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Psych, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2019) – 39 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Sense of Coherence, Stress, Body Image Satisfaction and Eating Behavior in Japanese and Austrian Students
Psych 2019, 1(1), 504-514; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010039 - 14 Nov 2019
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Background: Restrained, emotional, and external eating are related to obesity and eating disorders. A salutogenic model has confirmed sense of coherence (SOC) as a health resource that moderates stress and helps limit the occurrence of overweightness and eating disorders. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: Restrained, emotional, and external eating are related to obesity and eating disorders. A salutogenic model has confirmed sense of coherence (SOC) as a health resource that moderates stress and helps limit the occurrence of overweightness and eating disorders. This study aimed to examine the relationship between SOC, social support, stress, body image satisfaction (BIS) and eating behaviors in different cultural environments. Methods: A total of 371 Austrian (161 men, 210 women) and 398 Japanese (226 men, 172 women) university students participated. The SOC-13 scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, BMI-Based Silhouette Matching Test and an analogue single-stress item were used as measurements. Results: SOC negatively affected all three types of eating in Austrian students (men: β = −0.227 to −0.215; women: β = −0.262 to −0.214). In Japanese students, SOC negatively affected external eating in both sexes (men: β = −0.150; women: β = −0.198) and emotional eating (β = −0.187) in men. BIS indicated that the desire to become slim predicted restrained eating, women’s emotional eating, and men’s and Austrian women’s external eating. Stress was only predictive of emotional eating in Japanese men. Conclusions: This study found that SOC, BIS and stress might be valuable factors regulating eating behavior in a cultural context. However, the relationship between SOC, BIS, stress and eating behavior differs between cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Operations Management)
Open AccessArticle
Polypharmacy and Depressive Symptoms in U.S.-Born Mexican American Older Adults
Psych 2019, 1(1), 491-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010038 - 01 Nov 2019
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Background: Although some studies have suggested a link between polypharmacy and poor mental health, less is known about the association between polypharmacy and depressive symptomology among U.S.-born older Mexican Americans. Aim: This study aimed to test the association between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms [...] Read more.
Background: Although some studies have suggested a link between polypharmacy and poor mental health, less is known about the association between polypharmacy and depressive symptomology among U.S.-born older Mexican Americans. Aim: This study aimed to test the association between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms in U.S.-born older Latino Americans. Materials and methods: Data came from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA 2008). A total of 691 U.S.-born older (age >= 65) Mexican Americans entered this analysis. Polypharmacy was the independent variable. Level of depressive symptoms was the outcome. Age, gender, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), retirement status, health (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, and activities of daily living), language, acculturation, and smoking were the covariates. A linear regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: We found a positive association between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms, which was above and beyond demographic factors, socioeconomic status, physical health, health behaviors, language, acculturation, and health insurance. Conclusion: Polypharmacy is linked to depressive symptoms in U.S.-born older Mexican Americans. More research is needed to test the effects of reducing inappropriate polypharmacy on mental well-being of first and second generation older Mexican Americans. There is also a need to study the role of drug-drug interaction in explaining the observed link between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
Open AccessBrief Report
Medial Cortical Structures Mediate Implicit Trustworthiness Judgments about Kin Faces, but Not Familiar Faces: A Brief Report
Psych 2019, 1(1), 482-490; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010037 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Human kin recognition activates substrates of the extended facial processing network, notably the right-hemisphere structures involved in self-face recognition and posterior medial cortical substrates. To understand the mechanisms underlying prosociality toward kin faces in comparison to other familiar faces, we investigated the neural [...] Read more.
Human kin recognition activates substrates of the extended facial processing network, notably the right-hemisphere structures involved in self-face recognition and posterior medial cortical substrates. To understand the mechanisms underlying prosociality toward kin faces in comparison to other familiar faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings to faces of actual kin and personal friends, controlling for activation to distracter faces. When controlling for activation associated with unknown faces, trustworthiness ratings of faces of kin, compared to friends, were associated with increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate, and precuneous. On the other hand, trustworthiness ratings of friend faces, relative to kin faces, were associated with the lateral occipital gyrus and insular cortex. Trustworthiness ratings for unknown faces were only associated with activation in the fusiform gyrus. These findings suggest that we should employ medial cortical substrates known to be part of the self-other network when making implicit social judgements about kin, but not other classes of facial stimuli. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The EmojiGrid as a Tool to Assess Experienced and Perceived Emotions
Psych 2019, 1(1), 469-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010036 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 725
Abstract
In a recent study on food-evoked emotions, we observed that people often misunderstood the currently available affective self-report tools. We, therefore, developed a new intuitive and language-independent self-report instrument called the EmojiGrid: a rectangular response grid labeled with facial icons (emoji) that express [...] Read more.
In a recent study on food-evoked emotions, we observed that people often misunderstood the currently available affective self-report tools. We, therefore, developed a new intuitive and language-independent self-report instrument called the EmojiGrid: a rectangular response grid labeled with facial icons (emoji) that express different degrees of valence and arousal. We found that participants intuitively and reliably reported their affective appraisal of food by clicking on the EmojiGrid, even without verbal instructions. In this study, we investigated whether the EmojiGrid can also serve as a tool to assess one’s own (experienced) emotions and perceived emotions of others. In the first experiment, participants (N = 90) used the EmojiGrid to report their own emotions, evoked by affective images from a database with corresponding normative ratings (obtained with a 9-point self-assessment mannikin scale). In the second experiment, participants (N = 61) used the EmojiGrid to report the perceived emotional state of persons shown in different affective situations, in pictures from a database with corresponding normative ratings (obtained with a 7-point Likert scale). For both experiments, the affective (valence and arousal) ratings obtained with the EmojiGrid show excellent agreement with the data provided in the literature (intraclass correlations of at least 0.90). Also, the relation between valence and arousal shows the classic U-shape at the group level. Thus, the EmojiGrid appears to be a useful graphical self-report instrument for the assessment of evoked and perceived emotions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Acculturation Status and Healthcare Coverage for the Needs of Mental Health Service Utilization among Latinos in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama
Psych 2019, 1(1), 460-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010035 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Background: The use of mental health services by Latinos is only 7.3%, despite the high prevalence of depression rates of between 27.0% and 38.0% in the United States. Research is limited concerning Latinos’ acculturation status and healthcare coverage on mental healthcare service utilization [...] Read more.
Background: The use of mental health services by Latinos is only 7.3%, despite the high prevalence of depression rates of between 27.0% and 38.0% in the United States. Research is limited concerning Latinos’ acculturation status and healthcare coverage on mental healthcare service utilization in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the association of acculturation status and healthcare coverage with mental health service utilization in the Latino population. Methods: During 2011–2012, a Latino Community Health Needs Assessment was administered by a trained bilingual interviewer using participants’ preferred language. Four hundred and eleven community members and leaders participated in the study. Acculturation status and self-reported mental health service utilization were retrieved from the survey instrument. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: In multivariate logistic regression that included gender, education level, healthcare coverage, depression, and acculturation status, individuals with a high acculturation score (3–5) were 1.53 times more likely to utilize mental health services compared to those with a low acculturation score (0–2). Individuals with healthcare coverage were 2.75 times more likely to utilize mental health services compared to those with not having healthcare coverage. Healthcare coverage is only a significant determinant of mental health service utilization. Conclusions: This result underscores the importance of having healthcare coverage for the need of mental health service utilization. Future research should consider the impact of acculturation and healthcare coverage on mental health service utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
Open AccessArticle
Global Ancestry and Cognitive Ability
Psych 2019, 1(1), 431-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010034 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8857
Abstract
Using data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined whether European ancestry predicted cognitive ability over and above both parental socioeconomic status (SES) and measures of eye, hair, and skin color. First, using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we verified that strict factorial invariance [...] Read more.
Using data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined whether European ancestry predicted cognitive ability over and above both parental socioeconomic status (SES) and measures of eye, hair, and skin color. First, using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we verified that strict factorial invariance held between self-identified African and European-Americans. The differences between these groups, which were equivalent to 14.72 IQ points, were primarily (75.59%) due to difference in general cognitive ability (g), consistent with Spearman’s hypothesis. We found a relationship between European admixture and g. This relationship existed in samples of (a) self-identified monoracial African-Americans (B = 0.78, n = 2,179), (b) monoracial African and biracial African-European-Americans, with controls added for self-identified biracial status (B = 0.85, n = 2407), and (c) combined European, African-European, and African-American participants, with controls for self-identified race/ethnicity (B = 0.75, N = 7,273). Controlling for parental SES modestly attenuated these relationships whereas controlling for measures of skin, hair, and eye color did not. Next, we validated four sets of polygenic scores for educational attainment (eduPGS). MTAG, the multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) eduPGS (based on 8442 overlapping variants) predicted g in both the monoracial African-American (r = 0.111, n = 2179, p < 0.001), and the European-American (r = 0.227, n = 4914, p < 0.001) subsamples. We also found large race differences for the means of eduPGS (d = 1.89). Using the ancestry-adjusted association between MTAG eduPGS and g from the monoracial African-American sample as an estimate of the transracially unbiased validity of eduPGS (B = 0.124), the results suggest that as much as 20%–25% of the race difference in g can be naïvely explained by known cognitive ability-related variants. Moreover, path analysis showed that the eduPGS substantially mediated associations between cognitive ability and European ancestry in the African-American sample. Subtest differences, together with the effects of both ancestry and eduPGS, had near-identity with subtest g-loadings. This finding confirmed a Jensen effect acting on ancestry-related differences. Finally, we confirmed measurement invariance along the full range of European ancestry in the combined sample using local structural equation modeling. Results converge on genetics as a potential partial explanation for group mean differences in intelligence. Full article
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Open AccessExpression of Concern
Expression of Concern: Lynn, R. Reflections on Sixty-Eight Years of Research on Race and Intelligence. Psych, 2019, 1, 123–131
Psych 2019, 1(1), 429-430; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010033 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
The Editorial Office of Psych issues the following Expression of Concern about the published paper: Reflections on Sixty-Eight Years of Research on Race and Intelligence [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: A 15-Year Follow-Up Study
Psych 2019, 1(1), 420-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010032 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are a hallmark of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate long-term changes in theory of mind (ToM), executive functions, lexical retrieval, and speed of information processing/attention in schizophrenia. We followed-up 31 outpatients with schizophrenia [...] Read more.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are a hallmark of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate long-term changes in theory of mind (ToM), executive functions, lexical retrieval, and speed of information processing/attention in schizophrenia. We followed-up 31 outpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy control subjects for 15 years. ToM was assessed with the Reading the Mind from the Eyes Test (RMET), whereas neurocognitive functions were measured with the verbal fluency (VF) task (executive functions and lexical retrieval) and with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) (speed of information processing/attention). Clinical symptoms and general functioning were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, respectively. At baseline assessment, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significant and generalized impairments on all measures. At follow-up, relative to the baseline, we observed marked improvements in ToM (RMET), stability in executive functions and lexical retrieval (VF), and a significant decline in psychomotor speed/attention (DSST) in schizophrenia. Clinical symptoms and psychosocial functions did not differ at baseline and at follow-up examinations (mild-to-moderate symptoms on the PANSS and moderate difficulty in social and occupational functions on the GAF). These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia with mild-to-moderate symptoms and functional deficits are characterized by improved ToM during over a decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and memory: from body to mind and back)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Back Touching on Tidal Volume
Psych 2019, 1(1), 412-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010031 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 891
Abstract
The purpose of this basic experiment was to examine the effects of soft touching on an experiment participant’s back on tidal volume (TV), as an increase in TV was considered an indication of enhanced relaxation. Healthy experiment participants were divided into an intervention [...] Read more.
The purpose of this basic experiment was to examine the effects of soft touching on an experiment participant’s back on tidal volume (TV), as an increase in TV was considered an indication of enhanced relaxation. Healthy experiment participants were divided into an intervention group, where soft touching was administered for two minutes on their back, and a control group, where they were asked to rest. Then the change in TV was measured using a spiro-meter two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA; mixture design) was conducted. As a result of two factor ANOVA, the intervention group’s TV changed with statistical significance, while no statistically significant change was observed in the control group. There was a possibility that soft touching on the back had a positive effect on the increase of TV and relaxation. As a result of soft touching on the back, TV was increased. Subjective indicators suggested that the relaxation was enhanced by soft touching on the back. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Operations Management)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Exercise and Retrieval-Induced Forgetting
Psych 2019, 1(1), 405-411; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010030 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Retrieving a subset of items from memory can cause forgetting of other related items in memory, referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). This type of forgetting (RIF) is thought to be related to working memory and executive control processes, of which are known [...] Read more.
Retrieving a subset of items from memory can cause forgetting of other related items in memory, referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). This type of forgetting (RIF) is thought to be related to working memory and executive control processes, of which are known to be influenced by acute exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether acute exercise could accentuate RIF. A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled intervention was employed. Participants (N = 40) were randomized into one of two groups, including an experimental group (15-min of moderate-intensity exercise) and a control group (time-matched seated task). Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) and retrieval practice (RP) were assessed from a category-exemplar memory task. There was no significant main effect for RIF and no group by RIF interaction, suggesting that acute exercise did not alter RIF more than the control group. There was a significant main effect for RP, but there was no group by RP interaction. These RP findings align with the RIF findings, indicating that acute exercise did not alter RP more so than the control group. In conclusion, our experimental results do not provide support for an association of acute exercise on retrieval-induced forgetting or retrieval practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and memory: from body to mind and back)
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Open AccessEditorial
Psych—An Open Access Journal
Psych 2019, 1(1), 403-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010029 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
It is my great pleasure, on behalf of the editorial board and myself, to introduce Psych, MDPI’s new multidisciplinary, open-access journal for the social and behavioral sciences [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Rushton and Jensen’s Work has Parallels with Some Concepts of Race Awareness in Ancient Greece
Psych 2019, 1(1), 391-402; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010028 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Rushton and Jensen’s “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability” documents IQ differences in populations on the basis of race. The authors explain these data by arguing that cold winter conditions in Europe had greater pressure for the selection of [...] Read more.
Rushton and Jensen’s “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability” documents IQ differences in populations on the basis of race. The authors explain these data by arguing that cold winter conditions in Europe had greater pressure for the selection of higher intelligence. Critics of Rushton and Jensen, and of the very category of race, claim that race is a social construct that only came up in the 16th century, as a result of overseas voyages and the Atlantic slave trade. The goal of this article is to refute that particular claim, by documenting how, long before the 16th century, in classical antiquity race was already a meaningful concept, and how some Greek authors even developed ideas that bear some resemblance to Rushton and Jensen’s theory. The article documents how ancient Egyptians already had keen awareness of race differences amongst various populations. Likewise, the article documents passages from the Hippocratic and Aristotelian corpus, which attests that already in antiquity, there was a conception that climatic differences had an influence on intelligence, and that these differences eventually become enshrined in fixed biological traits. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Arts as Dialogic Practice: Deriving Lessons for Change from Community-based Art-making for International Development
Psych 2019, 1(1), 375-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010027 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Communities around the world struggle with weakening social bonds and political, racial, ethnic, economic, and cultural divides. This article argues the arts can be a means of raising public consciousness regarding such concerns by catalyzing conscious, thoughtful dialogue among individuals and groups possessing [...] Read more.
Communities around the world struggle with weakening social bonds and political, racial, ethnic, economic, and cultural divides. This article argues the arts can be a means of raising public consciousness regarding such concerns by catalyzing conscious, thoughtful dialogue among individuals and groups possessing diverse values and beliefs. Change can only occur when people become aware of and actively reflect on the ontological and epistemic-scale norms and values that so often underpin their divisions, and the arts can help them do precisely that. We examine the dynamics of participatory performing arts and mural-making in diverse contexts to contend that the dialogic character of community art-making can be valuable for practitioners and scholars in a variety of efforts in international community development. We conclude by sharing lessons that we believe will aid artists and practitioners in devising more inclusive and participatory approaches to their international community change or development projects. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
A Conversation with Gerhard Meisenberg
Psych 2019, 1(1), 364-374; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010026 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Gerhard Meisenberg is a retired professor of biochemistry who lives in the Caribbean island nation of Dominica [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress and Anxiety among Young Japanese Adults: A Preliminary Study
Psych 2019, 1(1), 353-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010025 - 11 Jun 2019
Viewed by 873
Abstract
In the present study, we examined the effect of an internet cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) program on anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms in university students. Data were analyzed for 17 participants undergoing ICBT and 11 control group participants. An ANOVA of intention-to-treat analysis [...] Read more.
In the present study, we examined the effect of an internet cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) program on anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms in university students. Data were analyzed for 17 participants undergoing ICBT and 11 control group participants. An ANOVA of intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol (PP) analysis indicated that the interaction between group and measurement time was significant for the state–trait anxiety inventory (STAI) scores and that idiosyncratic anxiety was significantly improved. Through the results of PP, a moderate effect size for changes in STAI scores in the intervention group was observed (d = 0.62) based on Cohen’s (1988) classifications. A large effect was also observed for improvements in idiosyncratic anxiety (d = 0.91). Based on the results of the analyses, a significant interaction was observed for the STAI scores. In the intervention group, STAI scores and individual anxiety were significantly reduced after implementing the ICBT program. It was suggested that the ICBT program may positively influence thinking about anxiety and stress from an objective viewpoint. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Just Think”—Students Feel Significantly More Relaxed, Less Aroused, and in a Better Mood after a Period of Silence Alone in a Room
Psych 2019, 1(1), 343-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010024 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
A series of studies by Wilson and colleagues in 2014 suggested that participants (mostly students) did not enjoy a 6 to 15 min silent period of “just thinking”. Students in our study (n = 64) similarly spent a period of silence (6:30 min) [...] Read more.
A series of studies by Wilson and colleagues in 2014 suggested that participants (mostly students) did not enjoy a 6 to 15 min silent period of “just thinking”. Students in our study (n = 64) similarly spent a period of silence (6:30 min) alone in a room with nothing to do but concentrate on their own thoughts. They sat on a chair facing the door. Unlike the study by Wilson et al., the students felt significantly more relaxed, less aroused, and in a better mood after this period of silence. The subjects did not experience boredom; they were mostly present-oriented and judged that the time had passed quickly. A reason why the students in our study managed a silent period of time just thinking compared to the Wilson et al. study may be due to intercultural factors. Another reason could be that our student sample was already acquainted with aspects of emotional self-awareness owing to their specific study programs and curricula (mostly education, inclusive education, social education). On the basis of such possible influences, the variety of responses our subjects reported for a period of “just thinking” merits further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Abstinence Prediction on the Basis of Conservation of Resources Theory by Stevan E. Hobfoll a Study of Polish Alcohol-Dependent Persons in the Early Phase of Recovery
Psych 2019, 1(1), 331-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010023 - 03 Jun 2019
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Striving for permanent alcohol abstinence can be difficult to achieve or even impossible, which in turn often results in discontinuation of treatment. The main area of interest among researchers dealing with the problem of alcohol dependence is the ability to maintain abstinence. Despite [...] Read more.
Striving for permanent alcohol abstinence can be difficult to achieve or even impossible, which in turn often results in discontinuation of treatment. The main area of interest among researchers dealing with the problem of alcohol dependence is the ability to maintain abstinence. Despite numerous studies in this area, there is still no unambiguous data on the factors affecting the recovery process of alcohol-dependent persons. The main goal of this publication is to present the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) by S. Hobfoll as an alternative concept to understanding alcohol dependence and to answer whether maintaining abstinence can be predicted, and what kind of resources play a key role in alcohol dependence recovery. A series of two comparisons of independent variables (level, gain and loss of resources) were made in the first and sixth month after the beginning of therapy. Questionnaire longitudinal studies of 350 alcohol-dependent persons were used. Research results show that distribution of resources is of great significance in maintaining abstinence. It is important for the alcohol-dependent person’s recovery process to have the opportunity to gain resources. Experiencing loss of resources in the beginning of treatment often determines their return to drinking. The project provides empirical support for research on the role of supportive factors in an alcohol-dependent person’s recovery process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Personality Profiles in the Pakistan Software Industry–A Study
Psych 2019, 1(1), 320-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010022 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Psychology says not everyone is able to do all type of tasks assigned to them. This point is valid for people working in the software industries as well. Therefore, when assigning the most suitable tasks to people according to their personality type, a [...] Read more.
Psychology says not everyone is able to do all type of tasks assigned to them. This point is valid for people working in the software industries as well. Therefore, when assigning the most suitable tasks to people according to their personality type, a software development company’s succession rate can be proliferated to a remarkable level. In this manner, the main theme of this empirical research is to find relationships that establish links between personality type and their job designation preferences in the software industry. For this purpose, this study is comprised of 44 Pakistan developers, who are working in different software houses and are directly involved in developing software projects. In addition, an MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) test indicator is used for the link establishment. With respect to the reported results, tester, team lead, and project manager are found to be ENFJs, which is the least common type in software developers. However, for web developers and software engineers, ISFJ is found to be the most preferable type, with an edge over ENFJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Operations Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Should Cognitive Differences Research Be Forbidden?
Psych 2019, 1(1), 306-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010021 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Some authors have proposed that research on cognitive differences, including differences between ethnic and racial groups, needs to be prevented because it produces true knowledge that is dangerous and socially undesirable. From a consequentialist perspective, this contribution investigates the usually unstated assumptions about [...] Read more.
Some authors have proposed that research on cognitive differences, including differences between ethnic and racial groups, needs to be prevented because it produces true knowledge that is dangerous and socially undesirable. From a consequentialist perspective, this contribution investigates the usually unstated assumptions about harms and benefits behind these proposals. The conclusion is that intelligence differences provide powerful explanations of many important real-world phenomena, and that denying their causal role requires the promotion of alternative false beliefs. Acting on these false beliefs almost invariably prevents the effective management of societal problems while creating new ones. The proper questions to ask are not about the nature of the research and the results it is expected to produce, but about whether prevailing value systems can turn truthful knowledge about cognitive differences into benign outcomes, whatever the truth may be. These value systems are the proper focus of action. Therefore, the proposal to suppress knowledge about cognitive ability differences must be based on the argument that people in modern societies will apply such knowledge in malicious rather than beneficial ways, either because of universal limitations of human nature or because of specific features of modern societies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Intensity-Specific Acute Exercise on Paired-Associative Memory and Memory Interference
Psych 2019, 1(1), 290-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010020 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The improvement of memory performance is an ever-growing interest in research, with implications in many fields. Thus, identifying strategies to enhance memory and attenuate memory interference is of great public health and personal interest. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The improvement of memory performance is an ever-growing interest in research, with implications in many fields. Thus, identifying strategies to enhance memory and attenuate memory interference is of great public health and personal interest. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the role of intensity-specific acute exercise on improving paired-associative memory function and attenuating memory interference. A counterbalanced, randomized controlled, within-subject experimental design was employed. The three counterbalanced visits included a control visit, moderate-intensity exercise (50% of HRR; heart rate reserve) and vigorous-intensity exercise (80% of HRR), all of which occurred prior to the memory assessment. To evaluate memory interference, an AB/AC paired-associative task was implemented for each laboratory visit. The number of correctly recalled words from List 1 (AB–DE) was statistically significantly (F = 4.63, p = 0.01, η2p = 0.205) higher for the vigorous-intensity condition (M = 6.53, SD = 1.54) as compared to moderate-intensity (M = 6.11, SD = 1.59) and control (M = 5.00, SD = 2.56) conditions. No statistical significance was found between proactive interference or retroactive interference across the experimental conditions. This experiment provides evidence for an intensity-specific effect of acute exercise on short-term, paired-associative memory, but not memory interference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and memory: from body to mind and back)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Manipulation of Psychological Control Scenarios: Implications for Exercise and Memory Research
Psych 2019, 1(1), 279-289; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010019 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the extent to which variations in control activities influence memory function, as well as to investigate the participants’ memory expectations for the various conditions. A within-subject, counterbalanced experimental design was employed. Across four visits, participants [...] Read more.
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the extent to which variations in control activities influence memory function, as well as to investigate the participants’ memory expectations for the various conditions. A within-subject, counterbalanced experimental design was employed. Across four visits, participants engaged in four tasks, including an acute exercise session, and three cognitive-engagement control tasks of varying degrees of cognitive engagement and valence, namely reading neutral text, looking at a video, and puzzle completion. Participants’ perceived expectations for how each condition would improve their memory performance was also assessed. We observed no differences in objective cognitive performance or outcome expectations across the three evaluated control tasks, and thus, future studies may wish to employ either of these control tasks, which should not compromise making comparisons across studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and memory: from body to mind and back)
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Open AccessEssay
The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism
Psych 2019, 1(1), 262-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010018 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
There is a large amount of evidence that groups differ in average cognitive ability. The hereditarian hypothesis states that these differences are partly or substantially explained by genetics. Despite being a positive claim about the world, this hypothesis is frequently equated with racism, [...] Read more.
There is a large amount of evidence that groups differ in average cognitive ability. The hereditarian hypothesis states that these differences are partly or substantially explained by genetics. Despite being a positive claim about the world, this hypothesis is frequently equated with racism, and scholars who defend it are frequently denounced as racists. Yet equating the hereditarian hypothesis with racism is a logical fallacy. The present article identifies ten common arguments for why the hereditarian hypothesis is racist and demonstrates that each one is fallacious. The article concludes that society will be better served if the hereditarian hypothesis is treated the same way as any other scientific claim—critically, but dispassionately. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Filling in the Gaps: The Association between Intelligence and Both Color and Parent-Reported Ancestry in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
Psych 2019, 1(1), 240-261; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010017 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Little research has dealt with intragroup ancestry-related differences in intelligence in Black and White Americans. To help fill this gap, we examined the association between intelligence and both color and parent-reported ancestry using the NLSY97. We used a nationally-representative sample, a multidimensional measure [...] Read more.
Little research has dealt with intragroup ancestry-related differences in intelligence in Black and White Americans. To help fill this gap, we examined the association between intelligence and both color and parent-reported ancestry using the NLSY97. We used a nationally-representative sample, a multidimensional measure of cognitive ability, and a sibling design. We found that African ancestry was negatively correlated with general mental ability scores among Whites (r = −0.038, N = 3603; corrected for attenuation, rc = −0.245). In contrast, the correlation between ability and parent-reported European ancestry was positive among Blacks (r = 0.137, N = 1788; rc = 0.344). Among Blacks, the correlation with darker skin color, an index of African ancestry, was negative (r = −0.112, N = 1455). These results remained with conspicuous controls. Among Blacks, both color and parent-reported European ancestry had independent effects on general cognitive ability (color: β = −0.104; ancestry: β = 0.118; N = 1445). These associations were more pronounced on g-loaded subtests, indicating a Jensen Effect for both color and ancestry (rs = 0.679 to 0.850). When we decomposed the color results for the African ancestry sample between and within families, we found an association between families, between singletons (β = −0.153; N = 814), and between full sibling pairs (β = −0.176; N = 225). However, we found no association between full siblings (β = 0.027; N = 225). Differential regression to the mean results indicated that the factors causing the mean group difference acted across the cognitive spectrum, with high-scoring African Americans no less affected than low-scoring ones. We tested for measurement invariance and found that strict factorial invariance was tenable. We then found that the weak version of Spearman’s hypothesis was tenable while the strong and contra versions were not. The results imply that the observed cognitive differences are primarily due to differences in g and that the Black-White mean difference is attributable to the same factors that cause differences within both groups. Further examination revealed comparable intraclass correlations and absolute differences for Black and White full siblings. This implied that the non-shared environmental variance components were similar in magnitude for both Blacks and Whites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Debiasing in a Minute or Less, or Too Good to Be True? The Effect of Micro-Interventions on Decision-Making Quality
Psych 2019, 1(1), 220-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010016 - 16 May 2019
Viewed by 955
Abstract
In this study, the effects of a novel debiasing micro-intervention (an intervention that requires no training or instructions) are tested in three experiments. The intervention is epistemologically informed and consists of two questions that prompt the quantification of degrees of a belief (“How [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of a novel debiasing micro-intervention (an intervention that requires no training or instructions) are tested in three experiments. The intervention is epistemologically informed and consists of two questions that prompt the quantification of degrees of a belief (“How certain am I?”) and the justification of a belief (“Why?”). In all three experiments, this intervention was ineffective. Unexpectedly, however, when the micro-intervention consisted only of the justification question (“Why?”), there was a small, but noticeable positive effect in two experiments. Overall, even though the hypothesized effects were not observable, a justification prompt might be a potentially effective micro-intervention that should be explored in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Operations Management)
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Open AccessEditorial
A Conversation with Michael A. Woodley of Menie, Yr.
Psych 2019, 1(1), 207-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010015 - 09 May 2019
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie, Yr (Younger), is a British ecologist and evolutionary psychologist, whose research on secular trends in dierent aspects of human intelligence has earned him considerable notability.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Meditation Experience and Mindfulness Are Associated with Reduced Self-Reported Mind-Wandering in Meditators—A German Version of the Daydreaming Frequency Scale
Psych 2019, 1(1), 193-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010014 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Mind-wandering or daydreaming can be described as spontaneous thoughts that are independent of the task at hand and the current sensory information. Mindfulness, defined as the ability to focus on the present moment with an accepting attitude towards the present experience, is considered [...] Read more.
Mind-wandering or daydreaming can be described as spontaneous thoughts that are independent of the task at hand and the current sensory information. Mindfulness, defined as the ability to focus on the present moment with an accepting attitude towards the present experience, is considered to be the opposite of mind-wandering. We aimed at assessing how long-term meditation practice influences mind-wandering in everyday life and to which extent mind-wandering and self-reported aspects of mindfulness are conceptually linked. We first investigated the factorial structure of a German version of the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS) in a student population. Then we applied this version in meditators to a) investigate the relationship between meditation experience and reported levels of mind-wandering in daily life and b) explore how different facets of mindfulness, assessed with the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), relate to mind-wandering. Using a correlational design, we show that, among meditators, more meditation practice in years accounts for less self-reported mind-wandering in daily life. There was a negative association between mindfulness (FMI) and mind-wandering (DDFS). Our results provide evidence for clarifying the relationship between, meditation experience, mindfulness and mind-wandering and further validate the use of the FMI as a sensitive tool for assessing a two-factor structure of mindfulness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Help-Seeking Behaviour among Women in Uganda
Psych 2019, 1(1), 182-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010013 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognised as a fundamental violation of women’s human rights and a widespread phenomenon in Africa. Women’s low socioeconomic empowerment, cultural acceptability, and lack of social support exacerbate the health and psychosocial outcomes of IPV among African women. To [...] Read more.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognised as a fundamental violation of women’s human rights and a widespread phenomenon in Africa. Women’s low socioeconomic empowerment, cultural acceptability, and lack of social support exacerbate the health and psychosocial outcomes of IPV among African women. To date, there is no systematic research on IPV and its association with healthcare use among adult women in Uganda. Therefore, we conducted the present study on IPV among Ugandan women of childbearing age (15–49 years). Cross-sectional data on 7536 women were collected from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS—Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016). The objectives were to assess the predictors of IPV as well as help-seeking behaviour for victims of IPV. IPV was assessed by women’s experience of physical, emotional and sexual violence and healthcare use was assessed by self-reported medical visits during the last 12 months. Logistic regression methods were used to analyse the data. According to descriptive findings, which showed that more than half of the women reported experiencing any IPV (55.3%, 95%CI = 53.6, 57.0), emotional IPV (41.2%, 95%CI = 39.6, 42.8) was the most prevalent of all three categories, followed by physical (39.3%, 95%CI = 37.7, 40.9) and sexual IPV (22.0%, 95%CI = 20.7, 23.3). In the multivariate analysis, higher age, rural residence, religious background (non-Christian), ethnicity (Banyankore and Itseo), secondary/higher education and husband’s alcohol drinking habit were positively associated with women’s experience of IPV. Husband’s alcohol drinking was found to be a significant barrier to seeking help among those who experienced IPV. In conclusion, our findings suggest a noticeably high prevalence of IPV among Ugandan women. There are important sociodemographic and cultural patterns in the occurrence of IPV that need to be taken into account when designing intervention policies. Special attention should be given to women living with husbands/partners who drink alcohol, as this might increase their odds of experiencing IPV, as well as reduce the likelihood of seeking help. Full article
Open AccessEssay
The Original Industrial Revolution. Did Cold Winters Select for Cognitive Ability?
Psych 2019, 1(1), 166-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010012 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Rushton and Jensen argued that cognitive ability differs between human populations. But why are such differences expectable? Their answer: as modern humans spread out of Africa and into northern Eurasia, they entered colder and more seasonal climates that selected for the ability to [...] Read more.
Rushton and Jensen argued that cognitive ability differs between human populations. But why are such differences expectable? Their answer: as modern humans spread out of Africa and into northern Eurasia, they entered colder and more seasonal climates that selected for the ability to plan ahead, in order to store food, make clothes, and build shelters for winter. This cold winter theory is supported by research on Paleolithic humans and recent hunter-gatherers. Tools become more diverse and complex as effective temperature decreases, apparently because food has to be obtained during limited periods and over large areas. There is also more storage of food and fuel and greater use of untended traps and snares. Finally, shelters have to be sturdier, and clothing more cold-resistant. The resulting cognitive demands are met primarily by women because the lack of opportunities for food gathering pushes them into more cognitively demanding tasks, like garment making, needlework, weaving, leatherworking, pottery, and kiln operation. The northern tier of Paleolithic Eurasia thus produced the “Original Industrial Revolution”—an explosion of creativity that preadapted its inhabitants for later developments, i.e., farming, more complex technology and social organization, and an increasingly future-oriented culture. Over time, these humans would spread south, replacing earlier populations that could less easily exploit the possibilities of the new cultural environment. As this environment developed further, it selected for further increases in cognitive ability. Indeed, mean intelligence seems to have risen during recorded history at temperate latitudes in Europe and East Asia. There is thus no unified theory for the evolution of human intelligence. A key stage was adaptation to cold winters during the Paleolithic, but much happened later. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Race as Social Construct
Psych 2019, 1(1), 139-165; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010011 - 29 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
It is often claimed that race is a social construct and that scientists studying race differences are disruptive racists. The recent April 2018 “Race Issue” of the widely distributed National Geographic Magazine (NG) provided its millions of readers with a particularly illustrative example [...] Read more.
It is often claimed that race is a social construct and that scientists studying race differences are disruptive racists. The recent April 2018 “Race Issue” of the widely distributed National Geographic Magazine (NG) provided its millions of readers with a particularly illustrative example of this position. As discussions of race issues often recur, in both scientific and lay literature, stir considerable polemics, and have political, societal and human implications, we found it of both scientific and general interest to identify and dissect the following partly overlapping key contentions of the NG race issue magazine: (1) Samuel Morton’s studies of brain size is reprehensible racism (2) Race does not relate to geographic location, (3) Races do not exist as we are all equals and Africans, (4) Admixture and displacement erase race differences as soon as they appear, and (5) Race is only skin color deep. Also examined is the claim that Race does not matter. When analyzed within syllogistic formalism, each of the claims is found theoretically and empirically unsustainable, as Morton’s continuously evolving race position is misrepresented, race relates significantly to geography, we are far from equals, races have definitely not been erased, and race, whether self-reported or defined by ancestry, lineage, ecotype, species, or genes, is much more than skin color deep. Race matters vitally for people and societies. We conclude that important research on existing population differences is hurt when widely respected institutions such as NG mobilize their full authority in a massively circulated attempt to betray its scientific and public readership by systematically misrepresenting historical sources and scientific positions, shaming past scientists, and by selectively suppressing unwanted or unacceptable results–acts included as examples of academic fraud by the National Academy of Sciences (US, 1986). Any unqualified a priori denial of the formative evolutionary aspects of individual and population differences threatens to impede the recent promising research on effects of genome wide allelic associations, which would lames us in the vital quest to develop rational solutions to associated globally pressing societal problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Intelligence of Biracial Children of U.S. Servicemen in Northeast Asia: Results from Japan
Psych 2019, 1(1), 132-138; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010010 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 2218
Abstract
The IQ averages of biracial children have long been of interest to intelligence researchers for clarifying the causes of group differences in intelligence. We carried out a search for IQ test results of biracial children fathered by U.S. servicemen after World War 2 [...] Read more.
The IQ averages of biracial children have long been of interest to intelligence researchers for clarifying the causes of group differences in intelligence. We carried out a search for IQ test results of biracial children fathered by U.S. servicemen after World War 2 and indigenous Asian women in northeast Asian countries (Japan, Korea, China). We were able to locate a report from Japan from a foster home (n = 28–48 biracial children across tests). Results showed that there was only a minuscule IQ gap (<1 IQ) between children of Black–Japanese and White–Japanese parents. However, interpretation of the results is difficult owing to the very small sample size, the non-representative sample, and unknown patterns of assortative mating. We suggest possible avenues for future research. Full article
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