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Oceans, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 9 articles

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Article
Understanding Fish Larvae’s Feeding Biology to Improve Aquaculture Feeding Protocols
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 94-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010009 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Knowing that food ingestion and digestion are processes under neuroendocrine regulation, it is important to understand how fish larvae regulate these processes, when the digestive system itself is under development. This study aimed to analyze how gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larval [...] Read more.
Knowing that food ingestion and digestion are processes under neuroendocrine regulation, it is important to understand how fish larvae regulate these processes, when the digestive system itself is under development. This study aimed to analyze how gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larval feeding incidence and intensity were affected by time, light, and water temperature, through the analysis of gut content and how this affected cholecystokinin (CCK) content. Three short-term experiments were done: (A) 27 and 42 days post-hatch (DPH) larvae were analyzed at different intervals for 80 min, after feeding; (B) 38 and 48 DPH larvae were kept under different light intensities (0, 400, 1000 lux) for 30 min; (C) 41 DPH larvae were kept at 17, 19, 25 °C for 30 min. Feeding incidence below 100% was observed for 27 DPH larvae, and for 38 DPH larvae fed at 0 lux. Feeding intensity was several fold higher at older ages. However, the number of prey in the gut was lower at 0 lux, and higher at 25 °C. Overall, no clear pattern was observed for CCK, but at older ages increasing gut content resulted in higher CCK content. In conclusion, until 38 DPH light is important for gilthead sea bream larval feeding ability, and maturing functionality of CCK was only observed at later stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Article
Impact of Egg Exposure to UV Filter-Spiked Sediment on the Survival, Hatching Success, Cardiac Frequency, and Metabolic Scope of Zebrafish Embryos
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 84-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010008 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Chemical UV filters are increasingly used in cosmetics to protect skin from UV radiation. As a consequence, they are released into the aquatic environment via recreational activities and wastewaters. In aquatic ecosystems, fish eggs in contact with sediment can be affected by organic [...] Read more.
Chemical UV filters are increasingly used in cosmetics to protect skin from UV radiation. As a consequence, they are released into the aquatic environment via recreational activities and wastewaters. In aquatic ecosystems, fish eggs in contact with sediment can be affected by organic and lipophilic pollutants such as UV filters. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of six individual UV filters, diethylhexyl butamido triazone (DBT), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), ethylhexyl triazone (ET), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (ES), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), in the embryo-larval stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Contamination of fish eggs and larvae with UV filters occurred through contact with spiked sediment for 96 h at a concentration of 10 μg g−1. Among the six UV filters tested, OC delayed hatching success, whereas ES significantly increased the heartbeat rate of embryo–larvae after sediment exposure, probably as a stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skincare Chemicals and Marine Life)
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Article
Evaluation of the HemoCue® WBC System as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for White Blood Cell Quantification in Pinnipeds
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 72-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010007 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Point of care (POC) hematology testing can be valuable in triage and field settings. We assessed the accuracy between the HemoCue® WBC system and two comparative analyzers, as well as the precision of the HemoCue® WBC system in five different pinniped [...] Read more.
Point of care (POC) hematology testing can be valuable in triage and field settings. We assessed the accuracy between the HemoCue® WBC system and two comparative analyzers, as well as the precision of the HemoCue® WBC system in five different pinniped species: Zalophus californianus, Arctocephalus townsendi, Callorhinus urcinus, Phoca vitulina, and Mirounga angustirostris for white blood cell (WBC) quantification. In Zalophus (n = 164; 106 from U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (Navy); 58 from The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC)), the HemoCue® was compared to two hematology analyzers, Sysmex Xe-5000 and Vet ABC Plus. In Phoca (n = 50; TMMC), Callorhinus (n = 29; TMMC), Arctocephalus (n = 17; TMMC), and Mirounga (n = 67; TMMC), the HemoCue® was compared to Vet ABC Plus only. Bland–Altman and Passing–Bablok agreement of HemoCue® with Sysmex Xe-5000 and Vet ABC Plus analyzers were good for Zalophus, Arctocephalus, Phoca, and Mirounga but marginal with Callorhinus; bias = 0.56 × 109/L (Zalophus; Navy), −2.13 × 109/L (Zalophus; TMMC), −1.59 × 109/L (Arctocephalus), −2.48 × 109/L 0.917 (Phoca), −0.01 × 109/L (Mirounga), and −6.05 × 109/L (Callorhinus). The coefficient of variation from triplicate runs of samples were within acceptable limits for all species (2.50% ± 1.63 (Zalophus; TMMC), 3.09% ± 2.14 (Arctocephalus), 2.47% ± 1.35 (Callorhinus), 2.88% ± 1.75 (Phoca), and 3.44% ± 2.53 (Mirounga)), respectively. The presence of nucleated red blood cells (nRBC; 1–37 nRBC/100 WBC) did not significantly interfere with WBC counts in Zalophus, Callorhinus, and Phoca at the population level, but their presence should be evaluated at the individual level. The HemoCue® provides an accurate method for WBC quantification with WBC counts up to 30 × 109/L (upper limit of linearity of the analyzer) in Zalophus, Arctocephalus, Phoca, and Mirounga, but is less accurate in Callorhinus, and showed good precision in all species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mammal Health)
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Commentary
Private Capital to Improve Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Protection: Time for a Boost
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 60-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010006 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Coastal protection, an important coral reef ecosystem service, is threatened by increasing coral mortality, exacerbated by global climate change. Nature-based solutions in the form of coral restoration, while not perfect, can assist in rebuilding reef structure and improving the flow of the service [...] Read more.
Coastal protection, an important coral reef ecosystem service, is threatened by increasing coral mortality, exacerbated by global climate change. Nature-based solutions in the form of coral restoration, while not perfect, can assist in rebuilding reef structure and improving the flow of the service for some sites. With a financing gap existing between what is required for conservation and what is being accessed, private investors should be playing a larger role in such restoration activities. Especially so as coastal hoteliers in particular, benefit from stable beaches and also have additional income generating potential with healthy reefs. Blended finance solutions in particular, are especially suited to restoration that incorporates substrate addition, while payments for ecosystem services are more suited to coral gardening. Conservation and finance practitioners must engage further and understand each other’s worlds, in order for these private sources to be effectively sourced and utilized. Full article
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Article
Coral Recovery in the Central Mexican Pacific 20 Years after the 1997–1998 El Niño Event
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 48-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010005 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are increasing globally in both frequency and strength, and they can elicit coral bleaching events. The 1997–1998 ENSO caused mass coral mortality with a 96% decline in live coral cover along the Central Mexican Pacific. However, in recent [...] Read more.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are increasing globally in both frequency and strength, and they can elicit coral bleaching events. The 1997–1998 ENSO caused mass coral mortality with a 96% decline in live coral cover along the Central Mexican Pacific. However, in recent years, these sites have shown signs of recovery. We used data collected in 1997 and 2015–2017 to evaluate the coral recovery in this region and coral cover levels have now reached 50% of their pre-1997–1998 El Niño values. Furthermore, a strong 2015–2016 ENSO event did not significantly affect the live coral cover, potentially demonstrating that the local corals have acclimatized or even adapted to higher temperatures. Even though branching species remain the most abundant morphotype, a PERMANOVA revealed significant changes in the coral assemblage. Collectively, this dataset is testament to the fact that corals within this region are capable of resisting or at least partially recovering from thermal anomalies caused by ENSO events. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Oceans in 2021
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 46-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010004 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Review
A Review of Current and New Optical Techniques for Coral Monitoring
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 30-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010003 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Monitoring the health of coral reefs is essential to understanding the damaging impacts of anthropogenic climate change as such non-invasive methods to survey coral reefs are the most desirable. Optics-based surveys, ranging from simple photography to multispectral satellite imaging are well established. Herein, [...] Read more.
Monitoring the health of coral reefs is essential to understanding the damaging impacts of anthropogenic climate change as such non-invasive methods to survey coral reefs are the most desirable. Optics-based surveys, ranging from simple photography to multispectral satellite imaging are well established. Herein, we review these techniques, focusing on their value for coral monitoring and health diagnosis. The techniques are broadly separated by the primary method in which data are collected: by divers and/or robots directly within the environment or by remote sensing where data are captured above the water’s surface by planes, drones, or satellites. The review outlines a new emerging technology, low-cost hyperspectral imagery, which is capable of simultaneously producing hyperspectral and photogrammetric outputs, thereby providing integrated information of the reef structure and physiology in a single data capture. Full article
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Article
Environmentally-Driven Variation in the Physiology of a New Caledonian Reef Coral
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010002 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Given the widespread threats to coral reefs, scientists have lost the opportunity to understand the basic biology of “pristine” corals whose physiologies have not been markedly perturbed by human activity. For instance, high temperature-induced bleaching has been occurring annually since 2014 in New [...] Read more.
Given the widespread threats to coral reefs, scientists have lost the opportunity to understand the basic biology of “pristine” corals whose physiologies have not been markedly perturbed by human activity. For instance, high temperature-induced bleaching has been occurring annually since 2014 in New Caledonia. Because most corals cannot withstand repeated years when bleaching occurs, an analysis was undertaken to showcase coral behavior in a period just before the onset of “annual severe bleaching” (ASB; November 2013) such that future generations might know how these corals functioned in their last bleaching-free year. Pocillopora damicornis colonies were sampled across a variety of environmental gradients, and a subset was sampled during both day and night to understand how their molecular biology changes upon cessation of dinoflagellate photosynthesis. Of the 13 environmental parameters tested, sampling time (i.e., light) most significantly affected coral molecular physiology, and expression levels of a number of both host and Symbiodiniaceae genes demonstrated significant diel variation; endosymbiont mRNA expression was more temporally variable than that of their anthozoan hosts. Furthermore, expression of all stress-targeted genes in both eukaryotic compartments of the holobiont was high, even in isolated, uninhabited, federally protected atolls of the country’s far northwest. Whether this degree of sub-cellular stress reflects cumulative climate change impacts or, instead, a stress-hardened phenotype, will be unveiled through assessing the fates of these corals in the wake of increasingly frequent marine heatwaves. Full article
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Article
Correlation between Coral Reef Condition and the Diversity and Abundance of Fishes and Sea Urchins on an East African Coral Reef
Oceans 2022, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans3010001 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Coral reefs are one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, providing numerous ecosystem services. This present study investigated the relationship between coral reef condition and the diversity and abundance of fishes, on a heavily fished East African coral reef at Gazi Bay, Kenya. [...] Read more.
Coral reefs are one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, providing numerous ecosystem services. This present study investigated the relationship between coral reef condition and the diversity and abundance of fishes, on a heavily fished East African coral reef at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Underwater visual censuses were conducted on thirty 50 × 5 m belt transects to assess the abundance and diversity of fishes. In parallel, a 25-m length of each of the same transects was recorded with photo-quadrats to assess coral community structure and benthic characteristics. For statistical analyses, multi-model inference based on the Akaike Information Criterion was used to evaluate the support for potential predictor variables of coral reef and fish diversity. We found that coral genus richness was negatively correlated with the abundance of macroalgae, whereas coral cover was positively correlated with both the abundance of herbivorous invertebrates (sea urchins) and with fish family richness. Similarly, fish family richness appeared mainly correlated with coral cover and invertebrate abundance, although no correlates of fish abundance could be identified. Coral and fish diversity were very low, but it appears that, contrary to some locations on the same coast, sea urchin abundance was not high enough to be having a negative influence on coral and fish assemblages. Due to increasing threats to coral reefs, it is important to understand the relationship among the components of the coral reef ecosystem on overfished reefs such as that at Gazi Bay. Full article
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