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Heritage, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 90 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Relatively little is known about stained glass windows in England predating 1170. Caviness (1987) argued that four figures from the Canterbury Cathedral “Ancestors series”, usually dated to the early 13th century, are stylistically consistent with an earlier date (c. 1130-1160). This would place them amongst the earliest extant stained glass in England, and the world. The hypothesis is addressed here using a methodology based on analysis of a few well-measured heavy trace elements and a 3D-printed attachment for a pXRF spectrometer that enables non-destructive in situ analysis. The results are consistent with Caviness’s argument that at least one figure predates the 1174 fire and was reused in the 1200s. Moreover, the results suggest ornamental borders were also reused, indicating the presence of more early glass than previously thought. View this paper.
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Article
Multi-Scale Characterization of Unusual Green and Blue Pigments from the Pharaonic Town of Amara West, Nubia
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2563-2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030145 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Pigments from paint palettes and a grindstone excavated from the pharaonic town of Amara West (c. 1300–1050 BCE), which lies between the Second and Third Cataracts of the Nile, were examined using polarized light microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), [...] Read more.
Pigments from paint palettes and a grindstone excavated from the pharaonic town of Amara West (c. 1300–1050 BCE), which lies between the Second and Third Cataracts of the Nile, were examined using polarized light microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Most of the pigments were consistent with the typical ancient Egyptian palette, but the greens and some blues were unusual. Two types of green pigment were identified, chlorite (varieties clinochlore and penninite) and copper chloride hydroxide (atacamite type). The former constitutes a type of green earth which has only rarely been identified in pharaonic Egyptian contexts and may be more widespread than is currently reported. The majority of the blue pigment samples were Egyptian blue, but some were found to be a blue earth, the main component of which being sodic amphibole riebeckite. The use of this mineral as a pigment has not previously been reported in any Nile Valley context. These results prompt questions around local and potentially indigenous practices within an ancient colonial context, and highlight avenues for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry for Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Micro Destructive Analysis for the Characterization of Ancient Mortars: A Case Study from the Little Roman Bath of Nora (Sardinia, Italy)
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2544-2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030144 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
In this work, a protocol of a partially invasive sampling for the archaeometric characterization of ancient mortars from the little Roman Bath of Nora (Sardinia, Italy) is presented. Optical microscopy and different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and [...] Read more.
In this work, a protocol of a partially invasive sampling for the archaeometric characterization of ancient mortars from the little Roman Bath of Nora (Sardinia, Italy) is presented. Optical microscopy and different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and physical/mechanical tests have been carried out on the mortars. These analyses were performed to investigate the chemical composition, alteration products, and binder pozzolanic activity. An innovative method of image analysis has been tested to obtain information about the size and shape of both the mortar aggregates and the binder/aggregate ratio. This new particle-size analysis has two different advantages: (i) it saves a huge volume of material compared to a classic granulometric classification through its use of a sieve and (ii) is eco-friendly in respect to the environment by saving a large volume of liquid waste derived from the acid attack for the separation of the insoluble aggregate from the soluble binder, as would be done for a common sieving. Results show a local provenance of the aggregates. The use of two different limestones for the mortars’ binder production was detected and probably this raw material belongs to the nearby Roman town of Karales (current day Cagliari). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Materials and Culture Heritage: Past, Present and Future)
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Article
Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts of Urartian Period by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry, and Optical Microscopy
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2526-2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030143 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
The results of the analysis on some fragments of bronze belts and a bowl discovered from southwestern Armenia at the Yegheghnadzor archaeological site are discussed. The samples are dated to the 7–6th millennium BCE from the Urartian period. The artefacts were corroded, and [...] Read more.
The results of the analysis on some fragments of bronze belts and a bowl discovered from southwestern Armenia at the Yegheghnadzor archaeological site are discussed. The samples are dated to the 7–6th millennium BCE from the Urartian period. The artefacts were corroded, and a multilayer structure was formed. To study the stratigraphy of layers and their composition, the samples have been analyzed using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry) and OM (Optical Microscopy) techniques. The bronze finds appear with the typical incrustations rich in alloy alteration compounds. Concentrations of copper and tin in the alloys were quantified by SEM-EDS: the pattern and the percentage of the alloy are the same for the belts. Regarding the bowl sample, it is constituted by two foils perfectly in contact but different in color, thickness, and composition. The results evidenced that only two elements participate in forming the alloy composition in the samples: Cu and Sn. The tin content is variable from 7.75% to 13.56%. Other elements such as Ag, As, Fe, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, and Zn make up less than 1% and can be considered as impurities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Archaeological Copper Alloys)
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Article
Contemporary Murals in the Street and Urban Art Field: Critical Reflections between Preventive Conservation and Restoration of Public Art
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2515-2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030142 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
This paper focuses on the presentation of some of the main critical reflections concerning the current debate about conservation and restoration of contemporary murals in the Street and Urban Art field. More and more, the operations thought of for this kind of wall [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the presentation of some of the main critical reflections concerning the current debate about conservation and restoration of contemporary murals in the Street and Urban Art field. More and more, the operations thought of for this kind of wall paintings are connected to the concept of preventive conservation or some actions with the aim of reducing the future deterioration linked to the outdoor context. The idea of protecting urban and street murals arises from two principal issues: on one hand, the (not yet) official, but social, recognition of them as works of art and beloved icons in the communities—or better “testimonies which spread the values of civilization” (definition of Cultural Heritage) from the last decades of the XX century to nowadays—and, on the other hand, the necessity of finding a way to preserve their artistic messages in the ephemeral urban context. In fact, developing a correct plan for the conservation and restoration of these works of art located in the outdoor context needs to consider—more than ever—the strict relationship between their materials, their environment, and even their viewer. This fragile axiom is strictly linked to the law of the street, where all the decay processes are, often, unpredictable. At the moment, the ICR’s (The Istituto Centrale per il Restauro) research in this field is focused on a work in progress project to develop some trials and tests with innovative materials for their preservation and a common glossary to outline particular forms of damaging in murals often based on “plastic on a wall”. The final aim could be to define institutional guidelines for the preservation of urban and street contemporary mural paintings in a perspective of a “share for care” conservative program. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Building Materials Belonging to the Ruins of the Tsogt Palace in Mongolia
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2494-2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030141 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
This work focuses on the characterisation of the heritage building materials (plasters, mortars, bricks and glazed tiles) of the Tsogt Palace’s ruins located in the Bulgan Province of Mongolia. In addition, contribution is also given to a preliminary evaluation of their state of [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the characterisation of the heritage building materials (plasters, mortars, bricks and glazed tiles) of the Tsogt Palace’s ruins located in the Bulgan Province of Mongolia. In addition, contribution is also given to a preliminary evaluation of their state of conservation in consideration of the climate conditions to which the site is exposed. To accomplish the objectives, information on the climate and historical context have been acquired. A set of analytical methodologies has been applied on the seventeen samples collected: Polarized Light (PLM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRPD), Raman Spectroscopy and Ion Chromatography (IC). The data obtained allowed us to achieve a mineralogical and petrographic characterisation of the samples, underlining the nature of the binder in mortars and plasters, the type of clay used as raw material for bricks and tile, their hypothetical firing temperature and the aggregate composition. Moreover, it was also possible to identify the colouring coating typology in tiles and their process of production. Regarding the state of conservation, the principal deterioration phenomena affecting the site due to environmental impact can be also hypothesised, even though major studies are necessary for an exhaustive assessment. Full article
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Article
Comparative Inhibition Study by Nanomaterial, Plant Extract and Chemical Microcide on the Screaming Mummy in Egyptian Museum Store
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2481-2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030140 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Mummies in museums are exposed to different deterioration factors like microorganisms, especially unwrapped mummies, such as the screaming mummy. This screaming mummy in the store of the Egyptian museum is suffering from stains due to microbial infection. There are three trends of materials [...] Read more.
Mummies in museums are exposed to different deterioration factors like microorganisms, especially unwrapped mummies, such as the screaming mummy. This screaming mummy in the store of the Egyptian museum is suffering from stains due to microbial infection. There are three trends of materials to inhibit microbial growth: nano materials, plant extraction and chemical materials. This research compares three materials representing the three trends such as nano zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), Ceratophyllum demersum and 4-chloro-m-cresol, respectively. Microorganisms, isolated from the degraded mummy, were identified with an optical microscope and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) analysis to guarantee identification accuracy. Results indicated that the bacteria in the mummy are Bacillus jeotgali, Kocuria turfanensis, Microbacterium imperial, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus megaterium. Fungi are Monascus pallens and Rhizopus oryzae. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) illustrated that the best concentrations for the bio treatment of isolated microorganisms is plant extract (Ceratophyllum demersum) at 600 ppm/100 mL, followed by 4-chloro-m-cresol at 600 ppm/100 mL and finally nano zinc oxide at 700 ppm/100 mL. Full article
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Article
Towards a Digital Approach to the Listening to Ancient Places
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2470-2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030139 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate digital heritage and acoustical techniques for exploring sonic heritage of archaeological sites and performative spaces. Through the analysis of case studies in Greece and in Italy, this paper intends to highlight a new approach to the development of [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate digital heritage and acoustical techniques for exploring sonic heritage of archaeological sites and performative spaces. Through the analysis of case studies in Greece and in Italy, this paper intends to highlight a new approach to the development of the relationship between space, sound, and environment and a novel method in deciphering the sonic heritage of ancient spaces thanks to digital technology. Full article
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Article
Heritage Management: Analytical Study of Tourism Impacts on the Archaeological Site of Umm Qais—Jordan
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2449-2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030138 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The archaeological site of Umm Qais is a popular tourist destination for both local and foreign tourists who come to appreciate the site’s archaeological history, scenic landscape, and panoramic perspective. The site was the focus of tourism planning, which included the construction of [...] Read more.
The archaeological site of Umm Qais is a popular tourist destination for both local and foreign tourists who come to appreciate the site’s archaeological history, scenic landscape, and panoramic perspective. The site was the focus of tourism planning, which included the construction of amenities and infrastructure, the creation of tourist circuits, and archaeological management. This development was linked to a rise in visitor numbers as well as the provision of a high level of service, such as parking, tickets, kiosks, restaurants, and cafés, to welcome visitors. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of on-site tourist services and infrastructures, as well as those of visitors, and their geographical and temporal scope on the site. The study used a qualitative approach based on case study fieldwork as a research method to achieve this goal. Personal observation, interviews with site-related stakeholders, and a checklist were used to collect data during the fieldwork. Both tourism infrastructure and visitors were proven to have a detrimental influence on tourist attractions. The site’s aesthetic pollution and structural deterioration were caused by tourism services and infrastructure. Graffiti, vandalism, and trash left by visitors exerted strong negative impacts. Furthermore, spatial and temporal negative impacts were determined by the patterns of seasonal movement of visitors and the location of infrastructure. Thus, most of the impacts were concentrated in a small portion of the site, among the western theater, the panoramic view, and the traditional Ottoman village. This research sheds light on these challenges and makes recommendations in the areas of heritage management, tourism, and visitor impact management that may be of interest to on-the-ground decision makers as well as academics. Full article
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Article
Unexpected Findings in 16th Century Wall Paintings: Identification of Aragonite and Unusual Pigments
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2431-2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030137 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Sixteenth century wall paintings were analyzed from a church in an advanced state of decay in the Apennines of central Italy, now a remote area but once located along the salt routes from the Po Valley to the Ligurian Sea. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), [...] Read more.
Sixteenth century wall paintings were analyzed from a church in an advanced state of decay in the Apennines of central Italy, now a remote area but once located along the salt routes from the Po Valley to the Ligurian Sea. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with a microprobe were used to identify the painting materials, as input for possible future restoration. Together with the pigments traditionally used for wall painting, such as ochre, ultramarine blue, bianco di Sangiovanni, cinnabar/vermilion, azurite, some colors were also found to have only been used since the 18th century. This thus suggests that a series of decorative cycles occurred after the church was built, confirmed by the multilayer stratigraphy of the fragments. Some of these colors were also unusual, such as clinochlore, Brunswick green, and ultramarine yellow. The most notable result of the analytical campaign however, was the ubiquitous determination of aragonite, the mineralogical form of calcium carbonate, mainly of biogenic origin. Sources report its use in Roman times as an aggregate in mortars, and in the literature it has only been shown in Roman wall paintings. Its use in 16th century wall paintings is thus surprising. Full article
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Article
Protocol for the Analysis of Cross-Sections from Gilded Surfaces
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2416-2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030136 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
This paper describes the protocol currently used at the Victoria and Albert Museum for the scientific analysis of water, oil and lacquer gilding in cultural heritage objects. The purpose of the protocol is to guide scientists, curators and conservators in their routine investigations, [...] Read more.
This paper describes the protocol currently used at the Victoria and Albert Museum for the scientific analysis of water, oil and lacquer gilding in cultural heritage objects. The purpose of the protocol is to guide scientists, curators and conservators in their routine investigations, and address questions about the characteristics of gilded surfaces, their number, sequence, date, composition and stratigraphic details. Each protocol step is described in detail and is accompanied by practical examples taken from the analysis of an 18th-century Chippendale table and the 20th-century statue of the Spirit of Gaiety. The merits of individual analytical techniques and equipment are also evaluated. Full article
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Article
Experimental Investigations and Microstructural Characterization of Construction Materials of Historic Multi-Leaf Stone-Masonry Walls
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2390-2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030135 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
In order to correctly define the pathology of multiple-leaf stonemasonry walls and determine the appropriate interventions for its conservation and preservation, comprehensive studies on its building materials should be carried out since the overall behaviour of masonry structures is highly dependent on the [...] Read more.
In order to correctly define the pathology of multiple-leaf stonemasonry walls and determine the appropriate interventions for its conservation and preservation, comprehensive studies on its building materials should be carried out since the overall behaviour of masonry structures is highly dependent on the characterization of its construction materials. Consequently, an interdisciplinary procedure for construction material characterization used in multiple-leaf stone-masonry walls in Egypt has been implemented to enrich documentation, conservation and restoration issues of this type of wall. The research methodology integrates experimental data obtained through on-site sampling, conducted tests and analyses, historical information, and field survey observations. The fundamental physical and mechanical properties of the masonry elements were examined by incorporating stone blocks, mortars and core-infill materials. The mineralogical composition and interlocking textures of the collected samples were investigated utilizing a large range of complementary investigation and analysis techniques, including polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) attached to an EDX unit. Through the results thus obtained, a complete characterization of the mineralogical composition; physical–mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties; and the interlocking textures of the construction materials of both the outer and inner-core layers was performed. The outer leaves of the majority of the multiple-leaf stone-masonry walls in medieval architectural heritage were mainly built of well-dressed limestone blocks with nearly uniform dimensions, while the inner-core layer was usually built of stone-rubble infill with bending lime-based mortar. The uniaxial compressive strengths of core infill (corresponding to the inner core layer) and lime-based mortar of the embedded joints are shown to be 85 and 92.5% lower than the limestone units of the outer layer, respectively. Moreover, experimental observations indicate that the inner core layer exhibits the highest porosity values; consequently, deteriorated, loose and cohesionless core infill could greatly affect the durability and thermal resistivity of this kind of wall. The results provide scientific support for investigating the overall structural behaviour of this type of walls and for decision-making in future conservation and restoration strategies. Full article
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Article
Oxygen Depletion Testing of Metals
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2377-2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030134 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 881
Abstract
The altered nature of archaeological metals means they deteriorate at much lower relative humidity (RH) conditions than historical metals. The study of deterioration for such materials is hampered by their complexity, variability and difficulties in measuring deterioration. Placing an object in a sealed [...] Read more.
The altered nature of archaeological metals means they deteriorate at much lower relative humidity (RH) conditions than historical metals. The study of deterioration for such materials is hampered by their complexity, variability and difficulties in measuring deterioration. Placing an object in a sealed container, controlling the RH and pollutant gases and measuring any decrease in oxygen concentration is an accessible method to measure the deterioration rate. It has been used for research into suitable environmental conditions to manage the deterioration rates of such artefacts, including the differences in the response of artefacts from different excavation sites. Some objects need the careful control of RH to low values; this is expensive to maintain and poses risks to other artefacts displayed together. Many objects are actually stable up to quite high RH values, and oxygen depletion testing has been used to identify those that can be safely displayed with minimal environmental control. The accelerated corrosion ‘Oddy’ test is frequently used to sift out unsuitable display materials. T the visual assessment is widely recognized to be subjective. the test container has been modified and oxygen depletion appears to give good quantitative measurements of corrosion that correspond with both visual comparison and corrosion loss measurement with linear stripping voltametry or chemical stripping for copper, lead and steel but not for silver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals in Heritage Science)
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Article
Economic Valuation of Cultural Heritage Using the Travel Cost Method: The Historical Centre of the Municipality of Bucharest as a Case Study
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2356-2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030133 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Because heritage buildings represent a special category of goods due to characteristics such as uniqueness and irreversibility, they are associated with multiple possibilities of use. This article aims to present a complex analysis of the values associated with using heritage buildings in the [...] Read more.
Because heritage buildings represent a special category of goods due to characteristics such as uniqueness and irreversibility, they are associated with multiple possibilities of use. This article aims to present a complex analysis of the values associated with using heritage buildings in the historical center of Bucharest and their correlation with corresponding conservation measures using the travel cost method. The authors used two computation methods: the zonal travel cost and the individual travel cost methods. The application of Bravais–Pearson’s coefficient of linear correlation confirmed that the demand for a cultural heritage site is inversely related to the travel costs and distance. The results reflect that the demand also depends on other factors, such as the satisfaction level of the tourist experience and tourists’ income and motivations. The study highlights the usefulness of the travel cost method, which facilitates analyzing the relationship between the significant value of using historical monuments and the extremely important conservation process in the current context, marked by socioeconomic dynamics that determine many reuses of cultural heritage. Full article
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Article
Traditional and Modern Plasters for Built Heritage: Suitability and Contribution for Passive Relative Humidity Regulation
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2337-2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030132 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Plasters have covered wide surface areas of buildings since antiquity, with a main purpose of indoor protection of the substrate on which they are applied. When no longer functional, they might require substitution with solutions that can combine compatibility with the substrate with [...] Read more.
Plasters have covered wide surface areas of buildings since antiquity, with a main purpose of indoor protection of the substrate on which they are applied. When no longer functional, they might require substitution with solutions that can combine compatibility with the substrate with the current need to mitigate building emissions. Indeed, plasters can contribute to lowering buildings’ energy demands while improving indoor air quality and the comfort of buildings’ users, as plasters can be used as passive regulators of relative humidity (RH). Hence, this study presents the relative-humidity-dependent properties of different plastering mortars based on clay, air lime, and natural hydraulic lime, and plastering finishing pastes based on gypsum and gypsum–air lime, in all cases tested using small size specimens. A cement-based plaster is also analysed for comparison. The clay-based plaster was the most promising material for RH passive regulation, and could be applied to repair and replace plasters in different types of buildings. Pastes based on air lime–gypsum could be applied as finishing layers, specifically on traditional porous walls. The sorption behaviour of cement plaster appeared interesting; however, its water vapour permeability was as expected, found to be the lowest, discouraging its application on historic walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage Conservation and Climate Change)
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Article
Multispectral Imaging and p-XRF for the Non-Invasive Characterization of the Anonymous Devotional Painting ‘Maria Santissima delle Grazie’ from Mirabella Imbáccari (Sicily, Italy)
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2320-2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030131 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 880
Abstract
This work presents the results of the in situ, non-invasive diagnostic investigations performed on the canvas oil painting depicting Madonna and Child, venerated as ‘Maria Santissima delle Grazie’ by the local religious community. The work of art (72 cm × 175 [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of the in situ, non-invasive diagnostic investigations performed on the canvas oil painting depicting Madonna and Child, venerated as ‘Maria Santissima delle Grazie’ by the local religious community. The work of art (72 cm × 175 cm) is located on the high altar of the main Church in Mirabella Imbáccari, near Catania (Sicily, Italy). The painter is anonymous, and the supposed dating is the late eighteenth century. Although the painting has never been studied before, it has been attributed to a Sicilian workshop in the literature, raising the doubts of the art historian who conducted this study and who hypothesized a Neapolitan manufacture. Furthermore, due to the good conservation state detected by a macroscopic examination, doubts also arose about dating. To shed light on these aspects, a technical-scientific examination proved necessary. Multispectral imaging techniques (IR Reflectography, UV-induced visible Fluorescence, X-ray) are carried out for the study of the execution technique, the identification of underlying remakes, sketch drawing and the evaluation of the conservation conditions. XRF spectrometry analysis is performed for the identification of the chemical elements constituting the pigments (inorganic chromophores). The diagnostic results allowed this research to confirm the dating suggested by the historical-stylistic knowledge and to highlight new technical peculiarities supporting the attribution to a Neapolitan workshop. Full article
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Review
Long-Term Embrittlement of Ancient Copper and Silver Alloys
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2287-2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030130 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The manifestations of ancient metals’ embrittlement, cracking and fracture, are challenging problems for restorers and conservators, yet the scientific understanding of these problems is limited. In particular, the study and interpretation of fracture surfaces, fractography, is a minor or non-existent consideration for most [...] Read more.
The manifestations of ancient metals’ embrittlement, cracking and fracture, are challenging problems for restorers and conservators, yet the scientific understanding of these problems is limited. In particular, the study and interpretation of fracture surfaces, fractography, is a minor or non-existent consideration for most archaeometallurgical investigations. This paper presents a survey of fractographic analyses, in combination with the more widely used disciplines of microstructural studies, metallography, and chemical analyses for some Old-World copper alloy (bronzes) and high-silver alloy artifacts that have undergone long-term corrosion and embrittlement damage. We show that fractography, as an adjunct to metallography, can improve the interpretation of these types of damage and assist in selecting the best methods for restoration and conservation of the objects made from these alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals in Heritage Science)
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Article
Textile Dyes from Gokstad Viking Ship’s Grave
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2278-2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030129 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
The grave from Gokstad in Norway, dating to ca 900 AD, is one of the best-preserved Viking Age ship graves in the world. The grave mound contained a variety of goods along with human remains, buried in a Viking ship. Several textiles, including [...] Read more.
The grave from Gokstad in Norway, dating to ca 900 AD, is one of the best-preserved Viking Age ship graves in the world. The grave mound contained a variety of goods along with human remains, buried in a Viking ship. Several textiles, including embroideries and shreds of what might have been the ship’s tent, were also found. The colors of the textile fragments are now severely faded, but the high quality of the embroidery made of gold and silk threads is still apparent. The style of the embroidery is exceptional, having no equivalents in other Scandinavian graves. The analyses by HPLC coupled with both diode array and mass spectrometric detectors revealed that the striped “tent” cloth as well as the silk thread used for the embroidery were originally dyed with anthraquinones of plant origin (alizarin, purpurin, pseudopurpurin, and anthragallol), markers of madder-type dyestuffs. Full article
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Archaeological Sites’ Management, Interpretation, and Tourism Development—A Success Story and Future Challenges: The Case of Bibracte, France
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2261-2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030128 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Bibracte is described as a well-managed property with significant heritage value. Even as the site’s managing body and its partners continue to deliver encouraging and engaging projects, there are barriers to success. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to identify and [...] Read more.
Bibracte is described as a well-managed property with significant heritage value. Even as the site’s managing body and its partners continue to deliver encouraging and engaging projects, there are barriers to success. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the possible future challenges that the current management may encounter. This study used a field work methodology, and comprised interviews, observations, guided visits, discussions, discourse analysis, and the review of an important corpus of material, from which conclusions were drawn. Significant problems arising from various causes were identified. The results reveal that despite the appropriate heritage management, interpretation, and tourism development practices, the heritage and tourism potential remain not fully captured. The management of the site has established its notoriety as an important research center for experimental and educational archaeology, rather than as an important tourist attraction. Thus, the site has failed to become a popular tourist destination. These difficulties are said to have been molded and enforced by imperatives connected to the site and its surroundings, as well as the Réseau des Grands Sites de France title. This research may contribute to elucidating heritage sites and their unknown management difficulties, which will be beneficial to the sites’ employees and visitors. Full article
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Article
“Like Wringing Water from a Stone!” Information Extraction from Two Rock Graffiti in North Kharga, Egypt
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2253-2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030127 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
In the course of the last ten years, the North Kharga Oasis–Darb Ain Amur Survey team, led by Salima Ikram (American University in Cairo), has been exploring a network of interconnected desert paths in Egypt’s Western Desert, known as Darb Ain Amur. [...] Read more.
In the course of the last ten years, the North Kharga Oasis–Darb Ain Amur Survey team, led by Salima Ikram (American University in Cairo), has been exploring a network of interconnected desert paths in Egypt’s Western Desert, known as Darb Ain Amur. These marked paths run between Kharga Oasis and Dakhla Oasis, linking them to Darb el-Arbain, a notorious caravan route facilitating contacts between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa since prehistoric times. Ancient travelers using the Darb Ain Amur spent several days in the midst of the Western Desert and were thus forced to use areas around sandstone rock outcrops as makeshift stopovers or camping sites. During these much-needed breaks, ancient travelers identified accessible, inscribable surfaces on the towering sandstone massifs and left on them their personalized markings. In this essay, I examine two short rock graffiti carved by such travelers in a site north of Kharga Oasis, focusing on the types of information one may extract from such ancient epigraphic materials. Full article
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Review
Hardware Heritage—Briefcase-Sized Computers
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2237-2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030126 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The computer industry was a vivid place in the 1980s. IT systems and technologies thrived, and the market offered ever better, smaller, and more useful machines. Innovative technical solutions or intelligent designs that satisfied customers’ needs are often listed as computer hardware milestones. [...] Read more.
The computer industry was a vivid place in the 1980s. IT systems and technologies thrived, and the market offered ever better, smaller, and more useful machines. Innovative technical solutions or intelligent designs that satisfied customers’ needs are often listed as computer hardware milestones. Consequently, they became a permanent part of the computerisation history and can be considered hardware heritage artefacts. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the usability of selected portable computer systems. The foundation of the work is a literature review that includes technical specifications, industry reviews, and research papers. Archival materials were obtained from the Internet Archive. Studies have revealed that the main problems design engineers of portable computers had to tackle in the 1980s were the reduction of mass and size of the computer system, portable power (self-power), and the quality of the displayed image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Heritage)
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Article
Max Ernst’s Woman, Old Man, and Flower (1923–24): Four Paintings in One Revealed by Technical Imaging
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2224-2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030125 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 957
Abstract
Examining the painting Woman, Old Man, and Flower (1923–24) by Max Ernst with macro-X-ray fluorescence scanning (MA-XRF), X-ray radiography (XRR) as well as photography under ultraviolet (UVF), infrared reflected (IRR) and transmitted (IRT) illumination revealed the existence and sequence of three distinct paintings [...] Read more.
Examining the painting Woman, Old Man, and Flower (1923–24) by Max Ernst with macro-X-ray fluorescence scanning (MA-XRF), X-ray radiography (XRR) as well as photography under ultraviolet (UVF), infrared reflected (IRR) and transmitted (IRT) illumination revealed the existence and sequence of three distinct paintings concealed under the final composition. The study confirmed a known and previously documented intermediate composition and uncovered two additional states: a very first state exposed by XRR, and a third state revealed in the elemental distribution maps obtained by MA-XRF. The complimentary images document the insertion, mutation, and concealing of several human and anthropomorphic subjects across the four layers, expanding our understanding of the painting and of Ernst’s collage-like pictorial development. In addition, a list of pigments is proposed based on the elemental information provided by MA-XRF, contributing to the technical literature devoted to the materials of Ernst’s paintings during the transitional period between Dada and Surrealism. Full article
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Article
Setup Optimization of Experimental Measures on a Historical Building: The Octagonal Hall of the Diocletian’s Bath
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2205-2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030124 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
The growing use of highly specialized tools has led to a better knowledge of the mechanical properties of the structures, reducing the destructive tests. The paper is aimed to identify an investigation method capable of directing staff in the planning of non-destructive test. [...] Read more.
The growing use of highly specialized tools has led to a better knowledge of the mechanical properties of the structures, reducing the destructive tests. The paper is aimed to identify an investigation method capable of directing staff in the planning of non-destructive test. The experimental campaigns must be planned in order to optimize the number and the type of tests to limit invasiveness and impact. The proposed method has been organized in a logical scheme that permits, in five steps, to predict with a good approximation the critical sections for an optimal setup of testing instruments. This method has been applied to the Octagonal Hall in Diocletian’s Bath, to establish a better location for the dynamic endoscopy and tomographic tests. A geometrical model was built using the plans, elevations, sections provided by the National Roman Museum and the point cloud made through a drone. With HBIM (Heritage Building Information Modeling) it was possible to synthesize the information obtained from the geometric and material survey and then to convey it to a finite element model built on Midas Fea NX. Then, structural analyses, both linear and nonlinear, have been carried out for the optimal test setup. Full article
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Article
Three Points of View for the Drawing Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2183-2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030123 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
This contribution to the literature presents an in-depth analysis of the scene drawn by Leonardo da Vinci in the preparatory drawing, Adoration of the Magi, dated 1481, that is now housed at the Département des Arts Graphiques du Musée du Louvre in [...] Read more.
This contribution to the literature presents an in-depth analysis of the scene drawn by Leonardo da Vinci in the preparatory drawing, Adoration of the Magi, dated 1481, that is now housed at the Département des Arts Graphiques du Musée du Louvre in Paris, France. This analysis focuses on the architectural elements and highlights how the drawing discloses three distinct vanishing points/centers of vision: one for the classical architecture to the left of the scene, one for the Nativity hut, and one for the structure with stairs. If we consider the structures as belonging to the same 2D projected space, at least two must be depicted out of square; conversely, if we consider them as straight, standard structures, they cannot belong to the same 2D projected space. Given this assumption, we propose, on the one hand, some variations of the scene where the structures are straightened and projected according to only one of the viewpoints at a time; on the other hand, a set of variants of the scene are presented, considering the out-of-square structures. The scenes are generated by applying inverse perspective projections. These results prompt a discussion on possible reasons why Leonardo made these conscious or unconscious “formal errors”. Full article
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Article
Visibility Model of Tangible Heritage. Visualization of the Urban Heritage Environment with Spatial Analysis Methods
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2163-2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030122 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 924
Abstract
The methodological approach of the study proposes an innovative yet adaptive way to define and preserve heritage sites and their elements. In the case study, the proposed methodology guides the design/planning research of heritage sites by linking the perceptual behaviour with the information [...] Read more.
The methodological approach of the study proposes an innovative yet adaptive way to define and preserve heritage sites and their elements. In the case study, the proposed methodology guides the design/planning research of heritage sites by linking the perceptual behaviour with the information of the built environment. Visibility is the tool to measure the level of exposure of specific urban elements from a particular perspective. While isovist analyses define visibility in the built environment, fields of view from the periphery of heritage sites are applied to calculate visible or invisible areas by the observer. The purpose of the current study is the evaluation of the identification of the elements to be protected, by modelling both the heritage environment and the heritage elements according to the visibility criteria. For this purpose, I illustrate my approach by using visibility analyses and Space syntax analysis in the case of the Sulukule neighbourhood, the leading renewal project, in Istanbul. This area used to have notably cultural–historical assets–historic land walls, the lifestyle of Roma people—but now the renovation works carried out in the Sulukule case study site have affected the identity of the “visible” and “known” space of the historic quarter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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Article
COVID-19 on the Ground: Managing the Heritage Sites of a Pandemic
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2140-2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030121 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The standard methodology for the assessment of cultural heritage significance relies on hindsight, with a passage of time elapsed between the creation of the site or object and its assessment. There are, however, cases where heritage significance is instant (e.g., sites associated with [...] Read more.
The standard methodology for the assessment of cultural heritage significance relies on hindsight, with a passage of time elapsed between the creation of the site or object and its assessment. There are, however, cases where heritage significance is instant (e.g., sites associated with the first Moon landing). This paper argues that hindsight will not be required to determine that the COVID-19 pandemic will come to be considered as a significant historic event, as COVID-19 has already manifested itself as a social, cultural and economic disruptor on a global scale with a mortality in the millions. Heritage professionals have the unique opportunity to assess and document places and structures associated with the pandemic, that are poised to be worthy of a heritage listing in the near future, while they are still in use and function as intended. This paper discusses the nature of the sites and structures and explores possible management approaches to safeguard evidence of the pandemic for future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Architectural Heritage Conservation in Nigeria: The Need for Innovative Techniques
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2124-2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030120 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Architectural heritage conservation in recent years has hinged on conventional methods and has failed to recognize innovative methods and emerging technologies. Consequently, in Nigeria, suboptimal conservation work results in the continual deterioration of architectural heritage, leading to the loss of heritage and its [...] Read more.
Architectural heritage conservation in recent years has hinged on conventional methods and has failed to recognize innovative methods and emerging technologies. Consequently, in Nigeria, suboptimal conservation work results in the continual deterioration of architectural heritage, leading to the loss of heritage and its values and significance. The study, therefore, sought to examine challenges and prospects for implementing innovative techniques in the conservation of architectural heritage in Nigeria. The study examined three heritage conservation interventions in Nigeria, focusing on the applicability of innovative conservation methods for documentation, diagnosis, and treatment of deterioration of architectural heritage. Questionnaires were administered through purposive sampling to 40 heritage conservation professionals, with 31 (77.5%) completed and returned for analysis. A Cronbach’s alpha reliability test value of 0.76 established the validity of the research instrument. The findings affirmed that heritage professionals have low familiarity (mean value of 2.19) with innovative techniques for conservation of architectural heritage. Of the respondents, 41.9% had gained a minimal level of technical knowledge of how to implement innovative techniques in conservation interventions. Improving the performance of conservation interventions also ranked highly as a potential strength of implementing innovative techniques. Conclusively, there is a need to improve advocacy and training in innovative conservation techniques based on their ability to characterize architectural heritage materials and investigate their chemical composition, microstructure, and morphological features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Article
Safe Haven—Bath House and Library by the Burmese Border
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2105-2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030119 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
This study gives an overview of contemporary vernacular tendencies in Thai architecture. The research includes ecological, economical, ergonomic and cultural aspects, and the aim is to find a possible future direction for architectural design that is able to incorporate local features and follow [...] Read more.
This study gives an overview of contemporary vernacular tendencies in Thai architecture. The research includes ecological, economical, ergonomic and cultural aspects, and the aim is to find a possible future direction for architectural design that is able to incorporate local features and follow traditions yet apply them in a contemporary way. As an example, a case study was carried out about a project realized in Safe Haven Orphanage in Thailand. It consists of two small-scale buildings designed and constructed by TYIN Tegnestue Architects, Sami Rintala and Hans Skotte, together with volunteers and the local community, and they are great examples of a community building “healing architecture”. Due to their aesthetics, their ecological and sustainable approach and their structures, they can provide cultural continuity, which is key for the organic evaluation of regional architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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Article
Different Models, Different Outcomes? A Comparison of Approaches to Land Use Modeling in the Dutch Limes
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2081-2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030118 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Current advances in spatial simulation bring unprecedented possibilities for spatio-temporal modeling. In this paper, we focus on modeling the impact of settlement on land use in the Roman period in the Dutch river area, on the northern frontier of the Roman Empire. During [...] Read more.
Current advances in spatial simulation bring unprecedented possibilities for spatio-temporal modeling. In this paper, we focus on modeling the impact of settlement on land use in the Roman period in the Dutch river area, on the northern frontier of the Roman Empire. During this period, the area witnessed a strong population increase that put more demands on the available land to produce food, not only for the local population, but also for the soldiers stationed on the frontier and the citizens of the newly founded towns. We compare an agent-based model (ABM) of agricultural production in the region (ROMFARMS), and a model using the Past Land Use Scanner (PLUS. Both were used to estimate the effects of increased agricultural demand through simulations of food production, taking into account the available workforce and the productivity and availability of suitable land. However, how should we evaluate the model outcomes? What are the advantages and limitations of each? We discuss issues of scale, temporal resolution and model inputs, together with questions of technical implementation and validation. In this way, we aim to point the way to future researchers to implement these approaches effectively in other contexts. Full article
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Article
QSL: Subliminal Messaging by the Nuclear Industry in Germany during the 1980s
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2054-2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030117 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 597
Abstract
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the German nuclear power industry came under considerable socio-political pressure from the growing environmental and anti-nuclear movement. As part of a diversified public relations strategy, the Kraftwerk Union (KWU, later Siemens) as the main manufacturer of [...] Read more.
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the German nuclear power industry came under considerable socio-political pressure from the growing environmental and anti-nuclear movement. As part of a diversified public relations strategy, the Kraftwerk Union (KWU, later Siemens) as the main manufacturer of nuclear power plants distributed pre-printed QSL cards to amateur radio enthusiasts. These cards carried images of the latest nuclear power plants built by KWU. This paper examines the history, iconography and distribution of these QSL cards in the context of the heritage of the German nuclear power industry. It is the first study of its kind to examine the heritage significance of QSL cards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Smart Architectural and Urban Heritage: An Applied Reflection
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2044-2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030116 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present the use of 3D models and augmented reality (AR) to study and communicate architectural and urban values and, therefore, favor the development of dedicated forms of “smart heritage”. The study rises from a reflection on [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present the use of 3D models and augmented reality (AR) to study and communicate architectural and urban values and, therefore, favor the development of dedicated forms of “smart heritage”. The study rises from a reflection on the concept of “heritage”, as defined in the international documents, intended as an evolving idea that puts together tangible and intangible aspects. Moreover, digital technologies favor “phygital” applications where the digital dimension support the traditional ones. In this way, AR allows the superimposition of multimedia information to heritage, respecting the historical matter of the artefacts, and supporting a “smart heritage” application. In particular, mobile AR, with real-time and ubiquitous visualizations, offers the opportunity to show past urban and architectural configurations to investigate and describe the transformations that have led to the current configuration, and consequently highlighting the present historical and architectural values of the buildings. Two case studies are presented: the square of St. Basilio Monastery, with its historical transformations, and the Basilica of Collemaggio, a pivotal building in the rites of “Perdonanza Celestiniana”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Heritage: Converging Smart Technologies and Heritage)
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