Previous Issue
Volume 4, June

Heritage, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 22 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Lines of Settlement: Lost Landscapes within Maps for Future Morphologies
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1400-1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030077 - 23 Jul 2021
Abstract
The value of archival documents quite often extends beyond their original purpose, as evidence contained within these artefacts, whether written or drawn, can provide veracity for new lines of heritage inquiry. Many settlements in the ‘new world’ were set out by land surveyors [...] Read more.
The value of archival documents quite often extends beyond their original purpose, as evidence contained within these artefacts, whether written or drawn, can provide veracity for new lines of heritage inquiry. Many settlements in the ‘new world’ were set out by land surveyors whose drawings charted the accurate placement and alignment of new streets and block perimeters laid upon drawings of the extant topographical landscape features. The paper discusses three settlement maps of Melbourne, Australia, through the lens of Michel de Certeau’s idea that maps are an instrument of power are not just about recording; maps are actually about appropriating and producing regimes of place. In the Australian context, the settlement drawings, prepared under the direction of the colonial administration, inadvertently depicts Country that had been under the custodial care of the First Nations peoples for millennia, and through the intentions of the settlement maps about to be irrevocably disturbed, altered or destroyed. We raise the prospect that urban and landscape design can reflect on the ‘lost landscapes’ of cultural significance, and discuss new ways of interpreting representation through an approach of design reconciliation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
Article
Ongoing Colonization and Indigenous Environmental Heritage Rights: A Learning Experience with Cree First Nation Communities, Saskatchewan, Canada
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1388-1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030076 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Ongoing colonization of the environment and natural resources has negatively impacted environmental heritage rights in many parts of the world, particularly Indigenous environmental rights and their relationships with the environment. For many Indigenous communities, the history of colonialism became a history of dispossession [...] Read more.
Ongoing colonization of the environment and natural resources has negatively impacted environmental heritage rights in many parts of the world, particularly Indigenous environmental rights and their relationships with the environment. For many Indigenous communities, the history of colonialism became a history of dispossession for Indigenous peoples, their land, water, traditional knowledge, and practices. This paper addresses the ongoing environmental heritage conflict between the Cree First Nation communities’ traditional environmental heritage practices and developmental energy projects in Saskatchewan, Canada. Drawing from a relational research framework, we (Cree First Nation Knowledge Keeper and settler scholar of color) shared our learning reflections from Cree First Nation communities on how energy projects (particularly pipeline leaks) have negatively impacted Indigenous land, water, and traditional heritage and practices. In this paper, we focus our learnings from the Cree First Nation communities on the following questions: Why and how do developmental projects neglect Indigenous heritage rights, particularly environmental heritage rights? What can be or should be done about it? What are our responsibilities as researchers and educators? In this study, we learned about traditional-knowledge-based consultation and solutions to the ongoing challenges of incorporating Indigenous interests into environmental heritage to foster Indigenous environmental heritage rights. We also highlight how Indigenous perspectives on their environmental heritage rights are interconnected with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from our learning reflections, particularly Goal 3, Good Health and Wellbeing, Goal 10, Reduced Inequalities, Goal 13, Climate Action, Goal 15, Life on Land, and Goal 16, Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage as a Driver of the Sustainable Development Goals)
Article
A Preliminary Study on Industrial Landscape Planning and Spatial Layout in Belgium
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1375-1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030075 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
As the material carrier of industrial heritage, industrial landscape planning integrates industrial heritage, post-industrial, and industrial tourism landscapes. In this study, we define the concept of industrial landscape planning. As a subsystem of urban planning, we study industrial landscape planning by using the [...] Read more.
As the material carrier of industrial heritage, industrial landscape planning integrates industrial heritage, post-industrial, and industrial tourism landscapes. In this study, we define the concept of industrial landscape planning. As a subsystem of urban planning, we study industrial landscape planning by using the theories and methods of urban planning. As an example, we consider Belgium and identify the main categories of industrial landscape planning as industrial heritage landscape and industrial tourism landscape. We use an ArcGIS spatial analysis tool and kernel density calculations and reveal the characteristics of four clusters of industrial heritage spatial layout in Belgium, which match its located industrial development route. Each cluster has unique regional characteristics that were spontaneously formed according to existing social and natural resources. At the level of urban planning, there is a lack of unified re-creation. Urban planning is relatively separated from the protection of industrial heritage in Belgium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Paper Foxing Stains on a Historic Manuscript from the Early Qajar Era: Abiotic or Biotic Foxing?
