Next Issue
Volume 2, June
Previous Issue
Volume 2, December

Table of Contents

Acoustics, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 13 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Wind Turbine Noise Research
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 171-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010013 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 650
Abstract
This review is focussed on large-scale, horizontal-axis upwind turbines. Vertical-axis turbines are not considered here as they are not sufficiently efficient to be deployed in the commercial generation of electricity. Recent developments in horizontal-axis wind turbine noise research are summarised and topics that [...] Read more.
This review is focussed on large-scale, horizontal-axis upwind turbines. Vertical-axis turbines are not considered here as they are not sufficiently efficient to be deployed in the commercial generation of electricity. Recent developments in horizontal-axis wind turbine noise research are summarised and topics that are pertinent to the problem, but are yet to be investigated, are explored and suggestions for future research are offered. The major portion of recent and current research on wind turbine noise generation, propagation and its effects on people and animals is being undertaken by groups in Europe, UK, USA, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Considerable progress has been made in understanding wind turbine noise generation and propagation as well as the effect of wind farm noise on people, birds and animals. However, much remains to be done to answer many of the questions for which answers are still uncertain. In addition to community concerns about the effect of wind farm noise on people and how best to regulate wind farm noise and check installed wind farms for compliance, there is considerable interest from turbine manufacturers in developing quieter rotors, with the intention of allowing wind farm installations to be closer to populated areas. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recent and current wind farm noise research work and the research questions that remain to be addressed or are in the process of being addressed. Topics that are the subject of on-going research are discussed briefly and references to recent and current work are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Noise)
Open AccessArticle
One-Way Wave Equation Derived from Impedance Theorem
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 164-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010012 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The wave equations for longitudinal and transverse waves being used in seismic calculations are based on the classical force/moment balance. Mathematically, these equations are 2nd order partial differential equations (PDE) and contain two solutions with a forward and a backward propagating wave, therefore [...] Read more.
The wave equations for longitudinal and transverse waves being used in seismic calculations are based on the classical force/moment balance. Mathematically, these equations are 2nd order partial differential equations (PDE) and contain two solutions with a forward and a backward propagating wave, therefore also called “Two-way wave equation”. In order to solve this inherent ambiguity many auxiliary equations were developed being summarized under “One-way wave equation”. In this article the impedance theorem is interpreted as a wave equation with a unique solution. This 1st order PDE is mathematically more convenient than the 2nd order PDE. Furthermore the 1st order wave equation being valid for three-dimensional wave propagation in an inhomogeneous continuum is derived. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Behavior of High-Intensity Ultrasound Propagation in an Ideal Fluid
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 147-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010011 - 03 Mar 2020
Viewed by 579
Abstract
In this paper, nonlinearity associated with intense ultrasound is studied by using the one-dimensional motion of nonlinear shock wave in an ideal fluid. In nonlinear acoustics, the wave speed of different segments of a waveform is different, which causes distortion in the waveform [...] Read more.
In this paper, nonlinearity associated with intense ultrasound is studied by using the one-dimensional motion of nonlinear shock wave in an ideal fluid. In nonlinear acoustics, the wave speed of different segments of a waveform is different, which causes distortion in the waveform and can result in the formation of a shock (discontinuity). Acoustic pressure of high-intensity waves causes particles in the ideal fluid to vibrate forward and backward, and this disturbance is of relatively large magnitude due to high-intensities, which leads to nonlinearity in the waveform. In this research, this vibration of fluid due to the intense ultrasonic wave is modeled as a fluid pushed by one complete cycle of piston. In a piston cycle, as it moves forward, it causes fluid particles to compress, which may lead to the formation of a shock (discontinuity). Then as the piston retracts, a forward-moving rarefaction, a smooth fan zone of continuously changing pressure, density, and velocity is generated. When the piston stops at the end of the cycle, another shock is sent forward into the medium. The variation in wave speed over the entire waveform is calculated by solving a Riemann problem. This study examined the interaction of shocks with a rarefaction. The flow field resulting from these interactions shows that the shock waves are attenuated to a Mach wave, and the pressure distribution within the flow field shows the initial wave is dissipated. The developed theory is applied to waves generated by 20 KHz, 500 KHz, and 2 MHz transducers with 50, 150, 500, and 1500 W power levels to explore the effect of frequency and power on the generation and decay of shock waves. This work enhances the understanding of the interactions of high-intensity ultrasonic waves with fluids. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Sound Pressure Level Analysis of a Liquid-Fueled Lean Premixed Swirl Burner with Various Quarls
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 131-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010010 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Swirl burners are widely used in numerous practical applications since they are characterized by low pollutant emission and a wide operating range. Besides reliable operation, a burner must fulfill noise emission regulations, which is often a sound pressure level in dB(A) when people [...] Read more.
Swirl burners are widely used in numerous practical applications since they are characterized by low pollutant emission and a wide operating range. Besides reliable operation, a burner must fulfill noise emission regulations, which is often a sound pressure level in dB(A) when people are affected. Therefore, the present paper evaluates the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) variation of a 15-kW liquid-fueled turbulent atmospheric swirl burner at various setups. Firstly, the combustion air flow rate was adjusted, which induced a swirl number modification due to the fixed swirl vanes. Secondly, the atomizing pressure of the plain-jet airblast atomizer was modified, which also affected the swirl number. High atomizing air jets notably increased combustion noise by intensifying the shear layer. Thirdly, a geometrical modification was performed; 0°–60° half cone angle quarls in 15° steps were installed on the lip of the baseline burner for extended flame stability. By filtering the OASPL to the V-shaped flames, a linearly decreasing trend was observed as a function of swirl number. Their derivative also has a linearly decreasing characteristic as a function of the atomizing pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Historical Acoustics: Relationships between People and Sound over Time
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 128-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010009 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 636
Abstract
The Special Issue “Historical Acoustics: Relationships between People and Sound over Time” was the inaugural collection of the recently established journal “Acoustics (MDPI)”, so it felt appropriate to give it a focus to history, places and events of historical relevance, seeking [...] Read more.
The Special Issue “Historical Acoustics: Relationships between People and Sound over Time” was the inaugural collection of the recently established journal “Acoustics (MDPI)”, so it felt appropriate to give it a focus to history, places and events of historical relevance, seeking to explore the origins of acoustics, and examining the relationships that have evolved over the centuries between people and auditory phenomena [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Transceiver with a Regular/Periodic 1-3 Piezocomposite Based on the SAW Resonance Mode on Damping Backing
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 110-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010008 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 575
Abstract
A novel effective vibrational mode was discovered in the conventional transducer with an array of orthogonal (square) regular piezoelectric rods in 1-3 piezocomposite, containing the damping backing and front matching layers. The operational resonance in the structure was determined as the Surface Acoustic [...] Read more.
A novel effective vibrational mode was discovered in the conventional transducer with an array of orthogonal (square) regular piezoelectric rods in 1-3 piezocomposite, containing the damping backing and front matching layers. The operational resonance in the structure was determined as the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) on the backing boundary excited by the adjacent piezo-rods, with its frequency typically near 3 times lower the fundamental half-lambda conventional piezocomposite resonance. Pulse-echo sensitivity and transmitting sound pressure level (SPL) in air showed that the signal strength is roughly comparable to the industrial similar air transducers at the frequency range 100–700 kHz, where at these frequencies the lateral and longitudinal piezoelement dimensions in the conventional transducer design are typically close to each other causing interference with unwanted coupling modes. As was determined theoretically and proved in experiments, the backing SAW resonance effect in the transducer performance is inherent just to the regular periodic 1-3 piezocomposite structure and does occur neither with randomly located/oriented piezo-rods nor in the homogeneous piezo-plate at least with the same lateral cross-section as the connected to it backing. The purpose of the article is to investigate a newly discovered operational vibrational mode of a SAW type in 1-3 regular piezocomposite, other than piezoelectric resonance. The investigated phenomena can improve the transceiver sensitivity and bandwidth, providing lower drive voltage and smaller and lighter weight ultrasonic transducers. Based on the piezocomposites with thickness’ 1–1.5 mm (rod resonance near 2–3 MHz), pillar width 0.2–0.8 mm, kerf width 0.1–0.4 mm, the transceivers with an operating frequency from 140 kHz to 650 kHz were designed and fabricated with a conventional backing of a mixture of high-density tungsten powder and epoxy and a matching layer of a mixture of low-density glass bubbles and epoxy. Experimental evaluation of their acoustical performance showed expected characteristics suitable for practical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Computer Modeling of Barrel-Vaulted Sanctuary Exhibiting Flutter Echo with Comparison to Measurements
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 87-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010007 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Computer modeling in acoustics allows for the prediction of acoustical defects and the evaluation of potential remediations. In this article, computer modeling is applied to the case of a barrel-vaulted sanctuary whose architectural design and construction led to severe flutter echoes along the [...] Read more.
Computer modeling in acoustics allows for the prediction of acoustical defects and the evaluation of potential remediations. In this article, computer modeling is applied to the case of a barrel-vaulted sanctuary whose architectural design and construction led to severe flutter echoes along the main aisle, which was later mitigated through acoustical remediations. State-of-the-art geometrical acoustics and wave-based simulations are carried out to analyze the acoustics of this space, with a particular focus on the flutter echoes along the main aisle, before and after remediations. Multi-resolution wavelet and spectrogram analyses are carried out to isolate and characterize flutter echoes within measurements and computer-simulated room impulse responses. Comparisons of simulated responses to measurements are also made in terms of decay times and curves. Simulated room impulse responses from both geometrical acoustics and wave-based methods show evidence of flutter echoes matching measurements, to varying degrees. Time-frequency analyses isolating flutter echoes demonstrate better matches to measurements from wave-based simulated responses, at the cost of longer simulation times than geometrical acoustics simulations. This case study highlights the importance of computer modeling of acoustics in early design phases of architectural planning of worship spaces. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cyclists′ Exposure to Road Traffic Noise: A Comparison of Three North American and European Cities
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 73-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010006 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization, high levels of exposure to road traffic noise are associated with adverse health effects. Earlier studies suggest that cyclists are exposed to higher noise levels than motorists. Other studies have demonstrated that cyclists’ exposure to noise could [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization, high levels of exposure to road traffic noise are associated with adverse health effects. Earlier studies suggest that cyclists are exposed to higher noise levels than motorists. Other studies have demonstrated that cyclists’ exposure to noise could vary significantly according to their routes. The aim of this study is to compare cyclists’ exposure to noise and their determinants in three cities. Three participants cycled equipped with noise dosimeters and GPS watches: 1823, 967, and 1362 km in Copenhagen, Paris, and Montreal, respectively. We fitted three generalized additive mixed model with an autoregressive term models to predict the cyclists’ exposure to noise according to the type of route and bicycle infrastructure after controlling for the day of the week, as well as spatial and temporal trends. The overall noise means were 73.4, 70.7, and 68.4 dB(A) in Paris, Montreal, and Copenhagen, respectively. The exposure to road traffic noise is strongly associated with the type of bicycle infrastructure taken by the cyclist; riding on a cycleway significantly decreases it, while riding in a shared lane has no impact. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a substantial reduction in cyclists′ exposure by adopting new practices that include noise exposure in the planning of future cycling infrastructure. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Attenuation and Phase Velocity of Elastic Wave in Textured Polycrystals with Ellipsoidal Grains of Arbitrary Crystal Symmetry
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 51-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010005 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
This study extends the second-order attenuation (SOA) model for elastic waves in texture-free inhomogeneous cubic polycrystalline materials with equiaxed grains to textured polycrystals with ellipsoidal grains of arbitrary crystal symmetry. In term of this work, one can predict both the scattering-induced attenuation and [...] Read more.
This study extends the second-order attenuation (SOA) model for elastic waves in texture-free inhomogeneous cubic polycrystalline materials with equiaxed grains to textured polycrystals with ellipsoidal grains of arbitrary crystal symmetry. In term of this work, one can predict both the scattering-induced attenuation and phase velocity from Rayleigh region (wavelength >> scatter size) to geometric region (wavelength << scatter size) for an arbitrary incident wave mode (quasi-longitudinal, quasi-transverse fast or quasi-transverse slow mode) in a textured polycrystal and examine the impact of crystallographic texture on attenuation and phase velocity dispersion in the whole frequency range. The predicted attenuation results of this work also agree well with the literature on a textured stainless steel polycrystal. Furthermore, an analytical expression for quasi-static phase velocity at an arbitrary wave propagation direction in a textured polycrystal is derived from the SOA model, which can provide an alternative homogenization method for textured polycrystals based on scattering theory. Computational results using triclinic titanium polycrystals with Gaussian orientation distribution function (ODF) are also presented to demonstrate the texture effect on attenuation and phase velocity behaviors and evaluate the applicability and limitation of an existing analytical model based on the Born approximation for textured polycrystals. Finally, quasi-static phase velocities predicted by this work for a textured polycrystalline copper with generalized spherical harmonics form ODF are compared to available velocity bounds in the literature including Hashin–Shtrikman bounds, and a reasonable agreement is found between this work and the literature. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Acoustic Power Output from Electrical Impedance Measurements
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 37-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010004 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 933
Abstract
A method is proposed for estimating the acoustic power output of ultrasound transducers using a two-port model with electrical impedance measurements made in three different propagation media. When evaluated for two high-intensity focused ultrasound transducers at centre frequencies between 0.50 and 3.19 MHz, [...] Read more.
A method is proposed for estimating the acoustic power output of ultrasound transducers using a two-port model with electrical impedance measurements made in three different propagation media. When evaluated for two high-intensity focused ultrasound transducers at centre frequencies between 0.50 and 3.19 MHz, the resulting power estimates exceeded acoustic estimates by 4.5–21.8%. The method was shown to be valid for drive levels producing up to 20 MPa in water and should therefore be appropriate for many HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) applications, with the primary advantage of employing relatively low-cost, non-specialist materials and instrumentation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Acoustic Environment of York Minster’s Chapter House
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 13-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010003 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
York Minster is the largest medieval Gothic cathedral in Northern Europe, renowned for its magnificent architecture and its stained glass windows. Both acoustic measurements and simulation techniques have been used to analyse the acoustic environment of its Chapter House, which dates from the [...] Read more.
York Minster is the largest medieval Gothic cathedral in Northern Europe, renowned for its magnificent architecture and its stained glass windows. Both acoustic measurements and simulation techniques have been used to analyse the acoustic environment of its Chapter House, which dates from the 13th-century and features an octagonal geometry with Gothic Decorated stone walls replete of geometric patterns and enormous stained glass windows, covered by a decorated wooden vault. Measured and simulated room impulse responses served to better understand how their architectural features work together to create its highly reverberant acoustic field. The authors start by analysing its acoustic characteristics in relation to its original purpose as a meeting place of the cathedral’s Chapter, and end by reflecting on its modern use for a variety of cultural events, such as concerts and exhibitions. This work is part of the “Cathedral Acoustics” project, funded by the EC through the Marie-Sklodowska-Curie scheme. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Liver Backscatter and the Hepatic Vasculature’s Autocorrelation Function
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 3-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010002 - 22 Jan 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Ultrasound imaging of the liver is an everyday, worldwide clinical tool. The echoes are produced by inhomogeneities within the interrogated tissue, but what are the mathematical properties of these scatterers? In theory, the spatial correlation function and the backscatter coefficient are linked by [...] Read more.
Ultrasound imaging of the liver is an everyday, worldwide clinical tool. The echoes are produced by inhomogeneities within the interrogated tissue, but what are the mathematical properties of these scatterers? In theory, the spatial correlation function and the backscatter coefficient are linked by a Fourier transform relationship, however direct measures of these are relatively rare. Under the hypothesis that the fractal branching vasculature and fluid channels are the predominant source of scattering in normal tissues, we compare theory and experimental measures of the autocorrelation function, the frequency dependence of scattering, and fractal dimension estimates from high contrast 3D micro-CT data sets of rat livers. The results demonstrate a fractal dimension of approximately 2.2 with corresponding power law estimates of autocorrelation and ultrasound scattering. These results support a general framework for the analysis of ultrasound scattering from soft tissues. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Acoustics in 2019
Acoustics 2020, 2(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2010001 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop