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Sustain. Chem., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 8 articles

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14 pages, 2370 KiB  
Review
The Peril of Plastics: Atmospheric Microplastics in Outdoor, Indoor, and Remote Environments
by Shikha Jyoti Borah, Abhijeet Kumar Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Priyanka Jhajharia, Praduman Prasad Singh, Pramod Kumar, Ravinder Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey and Akanksha Gupta
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 149-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020011 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The increasing commercial, industrial, and medical applications of plastics cannot be halted during the coming years. Microplastics are a new class of plastic pollutants which have emerged as escalating environmental threats. The persistence, effects, and removal of MPs present in soil, water, and [...] Read more.
The increasing commercial, industrial, and medical applications of plastics cannot be halted during the coming years. Microplastics are a new class of plastic pollutants which have emerged as escalating environmental threats. The persistence, effects, and removal of MPs present in soil, water, and numerous organisms have become an important research field. However, atmospheric microplastics (AMPs), which are subcategorized into deposited and suspended, remain largely unexplored. This review presents the recent developments and challenges involved in fully understanding suspended and deposited AMPs. The evaluation of indoor suspended MP fibers needs to be critically investigated to understand their implications for human health. Furthermore, the transportation of AMPs to isolated locations, such as cryospheric regions, requires immediate attention. The major challenges associated with AMPs, which have hindered advancement in this field, are inconsistency in the available data, limited knowledge, and the lack of standardized methodologies for the sampling and characterization techniques of AMPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Upcycling of Plastic Wastes)
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19 pages, 14076 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Production of Chitin Nanowhiskers from Crustacean Biomass Using Cost-Effective Ionic Liquids: Strategies to Avoid Byproduct Formation
by Alexander S. Shkuratov, Reshma Panackal Shibu, Obste Therasme, Paula Berton and Julia L. Shamshina
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 130-148; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020010 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Nanochitin, especially in the form of chitin nanowhiskers (ChNWs), represents a significant advance in biopolymer technology due to its high specific surface area, superior tensile strength, and excellent thermal stability. Derived from crustacean waste, which contains 15–40% of chitin, these materials provide a [...] Read more.
Nanochitin, especially in the form of chitin nanowhiskers (ChNWs), represents a significant advance in biopolymer technology due to its high specific surface area, superior tensile strength, and excellent thermal stability. Derived from crustacean waste, which contains 15–40% of chitin, these materials provide a sustainable option that diverts waste from landfills and contributes to environmental conservation. Traditional methods of isolating nanochitin are energy-intensive and generate substantial waste. This study introduces a more sustainable method using inexpensive ionic liquids (ILs) such as [Hmim][HSO4] and [HN222][HSO4], which bypass the costly and destructive steps of traditional procedures. This study also identified the byproduct in IL-mediated chitin hydrolysis reaction as calcium sulfate dihydrate and presented a solution to circumvent the byproduct formation. The effectiveness of the [HN222][HSO4] IL in producing ChNWs from both purified chitin and crustacean biomass was assessed, showing a high yield and maintaining the purity and structural integrity of chitin, thereby demonstrating a significant reduction in the environmental footprint of ChNW production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biomass Transformation: Sustainable Development)
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14 pages, 4559 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Solution of Ionic Liquid Is an Efficient Substituting Solvent System for the Extraction of Alginate from Sargassum tenerrimum
by Kinjal Moradiya, Matheus M. Pereira and Kamalesh Prasad
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 116-129; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020009 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Three ionic liquids (ILs) and three deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with identical counterparts, as well as their aqueous solutions, were prepared for the selective extraction of alginate from Sargassum tenerrimum, a brown seaweed. It was found that the ILs and their hydrated [...] Read more.
Three ionic liquids (ILs) and three deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with identical counterparts, as well as their aqueous solutions, were prepared for the selective extraction of alginate from Sargassum tenerrimum, a brown seaweed. It was found that the ILs and their hydrated systems were only able to extract alginate from the seaweed directly, while the DESs were not, as confirmed by molecular docking studies. When the quality of the polysaccharide was compared to that produced using the hydrated IL system with the widely used conventional method, it was discovered that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the alginate produced using the ILs as solvents were on par with those produced using the conventional method. The ILs can be seen as acceptable alternative solvents for the simple extraction of the polysaccharide straight from the seaweed given the consistency of the extraction procedure used in conventional extraction processes. The hydrated ILs were discovered to be more effective than their non-hydrated counterparts. The yield was also maximized up to 54%, which is much more than that obtained using a traditional approach. Moreover, the ionic liquids can also be recovered and reused for the extraction process. Additionally, any residual material remaining after the extraction process was converted into cellulose, making the process environmentally friendly and sustainable. Full article
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18 pages, 3217 KiB  
Review
Materials and Methods for All-Cellulose 3D Printing in Sustainable Additive Manufacturing
by Isabel Albelo, Rachel Raineri and Sonja Salmon
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 98-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020008 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is an exciting and versatile manufacturing technology that has gained traction and interest in both academic and industrial settings. Polymeric materials are essential components in a majority of the feedstocks used across the various 3D [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is an exciting and versatile manufacturing technology that has gained traction and interest in both academic and industrial settings. Polymeric materials are essential components in a majority of the feedstocks used across the various 3D printing technologies. As the environmental ramifications of sole or primary reliance on petrochemicals as a resource for industrial polymers continue to manifest themselves on a global scale, a transition to more sustainable bioderived alternatives could offer solutions. In particular, cellulose is promising due to its global abundance, biodegradability, excellent thermal and mechanical properties, and ability to be chemically modified to suit various applications. Traditionally, native cellulose was incorporated in additive manufacturing applications only as a substrate, filler, or reinforcement for other materials because it does not melt or easily dissolve. Now, the exploration of all-cellulose 3D printed materials is invigorated by new liquid processing strategies involving liquid-like slurries, nanocolloids, and advances in direct cellulose solvents that highlight the versatility and desirable properties of this abundant biorenewable photosynthetic feedstock. This review discusses the progress of all-cellulose 3D printing approaches and the associated challenges, with the purpose of promoting future research and development of this important technology for a more sustainable industrial future. Full article
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17 pages, 5122 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Technological Applications of Green Carbon Materials
by Martinho Freitas, Luís Pinto da Silva, Pedro M. S. M. Rodrigues and Joaquim Esteves da Silva
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 81-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020007 - 1 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
Green carbon-based materials (GCM), i.e., carbon materials produced using renewable biomass or recycled waste, ought to be used to make processes sustainable and carbon-neutral. Carbon nanomaterials, like carbon dots and the nanobichar families, and carbon materials, like activated carbon and biochar substances, are [...] Read more.
Green carbon-based materials (GCM), i.e., carbon materials produced using renewable biomass or recycled waste, ought to be used to make processes sustainable and carbon-neutral. Carbon nanomaterials, like carbon dots and the nanobichar families, and carbon materials, like activated carbon and biochar substances, are sustainable materials with great potential to be used in different technological applications. In this review, the following four applications were selected, and the works published in the last two years (since 2022) were critically reviewed: agriculture, water treatment, energy management, and carbon dioxide reduction and sequestration. GCM improved the performance of the technological applications under revision and played an important role in the sustainability of the processes, contributing to the mitigation of climate change, by reducing emissions and increasing the sequestration of CO2eq. Full article
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13 pages, 5334 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Cardanol Fractions from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL): A Sustainable Approach
by Bhavika Bhatia, Nagarjuna Amarnath, Sumit K. Rastogi and Bimlesh Lochab
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 68-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020006 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Exploring sustainable approaches to replace petroleum-based chemicals is an ongoing challenge in reducing the carbon footprint. Due to the complexity and percentage variation in nature-generated molecules, which further varies based on geographical origin and the purification protocol adopted, a better isolation strategy for [...] Read more.
Exploring sustainable approaches to replace petroleum-based chemicals is an ongoing challenge in reducing the carbon footprint. Due to the complexity and percentage variation in nature-generated molecules, which further varies based on geographical origin and the purification protocol adopted, a better isolation strategy for individual components is required. Agrowaste from the cashew industry generates phenolic lipid (cardanol)-rich cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) and has recently shown extensive commercial utility. Cardanol naturally exists as a mixture of three structurally different components with C15-alkylene chains: monoene, diene, and triene. The separation of these three fractions has been a bottleneck and is crucial for certain structural designs and reproducibility. Herein, we describe the gram-scale purification of cardanol into each component using flash column chromatography within the sustainability framework. The solvent used for elution is recovered and reused after each stage (up to 82%), making it a cost-effective and sustainable purification strategy. This simple purification technique replaces the alternative high-temperature vacuum distillation, which requires substantial energy consumption and poses vacuum fluctuation and maintenance challenges. Three components (monoene 42%, diene 22%, and triene 36%) were isolated with good purity and were fully characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, GC-MS, HPLC, and FTIR spectroscopy. The present work demonstrates that greener and simpler strategies pave the way for the isolation of constituents from nature-sourced biochemicals and unleash the potential of CNSL-derived fractions for high-end applications. Full article
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8 pages, 228 KiB  
Perspective
Sustainable-by-Design Approach of Active Catalysts to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species in Water Matrices
by Prisco Prete
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 60-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020005 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
An overview of the latest advances in the design of active catalysts with the ability to promote (photo) Fenton processes in water from a Green Chemistry perspective is discussed herein. A critical evaluation of the most relevant advances has been disclosed, and a [...] Read more.
An overview of the latest advances in the design of active catalysts with the ability to promote (photo) Fenton processes in water from a Green Chemistry perspective is discussed herein. A critical evaluation of the most relevant advances has been disclosed, and a brief perspective is presented about what is needed to fill the gap of knowledge in this field. Full article
20 pages, 4680 KiB  
Review
The Multifaceted Perspective on the Role of Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Promoting a Sustainable Green Economy
by Manish Kumar Sah, Biraj Shah Thakuri, Jyoti Pant, Ramesh L. Gardas and Ajaya Bhattarai
Sustain. Chem. 2024, 5(2), 40-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem5020004 - 25 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
The current economic development paradigm, which is based on steadily rising resource consumption and pollution emissions, is no longer viable in a world with limited resources and ecological capacity. The “green economy” idea has presented this context with a chance to alter how [...] Read more.
The current economic development paradigm, which is based on steadily rising resource consumption and pollution emissions, is no longer viable in a world with limited resources and ecological capacity. The “green economy” idea has presented this context with a chance to alter how society handles the interplay between the environmental and economic spheres. The related concept of “green nanotechnology” aims to use nano-innovations within the fields of materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are economically and ecologically sustainable, enabling society to establish and preserve a green economy. Many different economic sectors are anticipated to be impacted by these applications, including those related to corrosion inhibitor nanofertilizers, nanoremediation, biodegradation, heavy metal detection, biofuel, insecticides and pesticides, and catalytic CO2 reduction. These innovations might make it possible to use non-traditional water sources safely and to create construction materials that are enabled by nanotechnology, improving living and ecological conditions. Therefore, our aim is to highlight how nanotechnology is being used in the green economy and to present promises for nano-applications in this domain. In the end, it emphasizes how critical it is to attain a truly sustainable advancement in nanotechnology. Full article
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