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Future Transp., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 15 articles

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22 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Self-Reported Speed Compliance and Drivers Speeding Behaviour in Cameroon
by Stephen Kome Fondzenyuy, Christian Steven Fowo Fotso, Steffel Ludivin Tezong Feudjio, Davide Shingo Usami and Luca Persia
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 659-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020031 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Speeding is a significant global issue, with disparities in speed and safety outcomes between low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). This study aims to address speed research gaps in LMICs by examining the prevalence of self-reported speeding and factors influencing [...] Read more.
Speeding is a significant global issue, with disparities in speed and safety outcomes between low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). This study aims to address speed research gaps in LMICs by examining the prevalence of self-reported speeding and factors influencing drivers’ speeding behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). An online survey involving 387 anonymous drivers was conducted in Yaoundé. Results showed that all drivers reported exceeding speed limits, with 81% exceeding them by 5 km/h, 12% by 10 km/h, and 7% by more than 10 km/h in urban areas. On highways, 54% reported exceeding the limit by more than 10 km/h. Age, driver’s license, and gender showed significant associations with speed limit non-compliance. This study’s results suggest that the TPB can be useful in assessing speeding behavior, as the inclusion of TPB variables led to a more than 50% proportionate increase in speeding behavior variance. Structural equation modeling revealed attitude towards speeding as the strongest predictor of speeding intention, along with certain demographics indirectly influencing speeding behavior through speeding intention. Perceived behavioral control and speeding intention directly influenced speeding behavior. These findings emphasize the potential of interventions targeting attitude, intentions, and perceived behavioral control to modify speeding behavior and improve road safety. Full article
25 pages, 19514 KiB  
Article
Shared Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles for Urban Food Deliveries: A Simulation Study
by Ainhoa Genua Cerviño, Naroa Coretti Sanchez, Elaine Liu Wang, Arnaud Grignard and Kent Larson
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 634-658; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020030 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid growth of on-demand delivery services, especially in food deliveries, has spurred the exploration of innovative mobility solutions. In this context, lightweight autonomous vehicles have emerged as a potential alternative. However, their fleet-level behavior remains largely unexplored. To address [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid growth of on-demand delivery services, especially in food deliveries, has spurred the exploration of innovative mobility solutions. In this context, lightweight autonomous vehicles have emerged as a potential alternative. However, their fleet-level behavior remains largely unexplored. To address this gap, we have developed an agent-based model and an environmental impact study assessing the fleet performance of lightweight autonomous food delivery vehicles. This model explores critical factors such as fleet sizing, service level, operational strategies, and environmental impacts. We have applied this model to a case study in Cambridge, MA, USA, where results indicate that there could be significant environmental benefits in replacing traditional car-based deliveries with shared lightweight autonomous vehicle fleets. Lastly, we introduce an interactive platform that offers a user-friendly means of comprehending the model’s performance and potential trade-offs, which can help inform decision-makers in the evolving landscape of food delivery innovation. Full article
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26 pages, 4404 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Passenger Car Tailpipe Emissions in Different World Regions through 2050
by Murat Senzeybek, Mario Feinauer, Isheeka Dasgupta and Simone Ehrenberger
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 608-633; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020029 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
This study presents a carbon dioxide (CO2), exhaust particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) tailpipe emission analysis of passenger cars in nine countries, representing different world regions up to 2050 using a bottom-up calculation method. A [...] Read more.
This study presents a carbon dioxide (CO2), exhaust particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) tailpipe emission analysis of passenger cars in nine countries, representing different world regions up to 2050 using a bottom-up calculation method. A diffusion model is used to analyze the development of different drivetrain/fuel technologies in the respective vehicle stocks of each world region. Drivetrain- and country-specific emission factors are weighted according to the modelled stock compositions. The obtained stock fleets’ average emission factors are multiplied by the transport demand in order to obtain the total passenger car emissions. Our findings reveal global passenger car CO2, NOx and PM2.5 emissions decrease by approximately 45%, 63% and 54%, respectively, between 2015 and 2050. Gasoline will remain a significant energy carrier in 2050 with about a 25% stock share. However, electric vehicles will be in the lead, especially after 2040. Additionally, rising transport demand offsets emission reductions in some regions. This study aims to provide global and regional insights into future emissions trends and their driving factors. Full article
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17 pages, 2532 KiB  
Review
Vehicle Platooning: A Detailed Literature Review on Environmental Impacts and Future Research Directions
by Micael Rebelo, Sandra Rafael and Jorge M. Bandeira
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 591-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020028 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
This paper provides a detailed literature review of the environmental implications of vehicle platooning, a topic gaining significant attention in transportation. While previous reviews have focused on the safety, planning, fuel economy, and microsimulation aspects of platooning, this paper delves into environmental aspects. [...] Read more.
This paper provides a detailed literature review of the environmental implications of vehicle platooning, a topic gaining significant attention in transportation. While previous reviews have focused on the safety, planning, fuel economy, and microsimulation aspects of platooning, this paper delves into environmental aspects. It identifies a lack of research adopting a holistic approach to transport and environmental benefits and emphasizes the need for further research to enhance vehicle efficiency and improve air quality and health conditions. This study traces the historical evolution of platooning, highlighting the shift in research focus over the decades. It advocates for more research on platooning’s environmental aspects, particularly pollutant emissions and air quality. The primary contributions of this work are threefold and include the following: firstly, it delineates simulation methodologies for platooning and the associated pollutant emissions; secondly, it offers a critical assessment of the existing literature on vehicle emissions, fuel consumption, and energy savings; and thirdly, it illuminates the prospective research challenges within the specialized domain of vehicle platooning. Full article
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12 pages, 426 KiB  
Article
Application of Hybrid Deep Reinforcement Learning for Managing Connected Cars at Pedestrian Crossings: Challenges and Research Directions
by Alexandre Brunoud, Alexandre Lombard, Nicolas Gaud and Abdeljalil Abbas-Turki
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 579-590; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020027 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The autonomous vehicle is an innovative field for the application of machine learning algorithms. Controlling an agent designed to drive safely in traffic is very complex as human behavior is difficult to predict. An individual’s actions depend on a large number of factors [...] Read more.
The autonomous vehicle is an innovative field for the application of machine learning algorithms. Controlling an agent designed to drive safely in traffic is very complex as human behavior is difficult to predict. An individual’s actions depend on a large number of factors that cannot be acquired directly by visualization. The size of the vehicle, its vulnerability, its perception of the environment and weather conditions, among others, are all parameters that profoundly modify the actions that the optimized model should take. The agent must therefore have a great capacity for adaptation and anticipation in order to drive while ensuring the safety of users, especially pedestrians, who remain the most vulnerable users on the road. Deep reinforcement learning (DRL), a sub-field that is supported by the community for its real-time learning capability and the long-term temporal aspect of its objectives looks promising for AV control. In a previous article, we were able to show the strong capabilities of a DRL model with a continuous action space to manage the speed of a vehicle when approaching a pedestrian crossing. One of the points that remains to be addressed is the notion of discrete decision-making intrinsically linked to speed control. In this paper, we will present the problems of AV control during a pedestrian crossing, starting with a modelization and a DRL model with hybrid action space adapted to the scalability of a vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) encounter. We will also present the difficulties raised by the scalability and the curriculum-based method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Transport and Mobility)
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31 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Investigating and Improving Pedestrian Safety in an Urban Environment of a Low- or Middle-Income Country: A Case Study of Yaoundé, Cameroon
by Steffel Ludivin Tezong Feudjio, Dimitri Tchaheu Tchaheu, Stephen Kome Fondzenyuy, Isaac Ndumbe Jackai II, Davide Shingo Usami and Luca Persia
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 548-578; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020026 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
In Yaoundé, Cameroon, where walking dominates transport modes, pedestrian safety remains an issue as pedestrians account for a fair share of road traffic casualties, partly due to the lack of walking policies and pedestrian facilities safety data, hindering targeted intervention. This study used [...] Read more.
In Yaoundé, Cameroon, where walking dominates transport modes, pedestrian safety remains an issue as pedestrians account for a fair share of road traffic casualties, partly due to the lack of walking policies and pedestrian facilities safety data, hindering targeted intervention. This study used a pedestrian safety index (PSI) and the Global Walkability Index (GWI) to investigate 12 road segments frequented by diverse pedestrian groups. Indexes were graded from E—lowest to A—highest and analyzed using description and rank correlation. Main safety issues included lack of adequate and accessible sidewalks, bollards, pedestrian crossings, signage, shade, and street lighting. Only one segment (R7) achieved grade C, while the remainder scored D or E, indicating poor pedestrian safety conditions and an unpleasant walking experience. The correlation coefficient (0.69) between the PSI and GWI at a 99% significance level validated the safety assessment, providing confidence in the results. A seven-year (2024–2030) safety strategy is proposed to improve all roads to grade B. This strategy contains several interventions, including engineering improvement, which have been proven effective. This study offers evidence for city officials to improve pedestrian safety and informs walking policies and the implementation of upcoming projects. Future research should quantify the recommendations’ benefits and validate indexes with crash or conflict data. Full article
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30 pages, 474 KiB  
Review
Towards Environmentally Sustainable Aviation: A Review on Operational Optimization
by Laura Calvet
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 518-547; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020025 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 696
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid growth of air traffic has intensified pressure on the air transport system, leading to congestion problems in airports and airspace. The projected increase in demand exacerbates these issues, necessitating immediate attention. Additionally, there is a growing concern regarding [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid growth of air traffic has intensified pressure on the air transport system, leading to congestion problems in airports and airspace. The projected increase in demand exacerbates these issues, necessitating immediate attention. Additionally, there is a growing concern regarding the environmental impact of the aviation sector. To tackle these challenges, the adoption of advanced methods and technologies shows promise in expanding current airspace capacity and improving its management. This paper presents an overview of sustainable aviation, drawing on publications from academia and industry. The emphasis is on optimizing both flight and ground operations. Specifically, the review delves into recent advancements in airline operations, airport operations, flight operations, and disruption management, analyzing their respective research objectives, problem formulations, methodologies, and computational experiments. Furthermore, the review identifies emerging trends, prevailing obstacles, and potential directions for future research. Full article
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27 pages, 5652 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Distraction Safety Performance Indicators in an Urban Area of a Low- or Middle-Income Country: A Case Study of Yaoundé, Cameroon
by Steffel Ludivin Tezong Feudjio, Boris Junior Feudjio Tchinda, Stephen Kome Fondzenyuy, Davide Shingo Usami and Luca Persia
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 491-517; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020024 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Distracted driving is a major cause of road traffic crashes in Yaoundé. This is partly due to the scarcity of enforcement and a lack of evidence and investigation using the distraction safety performance indicator (SPI), hindering evidence-based interventions. This study aimed to address [...] Read more.
Distracted driving is a major cause of road traffic crashes in Yaoundé. This is partly due to the scarcity of enforcement and a lack of evidence and investigation using the distraction safety performance indicator (SPI), hindering evidence-based interventions. This study aimed to address this evidence gap by evaluating the distraction SPI using a proven methodology. Data on distracted driving (handheld mobile device; interaction; eating/smoking/drinking) were collected from roadside observations on 36 randomly selected road sections carefully spread to cover the city. SPIs were computed and weighted with traffic volume to ensure the representativeness of the values. A total of 41,004 drivers were observed (38,248 in cars; 1116 in vans; 977 in trucks; 663 in buses). The prevalence of distracted driving in Yaoundé is 13.69% for the three distractions type combined. The prevalence is 7.84% for interaction, 4.89% for handled mobile device usage and 0.96% for eating/smoking/drinking. Leveraging these insights, a seven year (2024–2030) fighting strategy aimed at halving the prevalence was developed. The strategy contains interventions including legislation/enforcement, which have been proven to be effective. This study, pioneered in Yaoundé, provides stakeholders with evidence of the issue and measures to implement and can also be used when developing a road safety strategy. Future research should consider investigation at national level. Full article
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16 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Attitudes and Preferences towards Walking in Two European Cities
by Fernando Fonseca, George Papageorgiou, Elisa Conticelli, Mona Jabbari, Paulo J. G. Ribeiro, Simona Tondelli and Rui Ramos
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 475-490; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020023 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Understanding pedestrian perceptions and attitudes is crucial for promoting walking as a daily transportation mode for sustainable mobility and the effective development of smart cities. Pedestrian preferences, shaped by factors such as age, gender, and urban infrastructure, play a pivotal role in travel [...] Read more.
Understanding pedestrian perceptions and attitudes is crucial for promoting walking as a daily transportation mode for sustainable mobility and the effective development of smart cities. Pedestrian preferences, shaped by factors such as age, gender, and urban infrastructure, play a pivotal role in travel behaviors. Based on a survey study, this paper examines the impact of individual and urban factors on pedestrian perceptions and attitudes towards walking in the cities of Bologna and Porto. Results reveal that individuals generally value short, safe, and green walking routes, appreciating walking for physical activity, cost savings, and time efficiency. Disliked aspects include adverse weather conditions and walking on inadequate sidewalks. Through carrying out Chi-square statistical analysis tests, a variety of significant correlations between individual and urban variables have been revealed on what people like or dislike about walking. For instance, males, young individuals, and students were more likely to prefer short pedestrian routes, while adults and seniors favored safe and green routes. These findings can assist urban planners in identifying factors that make walking both convenient and enjoyable and in supporting sustainable urban mobility policies. Full article
25 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Developing Small-Cargo Flows in Cities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
by Aldona Jarašūnienė, Margarita Išoraitė and Artūras Petraška
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 450-474; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020022 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Modern technology allows for the simplification of a number of functions in industry and business. Many companies have achieved a high level of robotisation and automation in the use of services, including companies operating in the transport sector, where smart systems help to [...] Read more.
Modern technology allows for the simplification of a number of functions in industry and business. Many companies have achieved a high level of robotisation and automation in the use of services, including companies operating in the transport sector, where smart systems help to control load planning, the issuing of documents, the tracking and transportation of shipments, etc. Drones can be exploited as smart assistants in delivering cargo in cities. Since it is a new technology capable of working autonomously, it presents various legal, psychological, and physical challenges. This article presents an analysis of the scientific literature on the development of small-cargo flows using drones and a research methodology on the development of the use of drones, presenting a model which helps to address the issue of cargo delivery in cities. Full article
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21 pages, 6089 KiB  
Article
Control Unit for Battery Charge Management in Electric Vehicles (EVs)
by Carlos Armenta-Deu and Théo Coulaud
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 429-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020021 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 824
Abstract
This paper describes the design of a control unit for efficient battery charge management in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The system design aims at controlling the performance of the charging process of dual lithium-ion battery blocks in electric vehicles, with a main battery [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design of a control unit for efficient battery charge management in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The system design aims at controlling the performance of the charging process of dual lithium-ion battery blocks in electric vehicles, with a main battery that powers the vehicle and an auxiliary one for servicing the ancillary equipment. In this paper, we design and analyze the protocol of a control unit that operates and regulates the battery charge in electric vehicles to obtain optimum performance. The so-designed system enhances the battery charge process and protects the main battery from capacity reduction, thus enlarging the driving range of the electric vehicle. We design a specific protocol for an electric circuit that reproduces the structure of the battery charge system of an electric vehicle. The control system improves the efficiency of the auxiliary battery charge by 4.5%. The theoretical simulation matches experimental values in a simulation test by 98.4%. Full article
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20 pages, 6582 KiB  
Article
Statistical and Clustering-Based Assessment of Variable Speed Limits Effects on Motorway Performance from Real-World Observations
by Natalia Isaenko, Chiara Colombaroni, Gaetano Fusco and Zahra Lahijanian
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 409-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020020 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Variable Speed Limit (VSL) systems aimed at reducing congestion and improving safety performance have been implemented around the world in previous years. However, field studies have shown controversial results regarding traffic performance improvement. This study integrates statistical testing methods and clustering techniques for [...] Read more.
Variable Speed Limit (VSL) systems aimed at reducing congestion and improving safety performance have been implemented around the world in previous years. However, field studies have shown controversial results regarding traffic performance improvement. This study integrates statistical testing methods and clustering techniques for assessing the effect of a non-mandatory VSL system on traffic flow performances on a 14-km portion of the Padua–Mestre motorway in Italy. Statistical analysis is conducted on the observed speeds, collected for almost one year, to identify any significant differences provided by VSL activation. The changes in global motorway performances induced by the VSL in typical traffic patterns under recurring congestion are assessed using both statistical tests and two specific clustering algorithms, namely K-means and DBSCAN. The results indicate that the VSL system effectively affects the observed speeds and alleviates congested conditions: the observed reduction in mean travel time ranges is around 4% with the VSL system active across various lanes; the standard deviation of vehicular speeds witnessed a decrease of 12% to 20% in the most congested segments, while no notable distinction is observed in traffic flows. Full article
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29 pages, 1796 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Investigation of On-Demand Vehicle Deployment for Night Bus Routes Using the Monte Carlo Method
by Shen Wang, Thomas Weber, Dieter Schramm and Thorben Berns
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 380-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020019 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Public transportation systems, including trams and buses, play a crucial role in urban traffic. However, these traditional modes of transport have some well-known drawbacks, such as long distances between stops, lengthy waiting times, and a lack of privacy. In response to these challenges, [...] Read more.
Public transportation systems, including trams and buses, play a crucial role in urban traffic. However, these traditional modes of transport have some well-known drawbacks, such as long distances between stops, lengthy waiting times, and a lack of privacy. In response to these challenges, an innovative mobility concept called “FLAIT-train” offers potential solutions. The FLAIT-train operates on regular roads and aims to provide DOOR-2-DOOR transport, addressing the issues associated with fixed stops and offering increased accessibility and convenience. In its initial phase, the FLAIT-train operates on exclusive lanes, but it is designed to integrate with other traffic eventually. The vehicle technology of FLAIT-trains closely resembles that of battery electric autonomous vehicles. To assess whether FLAIT-trains can be used as a suitable alternative to conventional public transportation systems, this paper employs traffic simulations that consider key performance indicators, including the average waiting time per passenger, maximum waiting time of a single passenger, average in-vehicle time per passenger, and average occupancy rate of the vehicles. Using SUMO software (“Simulation of Urban Mobility”, version 1.12.0), a night bus service scenario is meticulously designed and generated. Within this scenario, both FLAIT-trains and conventional buses are simulated under identical conditions and based on statistical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Transportation in Sustainable Energy Systems)
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31 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Future Aviation Safety Culture
by Barry Kirwan
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 349-379; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020018 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Artificial intelligence is developing at a rapid pace, with examples of machine learning already being used in aviation to improve efficiency. In the coming decade, it is likely that intelligent assistants (IAs) will be deployed to assist aviation personnel in the cockpit, the [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence is developing at a rapid pace, with examples of machine learning already being used in aviation to improve efficiency. In the coming decade, it is likely that intelligent assistants (IAs) will be deployed to assist aviation personnel in the cockpit, the air traffic control center, and in airports. This will be a game-changer and may herald the way forward for single-pilot operations and AI-based air traffic management. Yet in aviation there is a core underlying tenet that ‘people create safety’ and keep the skies and passengers safe, based on a robust industry-wide safety culture. Introducing IAs into aviation might therefore undermine aviation’s hard-won track record in this area. Three experts in safety culture and human-AI teaming used a validated safety culture tool to explore the potential impacts of introducing IAs into aviation. The results suggest that there are indeed potential negative outcomes, but also possible safety affordances wherein AI could strengthen safety culture. Safeguards and mitigations are suggested for the key risk owners in aviation organizations, from CEOs to middle managers, to safety departments and frontline staff. Such safeguards will help ensure safety remains a priority across the industry. Full article
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28 pages, 3323 KiB  
Systematic Review
Assessing the Role of Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Areas: A Systematic Review of Literature
by Hisham Y. Makahleh, Emma Jayne Sakamoto Ferranti and Dilum Dissanayake
Future Transp. 2024, 4(2), 321-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp4020017 - 7 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) aim to improve safety and comfort of road users while contributing to the reduction of traffic congestion, air pollution, fuel consumption, and enabling mobility and accessibility of disabled and older people. As AV technology is rapidly advancing, there is an [...] Read more.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) aim to improve safety and comfort of road users while contributing to the reduction of traffic congestion, air pollution, fuel consumption, and enabling mobility and accessibility of disabled and older people. As AV technology is rapidly advancing, there is an urgent need to explore how those new mobility services will impact urban transport systems, including the users, the infrastructure, and the design of future urban areas. This paper applies a systematic review to assess the role of AVs in urban areas. It reviews 41 articles published between 2003 and 2023, and uses inductive and deductive coding approaches to identify seven themes and thirty sub-themes within the literature. The seven include: benefits, attitudes, and behaviours and user perception, climate adaptation, climate mitigation, legislation and regulations, sustainability, and infrastructure. Studies related to benefits accounted for 25% of the sample, followed by behaviours and user perception (24%) and sustainability (22%). The least amount of research has been undertaken on the role of AVs to support climate adaptation. Geographically, almost half (#22) of the papers originate within Europe, followed by America (#10) and Asia (#7). There is only limited research originating from the Global South. This systematic review sets the scene for considering how AVs in public transport can be implemented in urban areas by establishing the current state of knowledge on user attitudes, perceptions, and behaviour, the benefits of AVs, the infrastructure and legislation and regulations required for AVs, and the role AVs have in climate mitigation, adaptation, and sustainability. Full article
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