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1366-1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030074 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the nature and cause of foxing spots in a historical manuscript. This manuscript was a Holy Quran from the beginning of the Qajar period and the end of the 18th century. Samples were incubated for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the nature and cause of foxing spots in a historical manuscript. This manuscript was a Holy Quran from the beginning of the Qajar period and the end of the 18th century. Samples were incubated for 14 days and were evaluated for the presence of fungal activity. UV fluorescence photography, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were also used to investigate the characteristics and causes of foxing spots. The results showed that there was no fungal activity in the foxing spots of this manuscript. Based on the morphology of the stain in UV fluorescence photography, these foxing stains are of the Bullseye type, usually associated with metal ions. µXRF spectroscopy also showed a high accumulation of iron and copper at the site of these spots. This indicates abiotic foxing in this manuscript. Based on FTIR spectroscopy and peak deconvolution and fitting by Gaussian function, abiotic foxing increases the cellulose oxidation rate. Intensification of cellulose oxidation in foxing stains can be considered as one of the reasons for paper discoloration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification of Pre-1950 Synthetic Organic Pigments in Artists’ Paints. A Non-Invasive Approach Using Handheld Raman Spectroscopy
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1348-1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030073 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 269
Abstract
There is little information on the actual use of early synthetic organic pigments (SOPs) in art objects, especially those from before 1950. Their presence can, however, pose a challenge to conservation because their chemical composition, as well as their lightfastness and sensitivity to [...] Read more.
There is little information on the actual use of early synthetic organic pigments (SOPs) in art objects, especially those from before 1950. Their presence can, however, pose a challenge to conservation because their chemical composition, as well as their lightfastness and sensitivity to solvents, are often unknown. Here, a study on the non-invasive identification of SOPs in historic pre-1950 varnished paint-outs from artists’ materials manufacturer Royal Talens is presented. The paints were analysed using a handheld Raman device. Spectra were evaluated by recording the spectra of the same samples with a benchtop instrument. This study demonstrated that the identification of SOPs in varnished oil paints with a non-invasive approach is possible and rather straightforward. The handheld Raman device allowed us to identify fourteen SOPs from eight pigment classes. Besides the occurrence of expected and the known SOPs of this time period, there were also some surprising results, like the detection of the triarylcarbonium pigments PG2 and PB8, and the monoazo Mordant Yellow 1. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Fortress Beneath: Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of the Citadel at Alcatraz: 1. A Guide for Interpretation
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1328-1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030072 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Ground-penetrating radar has emerged as a prominent non-destructive evaluation tool for the study of inaccessible subsurface elements of cultural heritage structures. Often of central interest is the desire to image the remains of a pre-existing historic structure that is located directly beneath a [...] Read more.
Ground-penetrating radar has emerged as a prominent non-destructive evaluation tool for the study of inaccessible subsurface elements of cultural heritage structures. Often of central interest is the desire to image the remains of a pre-existing historic structure that is located directly beneath a more recently built one. The interpretation of GPR images in such cases is usually difficult due to ambiguities caused by the presence of pervasive clutter, environmental noise, and overlapping target signatures. Sites with abundant ground truth allow for more confident interpretations and serve as a useful testbed to assist similar studies at other places, where little or no ground truth is available. This study reports GPR interpretations of structures belonging to the 19th century Citadel beneath the main prison cellhouse at Alcatraz. At this site, lidar scans, direct observations, and historical documents are available to facilitate identification of radar target signatures. A general interpretation of the acquired radargrams is made in this paper, while the companion paper presents more advanced analysis of target signatures based on curvelet image processing. This study points to the development of a radar facies classification scheme that is specific to cultural heritage investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Positional Accuracy Assessment of Digital Orthophoto Based on UAV Images: An Experience on an Archaeological Area
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1304-1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030071 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Rapid development in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) photogrammetry made it preferable in many applications including cultural heritage documentation. Usability, quickness and accuracy of digital images have grabbed also the attention of archaeologists. Especially orthoimages by UAVs have become considerably significant in the field [...] Read more.
Rapid development in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) photogrammetry made it preferable in many applications including cultural heritage documentation. Usability, quickness and accuracy of digital images have grabbed also the attention of archaeologists. Especially orthoimages by UAVs have become considerably significant in the field of archaeological heritage documentation since they are fast and accurate images of the object with high detailed information. However their accuracy and quality are the most important features of these images for archaeological documentation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate horizontal and vertical accuracy of an orthophoto taken by a fixed-wing UAV in an archaeological area. The evaluation is made according to ASPRS (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing) Accuracy Standards for Digital Geospatial Data. The archaeological area, the name of which is Kubad Abad Palace in Beyşehir Province in Konya, is the only Anatolian Seljuk Palace structure that has survived to the present day. The study describes the orthophoto generation process and positional accuracy evaluation results within the frame of the importance of accuracy for archaeological documentation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mount Athos: Restoration of an Almost Extinct Type of 18th–19th C. UNESCO Masonry OX Stable
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1284-1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030070 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The present paper serves the purpose of presenting an extinct type of 18th–19th century masonry building, that of an ox-stable, situated in one of Europe’s most secluded areas: The Holy Monastery of Pantokrator in Mount Athos Peninsula. Architectural drawings and surveying plots of [...] Read more.
The present paper serves the purpose of presenting an extinct type of 18th–19th century masonry building, that of an ox-stable, situated in one of Europe’s most secluded areas: The Holy Monastery of Pantokrator in Mount Athos Peninsula. Architectural drawings and surveying plots of its current state can serve as a record and reference of this UNESCO site for scholars. Adding to that, an elaborated proposal for the reuse of the building is presented together with technical drawings, which were approved by Greece’s Central Archeological Council. The masonry rectangular building is founded on natural rock with masonry pillar footings of different heights. Hence, the elevation irregularity and the different elevations of the footings of the structure present an additional challenge for the structural analysis. Structural analysis with a finite element (FE) model of the restored structure was executed with SAP2000 software. Performing lateral force and response spectrum analyses, stresses and deformations at critical points of the structure were calculated. Comparing a set of simplifying structural checks with the elastic FE analysis performed, it was concluded that the proposed design is effective in improving the earthquake performance of the structure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Archaeometallurgical Analyses on Two Renaissance Swords from the “Luigi Marzoli” Museum in Brescia: Manufacturing and Provenance
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1269-1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030069 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Two Venetian types of swords coming from the “Luigi Marzoli” Arms Museum in Brescia were characterized in this study, to understand their manufacturing process and to gather information about their provenance. Both the blades and the hilts components are analyzed using a multi-methodological [...] Read more.
Two Venetian types of swords coming from the “Luigi Marzoli” Arms Museum in Brescia were characterized in this study, to understand their manufacturing process and to gather information about their provenance. Both the blades and the hilts components are analyzed using a multi-methodological approach, to describe possible differences in the metallurgical features that involved classical metallographic and spectroscopic techniques. Microstructural results indicate a complex process for the manufacturing of the blades, by hot-forging, confirmed by a sequence of different microstructures even on the same sample. Furthermore, an interesting and unusual manufacturing technique is used on one of the pommels, which consists of two hemispheres connected by copper joints. Hypothesis about the ironmaking and the provenience of raw materials are obtained by the features and composition of the inclusions. It is suggested that there is the use of both a direct and an indirect process on the swords. It is likely that the minerals used to obtain iron and copper of the swords come from the mines of the Brescia and Bergamo territories. All the hypotheses are consistent with the historical documents of the time that also give information on the diffusion of such swords in the Brescia area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals in Heritage Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Forerunners on Heritage Stones Investigation: Historical Synthesis and Evolution
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1228-1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030068 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Human activity has required, since its origins, stones as raw material for carving, construction and rock art. The study, exploration, use and maintenance of building stones is a global phenomenon that has evolved from the first shelters, manufacture of lithic tools, to the [...] Read more.
Human activity has required, since its origins, stones as raw material for carving, construction and rock art. The study, exploration, use and maintenance of building stones is a global phenomenon that has evolved from the first shelters, manufacture of lithic tools, to the construction of houses, infrastructures and monuments. Druids, philosophers, clergymen, quarrymen, master builders, naturalists, travelers, architects, archaeologists, physicists, chemists, curators, restorers, museologists, engineers and geologists, among other professionals, have worked with stones and they have produced the current knowledge in heritage stones. They are stones that have special significance in human culture. In this way, the connotation of heritage in stones has been acquired over the time. That is, the stones at the time of their historical use were simply stones used for a certain purpose. Therefore, the concept of heritage stone is broad, with cultural, historic, artistic, architectural, and scientific implications. A historical synthesis is presented of the main events that marked the use of stones from prehistory, through ancient history, medieval times, and to the modern period. In addition, the main authors who have written about stones are surveyed from Ancient Roman times to the middle of the twentieth century. Subtle properties of stones have been discovered and exploited by artists and artisans long before rigorous science took notice of them and explained them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Materials and Culture Heritage: Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Evaluation of a Paleontological Museum as Geosite and Base for Geotourism. A Case Study
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1208-1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030067 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The Santa Elena province in Ecuador has outstanding geological potential in petroleum, mining and geosite resources. All the wealth of palaeontological samples and their inherent link to the history of this territory require a recognised museum with educational and scientific material to support [...] Read more.
The Santa Elena province in Ecuador has outstanding geological potential in petroleum, mining and geosite resources. All the wealth of palaeontological samples and their inherent link to the history of this territory require a recognised museum with educational and scientific material to support the potential and promotion of geotourism development. The Megatherium Palaeontological Museum is located in this province and was the first Palaeontological Museum in Ecuador. It exhibits samples corresponding to the Late Pleistocene Megafauna that inhabited the area. This study aims to evaluate the museum (a geoheritage element) as a possible (palaeontological) geosite by analysing its contributions to the geoheritage of the Santa Elena province. Thus, we also aim to enhance the geotourism of the area and promote its collections as a geotouristic attraction. The methodological process was based on: (i) information processing and systematisation in the museum and its environment; (ii) assessment of the museum’s geological interest through the method of the Geological Survey of Spain, the Brilha method and the Geosites Assessment Model; and (iii) a qualitative evaluation using the Delphi and the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats methodologies to define strategies and proposals for museum development. Based on the results of the applied quantitative assessment, the museum has a “very high” (277/400) degree of geological interest, due to the high values of scientific (310/400), academic (310/400) and touristic (210/400) interest. In this same way, the results obtained through the Brilha method reflect a high scientific (290/400), educational (280/400), and tourist (315/400) interest and a low degradation risk (190/400) value in the museum. Furthermore, the applied Geosites Assessment Model shows the museum as a geosite with high main and additional values, placing it between the Z23 and Z33 fields of the global valuation matrix. The evaluation approached through Delphi analysis and Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats matrix allowed us to propose improvement strategies to take advantage of the museum resources as an alternative that strengthens the geotouristic development of the area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Multi-Analytical Study of an Ancient Egyptian Limestone Stele for Knowledge and Conservation Purposes: Recovering Hieroglyphs and Figurative Details by Image Analysis
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1193-1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030066 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
A multi-analytical study was carried out on an ancient Egyptian limestone stele with red figures and hieroglyphs (S. 6145) coming from the village of Deir el-Medina and belonging to the collection of the Museo Egizio (Turin, Italy). With the support of a multidisciplinary [...] Read more.
A multi-analytical study was carried out on an ancient Egyptian limestone stele with red figures and hieroglyphs (S. 6145) coming from the village of Deir el-Medina and belonging to the collection of the Museo Egizio (Turin, Italy). With the support of a multidisciplinary team, a project for the preservation and conservation of this stele provided an opportunity to carry out a very detailed study of the object. Petrographic and mineralogical analysis led to the characterization and dating of the limestone, and ultrasonic tests were of great help in shedding light on the state of preservation of the stele, as a preliminary to planning conservation treatment. The chemical nature of the red pigment was investigated by non-invasive spectroscopic analyses. Multispectral imaging and statistical image processing improved the readability of the hieroglyphs, whose preservation ranged from heavily compromised to almost completely invisible, revealing some signs that had previously not been visible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Image Processing for Archaeology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mapping Pigments in a Painting with Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1182-1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030065 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 264
Abstract
An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) mobile universal surface explorer (MOUSE) was recently introduced for noninvasively studying paramagnetic pigments in paintings. This study determined that the EPR MOUSE could map the spatial locations of four pigments in a simple impasto painting. Results from three [...] Read more.
An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) mobile universal surface explorer (MOUSE) was recently introduced for noninvasively studying paramagnetic pigments in paintings. This study determined that the EPR MOUSE could map the spatial locations of four pigments in a simple impasto painting. Results from three spectral identification algorithms were examined to assess their ability to identify the pigments using an unsupervised approach. Resulting pigment maps are displayed as colorized images of the spatial distribution of the pigments. All three algorithms produced reasonable representations of the painting. The algorithms achieved excellent true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative rates of ≥0.95, ≥0.98, ≤0.02, and ≤0.05, respectively, for the identification of the pigments. We conclude that the EPR MOUSE is suitable for accurately mapping the location of paramagnetic pigments in a painting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Non-Invasive Technical Investigation of English Portrait Miniatures Attributed to Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1165-1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030064 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
This study presents the results of the technical investigation carried out on several English portrait miniatures painted in the 16th and 17th century by Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver, two of the most famous limners working at the Tudor and Stuart courts. The [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of the technical investigation carried out on several English portrait miniatures painted in the 16th and 17th century by Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver, two of the most famous limners working at the Tudor and Stuart courts. The 23 objects chosen for the analysis, spanning almost the entire career of the two artists, belong to the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum (London) and the Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge). A non-invasive scientific methodology, comprising of stereo and optical microscopies, Raman microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, was required for the investigation of these small-scale and fragile objects. The palettes and working techniques of the two artists were characterised, focusing in particular on the examination of flesh tones, mouths, and eyes. These findings were also compared to the information written in the treatises on miniature painting circulating during the artists’ lifetime. By identifying the materials and techniques most widely employed by the two artists, this study provides information about similarities and differences in their working methods, which can help to understand their artistic practice as well as contribute to matters of attribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials and Heritage)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multianalytical Assessment of Armour Paints—The Ageing Characteristics of Historic Drying Oil Varnish Paints for Protection of Steel and Iron Surfaces in Sweden
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1141-1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030063 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
The characteristics of armour paints, historically used to protect ferrous industrial heritage, are explored. Amour paints contain lamellar and highly reflexive pigments of micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and metallic, leafing aluminium, bound in linseed oil and linseed oil–tung oil mixtures, on an inhibitive [...] Read more.
The characteristics of armour paints, historically used to protect ferrous industrial heritage, are explored. Amour paints contain lamellar and highly reflexive pigments of micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and metallic, leafing aluminium, bound in linseed oil and linseed oil–tung oil mixtures, on an inhibitive and soap-forming linseed oil primer (red lead). It is the first study of the binding media used for historical armour paints and investigates the chemical and physical ageing of armour paints using a multianalytical approach. Naturally aged examples are compared to accelerated aged replica armour paint, and to historical paints. The ageing and degradation reactions are assessed by complementary GC–MS and FTIR, together with measurements of wettability, hardness and surface colour. The historical paint formulations include linseed oils and alkyd binders. The results confirm that the leafing effect of aluminium pigments results in only a small concentration of binder at the surface: the paints studied reflect light and form a strong chemical and physical barrier. Linseed oils and tung oil mixtures have been proven to be suitable for the production of armour paints, but the evaluation of ageing and assessment of physical changes will require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials and Heritage)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Spatial Morphology of Community in Chipping Barnet c.1800–2015: An Historical Dialogue of Tangible and Intangible Heritages
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1119-1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030062 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
This article presents a case study of the London suburb of Chipping Barnet to show how a spatial-morphological approach to tangible heritage challenges its archetypal image as an affluent commuter suburb by highlighting its resilience as a generative patterning of social space that [...] Read more.
This article presents a case study of the London suburb of Chipping Barnet to show how a spatial-morphological approach to tangible heritage challenges its archetypal image as an affluent commuter suburb by highlighting its resilience as a generative patterning of social space that has weathered successive phases of social change. We argue that the enduring spatial-morphological definition of Barnet as a local centre explains how it has been possible to preserve something less tangible—namely its identity as a suburban community. We show how Barnet’s street network constitutes community heritage through a combination of local- and wider-scale affiliations that have sustained diverse localised socio-economic activity over an extended period of time. Noting how local histories often go further than sociological studies in emphasising the importance of the built environment for indexing the effects of social change on everyday life, we draw on a range of archive sources including the analysis of historical maps using space syntax techniques, to reveal Barnet’s street network as a dialogue of both tangible and intangible heritages that are formative of a suburban community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
“Underground Built Heritage”: A Theoretical Approach for the Definition of an International Class
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1092-1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030061 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Although nowadays sustainable reuse of underground cultural heritage has become a global trend, as yet Underground Built Heritage (UBH) is not regarded as a distinctive class eligible for protection. After a critical overview of previous attempts at defining underground heritage by associations such [...] Read more.
Although nowadays sustainable reuse of underground cultural heritage has become a global trend, as yet Underground Built Heritage (UBH) is not regarded as a distinctive class eligible for protection. After a critical overview of previous attempts at defining underground heritage by associations such as UIS, SSI and UNESCO, this article updates the definition of the new-born class of UBH on the basis of three main criteria: position (by introducing the concept of Geographical Zero Level), manmade character, and cultural relevance, both material and immaterial. Building on the outputs of several projects devoted to this topic and the results of academic expertise in this field, the author proposes a new dedicated methodological approach consisting of a chart for the classification of artefacts as historical UBH and a strategy for their reuse based on a four-level scale: Re-inventing, Re-introducing, Re-interpreting and Re-building. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Accessibility of Geoheritage Sites—A Methodological Proposal
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1080-1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030060 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Accessibility is an important property of geoheritage sites (geosites), which is commonly considered in their assessment. A new method, which refers partly to previous developments, is proposed to assess this property semiquantitatively. Inner (on-site) and outer accessibility are distinguished, and each is measured [...] Read more.
Accessibility is an important property of geoheritage sites (geosites), which is commonly considered in their assessment. A new method, which refers partly to previous developments, is proposed to assess this property semiquantitatively. Inner (on-site) and outer accessibility are distinguished, and each is measured depending on the opportunities to reach unique geological features. Distant visibility and entrance fees/required permissions are also taken into account. On the basis of the scores, three grades of geosite accessibility (excellent, moderate, and low) are delineated. The proposed method is applied to 15 geosites of Mountainous Adygeya (southwestern Russia), and the outcomes prove its efficacy. This application also helps to establish within-site and territorial spatial heterogeneity of geosite accessibility and to propose some managerial implications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Patterns of the Expanding City: An Algorithmic Interpretation of Otto Wagner’s Work
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1062-1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030059 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Central Europe witnessed an urban boom at the beginning of the 20th century. By that time, the leading state of the area was Austria-Hungary, with Vienna as its capital. Before the First World War, even larger expansion of the cities was predictable. Otto [...] Read more.
Central Europe witnessed an urban boom at the beginning of the 20th century. By that time, the leading state of the area was Austria-Hungary, with Vienna as its capital. Before the First World War, even larger expansion of the cities was predictable. Otto Wagner, a leading architect of the empire and an expert in urban planning and architectural theory, published his vision about the future of the evolution of cities in 1911. In this book, he formulates clear rules about how a city should sustainably expand in a controlled manner. In this article, these rules of the inherited patterns are systematised and turned into recursive algorithms to simulate the urban growth controlled by them and the resulting patterns. The algorithms are tested on 1911 Vienna and, as comparison, on 2021 Miskolc, a medium-sized city in Hungary with different geographic surroundings. In the article, the resulting patterns are presented in 2D and 3D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Town-Plan as Built Heritage
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1049-1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030058 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The physical form of cities is exposed to conflicting forces of change and conservation. In the conservation field, despite the advances achieved over the last decades changing the paradigm from historical monuments to urban landscapes, the focus tends to be on the building [...] Read more.
The physical form of cities is exposed to conflicting forces of change and conservation. In the conservation field, despite the advances achieved over the last decades changing the paradigm from historical monuments to urban landscapes, the focus tends to be on the building fabric and the main three-dimensional characteristics of buildings. This paper proposes a complementary emphasis for conservation—the town-plan, meaning the different patterns of combination of streets, plots, and block-plans of buildings (building footprints). Preserving the town-plan of urban areas built in the past, means bringing to the present significant parts of urban history, assuring diversity (a key characteristic for sustainable, resilient, and safe cities), and providing a basis for the design of new areas more accessible, dense, and continuous. This argument is illustrated in the Chelsea district in New York at two different scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rising from the Depths Network: A Challenge-Led Research Agenda for Marine Heritage and Sustainable Development in Eastern Africa
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1026-1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030057 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The Rising from the Depths (RftD) network aims to identify the ways in which Marine Cultural Heritage (MCH) can contribute to the sustainable development of coastal communities in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Madagascar. Although the coastal and marine heritage of eastern Africa is [...] Read more.
The Rising from the Depths (RftD) network aims to identify the ways in which Marine Cultural Heritage (MCH) can contribute to the sustainable development of coastal communities in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Madagascar. Although the coastal and marine heritage of eastern Africa is a valuable cultural and environmental resource, it remains largely unstudied and undervalued and is subject to significant threat from natural and anthropogenic processes of change. This paper outlines the aims of the RftD network and describes the co-creation of a challenge-led research and sustainability programme for the study of MCH in eastern Africa. Through funding 29 challenge-led research projects across these four Global South countries, the network is demonstrating how MCH can directly benefit East African communities and local economies through building identity and place-making, stimulating resource-centred alternative sources of income and livelihoods, and enhancing the value and impact of overseas aid in the marine sector. Overall, Rising from the Depths aims to illustrate that an integrated consideration of cultural heritage, rather than being a barrier to development, should be positioned as a central facet of the transformative development process if that development is to be ethical, inclusive and sustainable. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Case History of an Insect Infestation Revealed Using X-ray Computed Tomography and Implications for Museum Collections Management Decisions
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1016-1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030056 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
The protection of cultural heritage and property is a significant and critical task that requires collaboration and expertise in a variety of disciplines. Of the many risk factors, insect infestation is one cause of deterioration and loss. At a large, state university, disparate [...] Read more.
The protection of cultural heritage and property is a significant and critical task that requires collaboration and expertise in a variety of disciplines. Of the many risk factors, insect infestation is one cause of deterioration and loss. At a large, state university, disparate departments, ranging from Facilities Management to the Entomology Department and Veterinary Medicine, assisted the university museum in identifying a drywood termite infestation, determining the extent of loss and developing a plan to prevent or mitigate future infestations. Our group was able to determine the extent and severity of a drywood termite infestation in the museum storage vault through visual inspection and X-ray computed tomography (CT). This paper describes the process and heuristics of identifying and estimating the amount of active/inactive termite infestations in the art frames as well as visualizing a 3-dimensional structure to learn the extent of infestation. This interdisciplinary collaboration and effectual use of tomography enabled our group to determine the condition of several art frames through non-invasive means and develop a plan of action to identify and prevent future insect incursions within the museum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop