According to the World Health Organization, high levels of exposure to road traffic noise are associated with adverse health effects. Earlier studies suggest that cyclists are exposed to higher noise levels than motorists. Other studies have demonstrated that cyclists’ exposure to noise could vary significantly according to their routes. The aim of this study is to compare cyclists’ exposure to noise and their determinants in three cities. Three participants cycled equipped with noise dosimeters and GPS watches: 1823, 967, and 1362 km in Copenhagen, Paris, and Montreal, respectively. We fitted three generalized additive mixed model with an autoregressive term models to predict the cyclists’ exposure to noise according to the type of route and bicycle infrastructure after controlling for the day of the week, as well as spatial and temporal trends. The overall noise means were 73.4, 70.7, and 68.4 dB(A) in Paris, Montreal, and Copenhagen, respectively. The exposure to road traffic noise is strongly associated with the type of bicycle infrastructure taken by the cyclist; riding on a cycleway significantly decreases it, while riding in a shared lane has no impact. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a substantial reduction in cyclists′ exposure by adopting new practices that include noise exposure in the planning of future cycling infrastructure.
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