Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December
 
 

Oceans, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 9 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
18 pages, 5584 KiB  
Article
Marine Biodegradability and Ecotoxicity of MWool® Recycled Wool Fibers: A Circular-Economy-Based Material
by Serena Anselmi, Francesca Provenza, Tecla Bentivoglio, Giuseppe Picerno, Andrea Cavallo and Monia Renzi
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 114-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010009 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Pollution of the marine environment by microfibers is considered a problem for ecosystem conservation. The amount of microplastic, localization of sources, and associated ecotoxicity are well known in the literature. Wastewater from washing machines is the main source of microplastic fibers in the [...] Read more.
Pollution of the marine environment by microfibers is considered a problem for ecosystem conservation. The amount of microplastic, localization of sources, and associated ecotoxicity are well known in the literature. Wastewater from washing machines is the main source of microplastic fibers in the aquatic environment, and fabrics made from recycled plastic are widely reused. The circular economy also promotes recycling of dyed natural wool materials as a basis for making new clothing, but in this case, less research has been conducted on the behaviour and effects of recycled wool microfibers in marine ecosystems. MWool® (MW) and MWool® carded (MWc) products made from recycled wool fibers were tested in mesocosms to investigate the biodegradation of wool fibers over a 260-day period and the effects of this process on marine ecosystems in terms of microfiber inputs and the ecotoxicological effects of by-products and chemicals released during degradation. The early degradation process was associated with the loss of artificial pigments from the dyed wool, particularly pink and red, which occurred within 30–90 days of exposure. Mean release of microparticles into contact water is significantly different from control (T0, p < 0.01) at 90 days MWc (36.6 mg/L) and 180 days MW (42.9 mg/L). The biodegradation process is accompanied by swelling of wool fibers, which is associated with a significant increase in mean wool thickness (p < 0.05, 18.8 ± 2.1 µm at T0 vs. 24.0 ± 7.1 µm). In both cases, the contact water was not associated with signs of ecotoxicity for the marine species tested in this study (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Brachionus plicatilis, and Paracentrotus lividus). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5756 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity of the Wave Field to High Time-Space Resolution Winds during a Tropical Cyclone
by Laura Pérez-Sampablo, Pedro Osuna, Bernardo Esquivel-Trava, Nicolas Rascle and Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 92-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010008 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2067
Abstract
The impact of the high space-temporal variability of the wind field during the moderate and intense storm stages of a tropical cyclone on the wave field as computed by the numerical model WaveWatch III is investigated in this work. The realistic wind fields [...] Read more.
The impact of the high space-temporal variability of the wind field during the moderate and intense storm stages of a tropical cyclone on the wave field as computed by the numerical model WaveWatch III is investigated in this work. The realistic wind fields are generated by a high-resolution implementation of the HWRF model in the Gulf of Mexico and stored over 15 min intervals. The spatial structure of the wind field computed by HWRF is highly variable in space and time, although its mean structure is very similar to that described for parametric hurricanes already specified in the previous studies. The resulting storm-generated wave fields have a persistent structure, with wave maxima present in the forward quadrants of the storm and in the rear quadrant II. This structure is determined by the strong winds and the extended fetch condition in quadrants I and II, as well as by the translation speed of the storm. When a shorter time interval is analyzed (e.g., a 3 h period, when the storm becomes a category 1 hurricane), the structure of the mean wind field may differ greatly from the mean field calculated with a sufficiently longer period; however, the spatial distribution of the wave field around the hurricane tends to maintain its typical spatial structure. The use of wind fields with reduced time variability (e.g., with a 3 h moving average) does not change the structure of the mean wave field, but reduces the mean wave height values by up to 10%. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2524 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation in Environmental Key Parameters within Fleshy Red Algae Mats in the Mediterranean Sea
by Alice G. Bianchi, Christian Wild, Monica Montefalcone, Enzo Benincasa and Yusuf C. El-Khaled
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 80-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010007 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1748
Abstract
In the Mediterranean, the fleshy, mat-forming red alga Phyllophora crispa creates high-biodiversity habitats that influence light availability, water movement, and temperature. However, knowledge about its influence on other key environmental parameters, such as oxygen availability, chlorophyll, and turbidity, is missing. Therefore, we conducted [...] Read more.
In the Mediterranean, the fleshy, mat-forming red alga Phyllophora crispa creates high-biodiversity habitats that influence light availability, water movement, and temperature. However, knowledge about its influence on other key environmental parameters, such as oxygen availability, chlorophyll, and turbidity, is missing. Therefore, we conducted an in situ study in the Western Mediterranean Sea using multiparameter probes that were placed multiple times on algal P. crispa mats, in adjacent Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows, and on bare hard bottoms. We acquired a total of 17 full diel measurements for dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll, and turbidity in September and October 2019. Results showed that P. crispa mats influence the investigated parameters differently when compared to P. oceanica meadows and that a monthly effect was observed. In September, general DO patterns measured for P. crispa mats and P. oceanica meadows follow the daily cycle depending on light availability, with the measured DO being lower in the P. oceanica meadows compared to the P. crispa mats and the hard-bottom habitats. In October, however, no significant difference in DO concentrations was observed between P. crispa mats and P. oceanica meadows. Results of this study corroborate that P. crispa mats can be viewed as an ecosystem engineering species, influencing environmental parameters and, hence, providing a habitat for outstanding associated biodiversity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3125 KiB  
Article
Wanted Dead or Alive: Skeletal Structure Alteration of Cold-Water Coral Desmophyllum pertusum (Lophelia pertusa) from Anthropogenic Stressors
by Erica Terese Krueger, Janina V. Büscher, David A. Hoey, David Taylor, Peter J. O’Reilly and Quentin G. Crowley
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 68-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010006 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
Ocean acidification (OA) has provoked changes in the carbonate saturation state that may alter the formation and structural biomineralisation of calcium carbonate exoskeletons for marine organisms. Biomineral production in organisms such as cold-water corals (CWC) rely on available carbonate in the water column [...] Read more.
Ocean acidification (OA) has provoked changes in the carbonate saturation state that may alter the formation and structural biomineralisation of calcium carbonate exoskeletons for marine organisms. Biomineral production in organisms such as cold-water corals (CWC) rely on available carbonate in the water column and the ability of the organism to sequester ions from seawater or nutrients for the formation and growth of a skeletal structure. As an important habitat structuring species, it is essential to examine the impact that anthropogenic stressors (i.e., OA and rising seawater temperatures) have on living corals and the structural properties of dead coral skeletons; these are important contributors to the entire reef structure and the stability of CWC mounds. In this study, dead coral skeletons in seawater were exposed to various levels of pCO2 and different temperatures over a 12-month period. Nanoindentation was subsequently conducted to assess the structural properties of coral samples’ elasticity (E) and hardness (H), whereas the amount of dissolution was assessed through scanning electron microscopy. Overall, CWC samples exposed to elevated pCO2 and temperature show changes in properties which leave them more susceptible to breakage and may in turn negatively impact the formation and stability of CWC mound development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1338 KiB  
Review
Bioerosion Research in the South China Sea: Scarce, Patchy and Unrepresentative
by Yen-Huei Li, Barbara Calcinai, Jiayi Lim and Christine H. L. Schönberg
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 51-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010005 - 26 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Coral reefs are in decline globally, resulting in changed constructive and destructive processes. The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is of high biological importance, but also subjected to extreme local and global pressures. Yet, the regional calcium carbonate dynamics are [...] Read more.
Coral reefs are in decline globally, resulting in changed constructive and destructive processes. The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is of high biological importance, but also subjected to extreme local and global pressures. Yet, the regional calcium carbonate dynamics are not well understood, especially bioerosion. A literature search for research on bioerosion and bioeroders in the South China Sea found only 31 publications on bioerosion-related research and 22 biodiversity checklists that contained bioeroders, thus generating a paltry bibliography. Bioerosion research in the South China Sea is still undeveloped and reached only two publications per year over the last few years. Hong Kong is the hotspot of activities as measured in output and diversity of methods, but the research in Hong Kong and elsewhere was strongly favoring field surveys of sea urchins over other bioeroders. Overall, macroborers received almost equal attention as grazer-eroders, but interest in microborers was low. Almost 90% of the research was conducted by local workers, but 90% of the publications were still disseminated in English. Field surveys and laboratory analyses made up over 40% of the research, but experimental work was mostly missing and represents the largest, most important gap. A government initiative in Thailand generated much knowledge on the distribution of marine sponges; otherwise urchins were again prominent in diversity checklists. Comparatively, many checklists were produced for Vietnam from work by visiting scientists. Most studies investigated coastal habitats, but a fourth sampled at oceanic locations. About 36% of the checklist publications covered the entire South China Sea; the rest produced faunistic records for locations within single countries. Our efforts demonstrate that, while active bioerosion research and basic expertise exist in the South China Sea, research remained unrepresentative with respect to taxa, ecofunctional guilds, and especially to controlled experiments. The latter are urgently needed for prognoses, modelling and management in this populated and overused marine environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Oceans in 2022
by Oceans Editorial Office
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 49-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010004 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
22 pages, 3986 KiB  
Article
Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile at Its Westernmost Biogeographical Limit (Northwestern Alboran Sea): Meadow Features and Plant Phenology
by Ángel Mateo-Ramírez, Pablo Marina, Alejandro Martín-Arjona, Elena Bañares-España, José E. García Raso, José L. Rueda and Javier Urra
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 27-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010003 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
Meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica inhabit most infralittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea and are considered one of the main climax stages of the infralittoral environment. This seagrass has its western distributional limit along the coast of the Alboran Sea. Taking into [...] Read more.
Meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica inhabit most infralittoral bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea and are considered one of the main climax stages of the infralittoral environment. This seagrass has its western distributional limit along the coast of the Alboran Sea. Taking into account the decline of P. oceanica meadows and the global scenario of ocean warming, it becomes essential to know the structure, temporal dynamics, sexual reproduction and conservation status of this seagrass, across its geographical distribution, including the distribution boundaries where the meadows withstand limiting environmental conditions. In the present work, we studied the structure, phenology and flowering events of four P. oceanica meadows located in the northwestern Alboran Sea (close to the Strait of Gibraltar). Results indicate a decreasing trend of patch size, bathymetric range and number of leaves per shoot towards the Strait (and the Atlantic Ocean), as well as an increasing trend of shoot density and leaf height. Phenological parameters of the northwestern Alboran Sea P. oceanica meadows presented temporal dynamics similar to meadows from other locations within the biogeographical distribution of this seagrass, with similar or even less annual variability in the former. Although most of the studied P. oceanica meadows seem to present a good health status (BiPo index ~0.6) with high shoot densities and some flowering events, some of them showed evidence of regression. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 289 KiB  
Commentary
Coral-Focused Climate Change Adaptation and Restoration Based on Accelerating Natural Processes: Launching the “Reefs of Hope” Paradigm
by Austin Bowden-Kerby
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 13-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010002 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5741
Abstract
The widespread demise of coral reefs due to climate change is now a certainty, and investing in restoration without facing this stark reality risks failure. The 50 Reefs Initiative, the dominant adaptation model for coral reefs is examined, and a new coral-focused paradigm [...] Read more.
The widespread demise of coral reefs due to climate change is now a certainty, and investing in restoration without facing this stark reality risks failure. The 50 Reefs Initiative, the dominant adaptation model for coral reefs is examined, and a new coral-focused paradigm is proposed, based on helping coral reefs adapt to rising temperature, to ensure that as many coral species as possible survive locally over time. With pilot sites established in six Pacific Island nations, genebank nurseries of bleaching resistant corals are secured in cooler waters, to help prevent their demise as heat stress increases. Unbleached corals selected during bleaching events are included. From these nurseries corals are harvested to create nucleation patches of genetically diverse pre-adapted corals, which become reproductively, ecologically and biologically viable at reef scale, spreading out over time. This “Reefs of Hope” paradigm, modelled on tropical forest restoration, creates dense coral patches, using larger transplants or multiple small fragments elevated on structures, forming fish habitat immediately. The fish help increase coral and substratum health, which presumably will enhance natural larval-based recovery processes. We also hypothesize that incoming coral recruits, attracted to the patch, are inoculated by heat adapted algal symbionts, facilitating adaptation of the wider reef. With global emissions out of control, the most we can hope for is to buy precious time for coral reefs by saving coral species and coral diversity that will not likely survive unassisted. Full article
12 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
Effect of Substratum Structural Complexity of Coral Seedlings on the Settlement and Post-Settlement Survivorship of Coral Settlers
by Shuichi Fujiwara, Daisuke Kezuka, Kazutaka Hagiwara, Hiroo Ishimori and Hideo Tabata
Oceans 2023, 4(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans4010001 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2070
Abstract
The substratum structure is critical for facilitating settlement and increasing the survivorship of coral settlers. However, knowledge about its structural complexity is largely lacking. In this study, we examined the effect of complexity on the settlement and post-settlement survivorship of coral settlers using [...] Read more.
The substratum structure is critical for facilitating settlement and increasing the survivorship of coral settlers. However, knowledge about its structural complexity is largely lacking. In this study, we examined the effect of complexity on the settlement and post-settlement survivorship of coral settlers using four types of structures: groove, using a CSD (Coral Settlement Device, 4.5 cm φ × 2.5 cm H, top-shaped ceramic); flat, using a CP (Ceramic Plate, 29.5 cm L × 3.1 cm W × 0.9 cm H, unglazed ceramic plate); linear, using a CN (Coral Net, mesh size 19 mm, biodegradable plastic net); and wrinkle, using a SS (Scallop Shell, 11.0 cm in shell length). The complexity was obtained from the ratio of the surface area to the vertically projected area of the substratum. The substratum sets were installed in the coral reef around the Ryukyu Islands every May from 2012 to 2014. After about 2 or 6 months of spawning, a certain number of substratum types were sampled, and the number of coral spats that settled on them was counted by taxa classified into Acropora, Pocilloporidae, Millepora, and Others. The larval settlement rate in the first set of samples and the survivorship of coral spats in the second set of samples were estimated. The mean settlement rate was, in order, the CSD; SS; CN; and CP, and the mean survivorship was, in order, the CSD; CP; SS; and CN, over three years. A positive correlation was found between the structural complexity, mean settlement rate, and mean survivorship. Our results show that the structural complexity of coral seedlings affects the settlement of coral larvae and the survivorship of coral spats. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop