRd and MSI predispose to tumor initiation and progression, increase tumor mutational burden as well as tumor immunogenicity, facilitate the activation of the programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint pathway and serve as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in solid tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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14 pages, 955 KiB  
Entry
Oxidative Stress in Relation to Aging and Exercise
by Dimphna Verhaegen, Kelly Smits, Nádia Osório and Armando Caseiro
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1545-1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030105 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3368
Definition
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, resulting in disruption of redox signaling and control and causing molecular damage. Oxidative stress is related to a variety of diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, resulting in disruption of redox signaling and control and causing molecular damage. Oxidative stress is related to a variety of diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and cancer. It might be that oxidative stress, and, more specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), affects longevity in a subtle way through signaling. Possible therapies to reduce oxidative stress in the elderly are nutritional intervention (for example, caloric restriction (CR)) and exercise. Exercise is associated with favorable changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes and the oxidative stress status in general. A diet with CR also seems to be a promising way to reduce oxidative stress by decreasing oxidant emission and improving antioxidant mechanisms. A better understanding of where the antioxidant mechanisms in the elderly fail could be a big step forward in developing new therapies (such as exercise or diet) that prevent oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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17 pages, 269 KiB  
Entry
Development of the Concept of Space up to Newton
by Danilo Capecchi
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1528-1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030104 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1620
Definition
The concept of space, ubiquitous among all humans from birth, has changed profoundly in the course of the history of Western civilization, the only one to be considered here. An important contribution to this change was the theoretical elaborations of the philosophers of [...] Read more.
The concept of space, ubiquitous among all humans from birth, has changed profoundly in the course of the history of Western civilization, the only one to be considered here. An important contribution to this change was the theoretical elaborations of the philosophers of nature and mathematicians, started in Ancient Greece. Here, the process is considered up to Newton, when the concept of space for physicists, who then replaced the traditional philosophers of nature, took on a connotation that remained substantially undisputed for two centuries—that of absolute space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
11 pages, 590 KiB  
Entry
Undecidability and Quantum Mechanics
by Canio Noce and Alfonso Romano
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1517-1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030103 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Definition
Recently, great attention has been devoted to the problem of the undecidability of specific questions in quantum mechanics. In this context, it has been shown that the problem of the existence of a spectral gap, i.e., energy difference between the ground state and [...] Read more.
Recently, great attention has been devoted to the problem of the undecidability of specific questions in quantum mechanics. In this context, it has been shown that the problem of the existence of a spectral gap, i.e., energy difference between the ground state and the first excited state, is algorithmically undecidable. Using this result herein proves that the existence of a quantum phase transition, as inferred from specific microscopic approaches, is an undecidable problem, too. Indeed, some methods, usually adopted to study quantum phase transitions, rely on the existence of a spectral gap. Since there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary quantum model is gapped or gapless, and there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics, it infers that the existence of quantum phase transitions is an undecidable problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Applications of Quantum Mechanics)
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14 pages, 681 KiB  
Entry
Higher Cognition: A Mechanical Perspective
by Robert Friedman
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1503-1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030102 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1897
Definition
Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge by the mechanical process of information flow in a system. In cognition, input is received by the sensory modalities and the output may occur as a motor or other response. The sensory information is internally transformed to [...] Read more.
Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge by the mechanical process of information flow in a system. In cognition, input is received by the sensory modalities and the output may occur as a motor or other response. The sensory information is internally transformed to a set of representations, which is the basis for downstream cognitive processing. This is in contrast to the traditional definition based on mental processes, a phenomenon of the mind that originates in past ideas of philosophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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9 pages, 1108 KiB  
Entry
Inhabited Institutionalism
by Callie Cleckner and Tim Hallett
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1494-1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030101 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2860
Definition
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to [...] Read more.
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to nested yet binary arguments about individual agency and structural conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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11 pages, 2327 KiB  
Entry
T’amar Bagrationi (1184–1210)
by Irakli Tezelashvili
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1483-1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030100 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1802
Definition
T’amar Bagrationi, Queen of Georgia (1184–1210). T’amar Bagrationi was the ninth monarch from the royal house of Bagrationis who ruled over the united Georgian Kingdom. She reigned as a co-monarch alongside her father, Giorgi III, from 1178, assuming full authority in 1184. During [...] Read more.
T’amar Bagrationi, Queen of Georgia (1184–1210). T’amar Bagrationi was the ninth monarch from the royal house of Bagrationis who ruled over the united Georgian Kingdom. She reigned as a co-monarch alongside her father, Giorgi III, from 1178, assuming full authority in 1184. During her reign, dynastic legitimacy necessitated the appearance of the monumental royal portraits displaying the monarch with immediate predecessors and heirs. T’amar’s gender required introduction of meticulous visual language that would re-gender her with all signs of a male ruler and justify her status and sole right to rule. This notion was embodied in her portraits that were carefully incorporated in the overall programmes of the churches. T’amar’s five monumental depictions survive where she is identified in inscriptions; two other monumental images are presumed to depict her. Of all the depictions, only one can be determined to have been commissioned directly by her. T’amar’s imagery relies on Byzantine elements and adheres to established Georgian models for the local royal portraiture; however, it also adopted sophisticated visual means that was aptly used for manifesting royal power and manipulating authority over the nobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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19 pages, 1485 KiB  
Entry
Evolutionary Perspective on Improving Mental Health
by Bjørn Grinde
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1464-1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030099 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1894
Definition
Mental issues are by many considered the main challenge for health authorities in industrialized nations. In this entry, I discuss an approach that may prove useful for ameliorating the situation and thereby improving quality of life. The analysis uses an understanding of the [...] Read more.
Mental issues are by many considered the main challenge for health authorities in industrialized nations. In this entry, I discuss an approach that may prove useful for ameliorating the situation and thereby improving quality of life. The analysis uses an understanding of the brain based on evolution and neurobiology, so consequently the ideas presented differ somewhat from traditional psychological thinking. Briefly, it appears likely that the problems with psychopathology are partly due to a lifestyle at odds with human nature. The key for finding preventive measures then is to identify the contributing mismatches. Based on the present perspective, therapeutic interventions can be construed as altering the brain by exercising functions that ought to be strengthened. By understanding brain plasticity, and the functions that are likely to need improvement in relation to mental health, we stand a better chance at devising interventions that work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Sciences)
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11 pages, 2554 KiB  
Entry
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Fungal Spores and Plant Bioactive Compounds
by Carlos A. Pinto, Maria Holovicova, Marta Habanova, Vasco Lima, Ricardo V. Duarte, Francisco J. Barba and Jorge A. Saraiva
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1453-1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030098 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2130
Definition
Fungi, and their spores, are responsible for the spoilage of several foods and plants and are susceptible to contamination with mycotoxins, which have associated health hazards. In this context, proper methodologies for inactivating such fungi and controlling mycotoxin production are critical. High-pressure processing [...] Read more.
Fungi, and their spores, are responsible for the spoilage of several foods and plants and are susceptible to contamination with mycotoxins, which have associated health hazards. In this context, proper methodologies for inactivating such fungi and controlling mycotoxin production are critical. High-pressure processing (HPP) has recently become popular as a nonthermal alternative to conventional thermal pasteurization processes. Even though HPP can effectively eliminate some fungal spores, some species, such as those from the genera Byssochlamys, Talaromyces, and Aspergillus, are quite resistant to this treatment. Additionally, high pressure can also be used as a cold extraction technique for bioactive compounds from medicinal plants and other matrices (termed high pressure-assisted extraction, HPE). With this method, safe use for food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications is guaranteed. This method simultaneously works (depending on the applied pressure level) as an extraction technique and induces the pasteurization effect on the extracts. This encyclopedia entry aims to highlight the effects of nonthermal HPP on fungal spores, the prevalence of mycotoxins in plant materials and how high pressure can be used as an extraction technique to produce high-value cold pasteurized extracts with biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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21 pages, 12603 KiB  
Entry
Solar Architecture in Energy Engineering
by Alexandre Pavlovski
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1432-1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030097 - 9 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2973
Definition
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy [...] Read more.
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy mix. The principles of Solar Architecture include maximizing solar energy harvesting from solution’s surfaces with a positive balance of energy, carbon, and cost provided by the solution. Solar Architecture application selection is built on two major cornerstones, features and groups, defining the best options in energy engineering of a solar solution. Solar surfaces are key to solar architecture. They are the “heart”, and balance-of-system components are the “muscles” of solar solutions. Addressing energy losses in photovoltaic, solar to thermal, and solar to chemical energy conversion allows for increasing energy harvesting yield. Life Cycle Assessment and solar energy harvesting methodologies based on solar surface characteristics define Solar Architecture Balance. This balance allows for defining energy, carbon, and cost return on investment for solar solutions and selecting the best solution for related assets/environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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11 pages, 2251 KiB  
Entry
Lichen as Multipartner Symbiotic Relationships
by Lourdes Morillas, Javier Roales, Cristina Cruz and Silvana Munzi
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1421-1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030096 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8793
Definition
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance [...] Read more.
Lichens have long been considered as composite organisms composed of algae and/or cyanobacteria hosted by a fungus in a mutualistic relationship. Other organisms have been gradually discovered within the lichen thalli, such as multiple algal species, yeasts, or even viruses. Of pivotal relevance is the existence of the lichen microbiome, which is a community of microorganisms that can be found living together on the lichen surface. This community performs a growing number of functions. In this entry, we explore the journey of lichens being considered from a dual partnership to a multi-species symbiotic relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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13 pages, 1433 KiB  
Entry
Bioplastic as a Substitute for Plastic in Construction Industry
by Ilaria Oberti and Alessia Paciello
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1408-1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030095 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8392
Definition
Bioplastics have proven to be a viable substitute for plastics in some sectors, although their use in construction is still limited. The construction sector currently uses 23% of the world’s plastic production, both for the materials themselves and for their packaging and protection. [...] Read more.
Bioplastics have proven to be a viable substitute for plastics in some sectors, although their use in construction is still limited. The construction sector currently uses 23% of the world’s plastic production, both for the materials themselves and for their packaging and protection. A considerable part is not recycled and is dispersed into the environment or ends up in landfills. In response to the environmental problems caused by oil-based plastic pollution, the development of biocomposite materials such as bioplastics represents a paradigm shift. This entry aims to explain what bioplastics are, providing a classification and the description of the different properties and applications. It also lays out the most interesting uses of these materials in the construction field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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13 pages, 6714 KiB  
Entry
Cultures of Spalting
by Seri C. Robinson
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1395-1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030094 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2035
Definition
Wood decayed and colored by fungi, colloquially known as ‘spalted wood’, has been a source of art and folklore across numerous cultures. From intarsia and marquetry in Italy and Germany to woodturning in the U.S. and carving and mythology in Chile, the uses [...] Read more.
Wood decayed and colored by fungi, colloquially known as ‘spalted wood’, has been a source of art and folklore across numerous cultures. From intarsia and marquetry in Italy and Germany to woodturning in the U.S. and carving and mythology in Chile, the uses of, and stories about, spalted wood are explored, as well as how those have shaped their surrounding cultures as well as modern science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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11 pages, 248 KiB  
Entry
Society, Work and Precarity
by Norbert Ebert
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1384-1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030093 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1893
Definition
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand [...] Read more.
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand how work creates and changes the social conditions we call societies. However, work also creates different levels of freedom and equality; which manifest as different types and degrees of precarity in what I call ‘work societies’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
14 pages, 2473 KiB  
Entry
Telework: Before and after COVID-19
by Mirela Cătălina Türkeș and Daniela Roxana Vuță
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1370-1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030092 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4617
Definition
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis [...] Read more.
Telework is, today, a voluntary form of work organization in which the employee is located outside the employer’s premises, at home or elsewhere, under a telework contract, uses information and communication technologies (ICT) and works according to a predetermined schedule on the basis of an agreed supervisory mechanism and an online reporting system on the work undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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13 pages, 1019 KiB  
Review
Can Bioenergy Once again Become a Major Global Energy Source?
by Patrick Moriarty
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1357-1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030091 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
For all of human history except the past two centuries or so, bioenergy provided nearly all the world’s primary energy. Then, fossil fuels largely replaced bioenergy, but concern about climate change and fossil fuel depletion will force a move back to renewable energy, [...] Read more.
For all of human history except the past two centuries or so, bioenergy provided nearly all the world’s primary energy. Then, fossil fuels largely replaced bioenergy, but concern about climate change and fossil fuel depletion will force a move back to renewable energy, including bioenergy. The main method used here to study the future of global bioenergy was a literature surview of relevant published papers, with emphasis both on those published after 2020, and those having a global focus. The key finding is that bioenergy is unlikely to greatly increase its share of global energy consumption, for several reasons. Liquid biofuel production for transport is likely to almost disappear as countries progressively phase out internal combustion engine vehicles. Traditional firewood use is also projected to fall. There are also doubts about the technical potential of bioenergy, not only because it must compete with the other uses for biomass—food, fodder, fibre and timber—but also because in many cases its climate change mitigation impact is less than for other approaches, including alternative renewable energy sources. The overall conclusion is that bioenergy will have a minor but still useful role in the future global energy system, but global energy reductions are likely to be more important for climate stability than bioenergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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13 pages, 525 KiB  
Review
Syndemic: A Synergistic Anthropological Approach to the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Giuseppe Calcaterra, Pier Paolo Bassareo, Francesco Barilla, Francesco Romeo, Cesare de Gregorio, Paulette Mehta and Jawahar L. Mehta
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1344-1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030090 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic [...] Read more.
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic pandemic”. The term “syndemic” was originally developed by the medical anthropologist Merrill Singer in the 1990s in order to recognize the correlation between HIV/AIDS, illicit drug use, and violence in the United States. This complex interplay exacerbated the burden of the disease and the prognosis of the patient. Similarly, in COVID-19 infection, socio-economic, ethnic, and racial inequities result in higher morbidity and mortality in certain sections of society. Unfortunately, such differences are becoming too common during the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of the incidence and prevalence of the disease, as well as inequal access to new medical advances and life-saving therapeutics for those with COVID-19, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibody treatment. Lockdown measures, imposed internationally as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, are causing economic inequities, which complicate the issue even further. An appropriate syndemic anthropological approach is necessary to ensure that this pandemic does not increase health inequities in access to appropriate treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Hygiene)
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11 pages, 249 KiB  
Entry
Mechanics and Natural Philosophy in History
by Danilo Capecchi and Giuseppe Ruta
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1333-1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030089 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1744
Definition
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for [...] Read more.
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for the development of modern physics and science in general. Since we are not concerned with the summation of the histories of natural philosophy and mechanics, but only with their interrelations, this makes a detailed description of the two disciplines unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
11 pages, 283 KiB  
Entry
Sharing Economy
by Theodoros Daglis
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1322-1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030088 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5470
Definition
Sharing economy is a new type of economic performance with its main characteristic being the sharing among peers. This can be regarded as a new economical approach with the individuals sharing their remainder resources. In this way, there is less need for the [...] Read more.
Sharing economy is a new type of economic performance with its main characteristic being the sharing among peers. This can be regarded as a new economical approach with the individuals sharing their remainder resources. In this way, there is less need for the possession of resources leading to a decrease in redundant production. However, many implications arise from this type of economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
26 pages, 6903 KiB  
Review
A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration
by Tien M. Nguyen, Khanh D. Pham, John Nguyen, Genshe Chen, Charles H. Lee and Sam Behseta
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1296-1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030087 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4031
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive review of past and existing works on 5G systems with a laser focus on 5G Satellite Integration (SATis5) for commercial and defense applications. The holistic survey approach is used to gain an in-depth understanding of 5G-Terrestrial Network (5G-TN), [...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive review of past and existing works on 5G systems with a laser focus on 5G Satellite Integration (SATis5) for commercial and defense applications. The holistic survey approach is used to gain an in-depth understanding of 5G-Terrestrial Network (5G-TN), 5G-Non-Terrestrial Network (5G-NTN), SATis5 testbeds, and projects along with related SATis5 architectures. Based on the survey results, the review provides (i) outlook perspectives on potential SATis5 architectures for current and future integrated defense and commercial satellite communication (SATCOM) with 5G systems, and (ii) a thorough understanding of problems associated with anticipated outlooks and corresponding studies addressing these problems. The commercial SATis5 architectures discussed here can be extended to civilian SATCOM applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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9 pages, 259 KiB  
Entry
Organizational Justice: Typology, Antecedents and Consequences
by Jennifer Wiseman and Amelia Stillwell
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1287-1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030086 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5253
Definition
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational [...] Read more.
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational justice perceptions have consequences for the employee and the organization: increasing job satisfaction, commitment, and trust; and decreasing turnover, counterproductive work behaviors, and even workplace violence. Contemporary organizational justice research seeks to understand how to restore justice after an injustice has occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
27 pages, 9623 KiB  
Entry
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings
by Mir M. Ali and Kheir Al-Kodmany
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1260-1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030085 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 19633
Definition
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure [...] Read more.
