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Plasma, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Flax Fabric with AP-DBD in Parallel Plane Configuration
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 272-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020019 - 19 Jun 2019
Viewed by 523
Abstract
For the use of natural fibers in composite materials it is often necessary to improve the compatibility between fiber (sizing) and polymer matrix systems, e.g., by increasing the number of functional groups on the fiber surfaces. In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge [...] Read more.
For the use of natural fibers in composite materials it is often necessary to improve the compatibility between fiber (sizing) and polymer matrix systems, e.g., by increasing the number of functional groups on the fiber surfaces. In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source in plane configuration is used to treat flax fabrics in ambient air. It is examined whether it is possible to increase the functionality on both fabric sides, which is achieved by simple changes in the DBD setup. After evaluating the treatment homogeneity of the filamentary plasma, an explanation for the treatment mechanism on the fiber surfaces is developed. It is shown that waxy substances, which naturally occur on natural fibers, play an important role in the wettability of the fabric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radio Frequency Oscillations in Gyrotropic Nonlinear Transmission Lines
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 258-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020018 - 08 Jun 2019
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The paper considers the quasi-monochromatic radio frequency oscillations that are observable in transmission lines of doubly connected cross-sections, partially filled with a magnetized ferrite. The frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations appearing under the impact of short carrier-free electric pulses are determined by [...] Read more.
The paper considers the quasi-monochromatic radio frequency oscillations that are observable in transmission lines of doubly connected cross-sections, partially filled with a magnetized ferrite. The frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations appearing under the impact of short carrier-free electric pulses are determined by dispersive and non-linear properties of the line’s structure. The dispersion characteristics are governed by the geometry and size of the line and the spatial arrangement in the line of the ferromagnetic material with its intrinsic dispersion. The dependences shown by the oscillation parameters in real physical experiments are reproduced and analyzed via numerical simulation within models which account separately for different physical properties of the material and the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Transport Barrier Triggered by Resonant Three-Wave Processes Between Trapped-Particle-Modes and Zonal Flow
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 229-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020017 - 02 Jun 2019
Viewed by 727
Abstract
We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in a turbulent system through the parametric decay of collisionless trapped particle modes and its feedback on the stabilization of the system. This model is in connection with the observation of barrier transport in [...] Read more.
We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in a turbulent system through the parametric decay of collisionless trapped particle modes and its feedback on the stabilization of the system. This model is in connection with the observation of barrier transport in reduced gyrokinetic simulations (A. Ghizzo et al., Euro. Phys. Lett. 119(1), 15003 (2017)). Here the analysis is extended with a detailed description of the resonant mechanism. A key role is also played by an initial polarisation source that allows the emergence of strong initial shear flow. The parametric decay leads to the growth of a zonal flow which differs from the standard zero frequency zonal flow usually triggered by the Reynolds stress in fluid drift-wave turbulence. The resulting zonal flow can oscillate at low frequency close to the ion precession frequency, making it sensitive to strong amplification by resonant kinetic processes. The system becomes then intermittent. These new findings, obtained from numerical experiments based on reduced semi-Lagrangian gyrokinetic simulations, shed light on the underlying physics coming from resonant wave-particle interactions for the formation of transport barriers. Numerical simulations are based on a Hamiltonian reduction technique, including magnetic curvature and interchange turbulence, where both fastest scales (cyclotron and bounce motions) are gyro-averaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Confinement Fusion)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Energy State Electron Beam in a Uniform Channel
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 222-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020016 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 412
Abstract
In our earlier work, we showed that a low-energy state of an electron beam exists in a nonuniform channel between two virtual cathodes in a magnetron with diffraction output, which consists of three uniform sections with increasing radius. A uniform axial magnetic field [...] Read more.
In our earlier work, we showed that a low-energy state of an electron beam exists in a nonuniform channel between two virtual cathodes in a magnetron with diffraction output, which consists of three uniform sections with increasing radius. A uniform axial magnetic field fills the interaction space. This led to magnetron operation with >90% efficiency when combined with a magnetic mirror field at the output end. In this present paper, we show that a low-energy state of an electron beam can be realized in a uniform channel in which an increasing magnetic field is used in order to create a magnetic mirror at the output end. We consider two cases, one where the injected beam current slightly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current and the other where the injected beam current greatly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current. On the time scale of relevance to planned experiments (∼30 ns), when the injected current slightly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current a stationary virtual cathode forms and when the injected current greatly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current the virtual cathode oscillates back and forth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Magnetic Field Strength and Geometry on the Deposition Rate and Ionized Flux Fraction in the HiPIMS Discharge
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 201-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020015 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
We explored the effect of magnetic field strength | B | and geometry (degree of balancing) on the deposition rate and ionized flux fraction F flux in dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) when depositing titanium. The HiPIMS [...] Read more.
We explored the effect of magnetic field strength | B | and geometry (degree of balancing) on the deposition rate and ionized flux fraction F flux in dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) when depositing titanium. The HiPIMS discharge was run in two different operating modes. The first one we refer to as “fixed voltage mode” where the cathode voltage was kept fixed at 625 V while the pulse repetition frequency was varied to achieve the desired time average power (300 W). The second mode we refer to as “fixed peak current mode” and was carried out by adjusting the cathode voltage to maintain a fixed peak discharge current and by varying the frequency to achieve the same average power. Our results show that the dcMS deposition rate was weakly sensitive to variations in the magnetic field while the deposition rate during HiPIMS operated in fixed voltage mode changed from 30% to 90% of the dcMS deposition rate as | B | decreased. In contrast, when operating the HiPIMS discharge in fixed peak current mode, the deposition rate increased only slightly with decreasing | B | . In fixed voltage mode, for weaker | B | , the higher was the deposition rate, the lower was the F flux . In the fixed peak current mode, both deposition rate and F flux increased with decreasing | B | . Deposition rate uniformity measurements illustrated that the dcMS deposition uniformity was rather insensitive to changes in | B | while both HiPIMS operating modes were highly sensitive. The HiPIMS deposition rate uniformity could be 10% lower or up to 10% higher than the dcMS deposition rate uniformity depending on | B | and in particular the magnetic field topology. We related the measured quantities, the deposition rate and ionized flux fraction, to the ionization probability α t and the back attraction probability of the sputtered species β t . We showed that the fraction of the ions of the sputtered material that escape back attraction increased by 30% when | B | was reduced during operation in fixed peak current mode while the ionization probability of the sputtered species increased with increasing | B | , due to increased discharge current, when operating in fixed voltage mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Pulsed Low-Temperature Plasmas)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Gyrokinetic Particle-in-Cell Code for Whole-Volume Modeling of Stellarators
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 179-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020014 - 12 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
We present initial results in the development of a gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code for the whole-volume modeling of stellarators. This is achieved through two modifications to the X-point Gyrokinetic Code (XGC), originally developed for tokamaks. One is an extension to three-dimensional geometries with an [...] Read more.
We present initial results in the development of a gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code for the whole-volume modeling of stellarators. This is achieved through two modifications to the X-point Gyrokinetic Code (XGC), originally developed for tokamaks. One is an extension to three-dimensional geometries with an interface to Variational Moments Equilibrium Code (VMEC) data. The other is a connection between core and edge regions that have quite different field-line structures. The VMEC equilibrium is smoothly extended to the edge region by using a virtual casing method. Non-axisymmetric triangular meshes in which triangle nodes follow magnetic field lines in the toroidal direction are generated for field calculation using a finite-element method in the entire region of the extended VMEC equilibrium. These schemes are validated by basic benchmark tests relevant to each part of the calculation cycle, that is, particle push, particle-mesh interpolation, and field solver in a magnetic field equilibrium of Large Helical Device including the edge region. The developed code also demonstrates collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic modes and steady states with residual zonal flow in the core region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Methods in Plasma Physics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Amplitude Modulation And Nonlinear Self-Interactions of the Geodesic Acoustic Mode at the Edge of MAST
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 168-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020013 - 08 May 2019
Viewed by 481
Abstract
We studied the amplitude modulation of the radial electric field constructed from the Langmuir probe plasma potential measurements at the edge of the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST). The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique was applied, which allowed us to extract fluctuations on temporal [...] Read more.
We studied the amplitude modulation of the radial electric field constructed from the Langmuir probe plasma potential measurements at the edge of the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST). The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique was applied, which allowed us to extract fluctuations on temporal scales of plasma turbulence, the Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM), and those associated with the residual poloidal flows. This decomposition preserved the nonlinear character of the signal. Hilbert transform (HT) was then used to obtain the amplitude modulation envelope of fluctuations associated with turbulence and with the GAM. We found significant spectral coherence at frequencies between 1–5 kHz, in the turbulence and the GAM envelopes and for the signal representing the low frequency zonal flows (LFZFs). We present the evidence of local and nonlocal, in frequency space, three wave interactions leading to coupling between the GAM and the low frequency (LF) part of the spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Confinement Fusion)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Electrical and Optical Features of the Plasma Coagulation Controller Low Temperature Atmospheric Plasma Jet
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 156-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020012 - 04 May 2019
Viewed by 692
Abstract
We report on the electrical and optical characterization of the Plasma Coagulation Controller (PCC) device, a low temperature atmospheric plasma source for biomedical applications. This device, designed for the study of plasma-induced blood coagulation, has been developed to operate flexibly in several operational [...] Read more.
We report on the electrical and optical characterization of the Plasma Coagulation Controller (PCC) device, a low temperature atmospheric plasma source for biomedical applications. This device, designed for the study of plasma-induced blood coagulation, has been developed to operate flexibly in several operational conditions, since it is possible to vary the applied voltage V p and the pulse repetition rate f in a quite wide range ( V p range: 2–12 kV, f range: 1–40 kHz). Emission spectroscopy measurements were conducted by varying the line of sight along the axis of helium and neon plasma plumes. The increase of the Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) has been observed, as one moves from inside the gas pipe to the outside, as a consequence of the gas mixture with the surrounding air. Furthermore, high-speed photographs of the plasma jet were taken, showing that the plasma is not uniformly distributed in a continuous volumetric region, the plasma being concentrated in localized structures called Pulsed Atmospheric-pressure Plasma Streams (PAPS). The propagation velocities of these objects have been examined, noting that they are not related to the propagation of ion sound waves. Rather, we provide indications that the streamer propagation speed is proportional to the electron drift velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sources Applied in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of an S-Band MILO with Adjustable Beam Dump
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 138-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020011 - 03 May 2019
Viewed by 514
Abstract
This paper details the design, simulation, and optimization of a low-impedance high repetition rate magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) driven by a compact Marx generator. The project goals require the MILO to generate an radio frequency (RF) pulse within the S-band frequency [...] Read more.
This paper details the design, simulation, and optimization of a low-impedance high repetition rate magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) driven by a compact Marx generator. The project goals require the MILO to generate an radio frequency (RF) pulse within the S-band frequency range with a peak output power greater than 1 GW with greater than 10% efficiency. Its design is based on a set of base equation which provide critical component dimensions applied to a three-dimensional model constructed within CST studio suite used in a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Additional to the geometric model, simulation of the MILO with non-ideal material properties and a lumped element modeling of the Marx generator were performed. The results of these simulations then informed changes to the model as to the optimizing performance of the device. Within the framework of the model, the final MILO design achieves the design goals with an approximate RF peak power of 4.5 GW at 2.5 GHz operating in the TM 01 mode when an input driving pulse with a peak voltage of 600 kV while providing 58 kA is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Tailoring the Chemistry of Plasma-Activated Water Using a DC-Pulse-Driven Non-Thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Helium Plasma Jet
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 127-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020010 - 23 Apr 2019
Viewed by 813
Abstract
We investigate the use of a DC-pulse-driven non-thermal atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet in the regulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), and oxygen (O2) in deionized (DI) water. The [...] Read more.
We investigate the use of a DC-pulse-driven non-thermal atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet in the regulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), and oxygen (O2) in deionized (DI) water. The production of these molecules is measured by in situ UV absorption spectroscopy of the plasma-activated water (PAW). Variations in the pulse polarity and pulse width have a significant influence on the resultant PAW chemistry. However, the trends in the concentrations of H2O2, NO2, NO3, and O2 are variable, pointing to the possibility that changes in the pulse polarity and pulse width might influence other plasma variables that also impact on the PAW chemistry. Overall, the results presented in this study highlight the possibility of using DC-pulse-driven plasma jets to tailor the chemistry of PAW, which opens new opportunities for the future development of optimal PAW formulations across diverse applications ranging from agriculture to medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Pulsed Low-Temperature Plasmas)
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Open AccessArticle
Computing the Double-Gyroaverage Term Incorporating Short-Scale Perturbation and Steep Equilibrium Profile by the Interpolation Algorithm
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 91-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020009 - 09 Apr 2019
Viewed by 669
Abstract
In the gyrokinetic model and simulations, when the double-gyroaverage term incorporates the combining effect contributed by the finite Larmor radius, short scales of the perturbation, and steep gradient of the equilibrium profile, the low-order approximation of this term could generate unignorable error. This [...] Read more.
In the gyrokinetic model and simulations, when the double-gyroaverage term incorporates the combining effect contributed by the finite Larmor radius, short scales of the perturbation, and steep gradient of the equilibrium profile, the low-order approximation of this term could generate unignorable error. This paper implements an interpolation algorithm to compute the double-gyroaverage term without low-order approximation to avoid this error. For a steep equilibrium density, the obvious difference between the density on the gyrocenter coordinate frame and the one on the particle coordinate frame should be accounted for in the quasi-neutrality equation. A Euler–Maclaurin-based quadrature integrating algorithm is developed to compute the quadrature integral for the distribution of the magnetic moment. The application of the interpolation algorithm to computing the double-gyroaverage term and to solving the quasi-neutrality equation is benchmarked by comparing the numerical results with the known analytical solutions. Finally, to take advantage of the interpolation solver clearer, the numerical comparison between the interpolation solver and a classical second order solver is carried out in a constant theta-pinch magnetic field configuration using SELALIB code. When the equilibrium profile is not steep and the perturbation only has the non-zero mode number along the parallel spatial dimension, the results computed by the two solvers match each other well. When the gradient of the equilibrium profile is steep, the interpolation solver provides a bigger driving effect for the ion-temperature-gradient modes, which possess large polar mode numbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Confinement Fusion)
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Open AccessArticle
Acinetobacter baumannii Deactivation by Means of DBD-Based Helium Plasma Jet
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 77-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020008 - 03 Apr 2019
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and it is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-associated (nosocomial) infection. It has also been isolated from [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and it is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-associated (nosocomial) infection. It has also been isolated from environmental soil and water samples. In this work, unlike conventional medical methods like antibiotics, the influence of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma on this bacterium is evaluated by means of a colony count technique and scanning electron microscopy. The plasma used here refers to streamers axially propagating into a helium channel penetrating the atmospheric air. The plasma is probed with high resolution optical emission spectroscopy and copious reactive species are unveiled under low-temperature conditions. Based on the experimental results, post-treatment (delayed) biochemical effects on Acinetobacter baumannii and morphological modifications appear dominant, leading to complete deactivation of this bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sources Applied in Biological Systems)
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