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure in the 1960s allowed buildings to be built taller with low material consumption. Due to the obstructive nature of the closely spaced exterior columns of framed tubes and bracings of braced tubes, the core-outrigger system gained acceptance by the architects as it allowed them to freely articulate the façade design. However, the conventional tubular structures continued to retain their use for tall buildings to a lesser degree and later underwent a resurgence in modified forms. These and other advanced tubular forms in cutting-edge structural systems developed later continue to find application in modern times. This study presents a detailed narrative of different structural systems for tall buildings that is expected to assist structural engineers and architects to collaboratively select appropriate structural systems for tall buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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10 pages, 3706 KiB  
Entry
Three Kinds of Butterfly Effects within Lorenz Models
by Bo-Wen Shen, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Xubin Zeng, Jialin Cui, Sara Faghih-Naini, Wei Paxson and Robert Atlas
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1250-1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030084 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6233
Definition
Within Lorenz models, the three major kinds of butterfly effects (BEs) are the sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC), the ability of a tiny perturbation to create an organized circulation at large distances, and the hypothetical role of small-scale processes in contributing to [...] Read more.
Within Lorenz models, the three major kinds of butterfly effects (BEs) are the sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC), the ability of a tiny perturbation to create an organized circulation at large distances, and the hypothetical role of small-scale processes in contributing to finite predictability, referred to as the first, second, and third kinds of butterfly effects (BE1, BE2, and BE3), respectively. A well-accepted definition of the butterfly effect is the BE1 with SDIC, which was rediscovered by Lorenz in 1963. In fact, the use of the term “butterfly” appeared in a conference presentation by Lorenz in 1972, when Lorenz introduced the BE2 as the metaphorical butterfly effect. In 2014, the so-called “real butterfly effect”, which is based on the features of Lorenz’s study in 1969, was introduced as the BE3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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13 pages, 1368 KiB  
Entry
The Role of GNSS-RTN in Transportation Applications
by Sajid Raza, Ahmed Al-Kaisy, Rafael Teixeira and Benjamin Meyer
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1237-1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030083 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7202
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a broader geographic region. Such systems can provide geospatial location data with centimeter-level accuracy anywhere within the network. Geospatial location services are not only used in measuring ground distances and mapping topography; they have also become vital in many other fields such as aerospace, aviation, natural disaster management, and agriculture, to name but a few. The innovative and multi-disciplinary applications of geospatial data drive technological advancement towards precise and accurate location services available in real-time. Although GNSS-RTN technology is currently utilized in a few industries such as precision farming, construction industry, and land surveying, the implications of precise real-time location services would be far-reaching and more critical to many advanced transportation applications. The GNSS-RTN technology is promising in meeting the needs of automation in most advanced transportation applications. This article presents an overview of the GNSS-RTN technology, its current applications in transportation-related fields, and a perspective on the future use of this technology in advanced transportation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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12 pages, 2002 KiB  
Entry
Photoremovable Protecting Groups
by Petra Dunkel
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1225-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030082 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3212
Definition
Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) (also often called photocages in the literature) are used for temporary inactivation of biologically active substrates. By photoirradiation the PPG could be cleaved off and the biological activity could be restored on-demand, with a high spatiotemporal precision. The on-site [...] Read more.
Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) (also often called photocages in the literature) are used for temporary inactivation of biologically active substrates. By photoirradiation the PPG could be cleaved off and the biological activity could be restored on-demand, with a high spatiotemporal precision. The on-site liberation of the biologically active substrate could be exploited for studying dynamic biological processes or for designing targeted pharmacological interventions in vitro or in vivo. Several chemical scaffolds have been described and tested as PPGs, operating at different wavelengths. The scope of potential substrates is very broad, spanning from small molecules to proteins. In a wider context, PPGs could be used for the design of various light-responsive materials as well, for diverse applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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15 pages, 324 KiB  
Entry
Culture and COVID-19: Impact of Cross-Cultural Dimensions on Behavioral Responses
by Nisha Nair, Patturaja Selvaraj and Ranjeet Nambudiri
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030081 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5981
Definition
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional [...] Read more.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has impacted every sphere of human life across all nations of the world. Countries adapted and responded to the crisis in different ways with varied outcomes and different degrees of success in mitigation efforts. Studies have examined institutional and policy-based responses to the pandemic. However, to gain a holistic understanding of the pandemic response strategy and its effectiveness, it is also important to understand the cultural foundations of a society driving its response behavior. Towards that end, this entry focuses on a few key cultural dimensions of difference across countries and proposes that national culture is related to the protective behavior adopted by societies during COVID-19. The cultural dimensions examined in relation to COVID-19 include the dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and femininity, and future orientation. Inferences are drawn from academic research, published data, and discernible indicators of social behavior. The entry provides pointers for each dimension of culture and proposes that cultural awareness be made an important element of policy making while responding to crises such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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