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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Electrospinning technology has been analyzed for the processing of polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposite nanofibers. Electrospun nanofibers have large surface areas, fine fiber orientations, alignments, morphologies, and essential physical features (electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and others). High-performance polymer nanocomposite nanofibers have been designed with nanocarbon nanofillers (carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerene). Sequentially, electrospun nanocomposite nanofibers have found applications in photovoltaics, supercapacitors, radiation shielding, and biomedical applications (tissue engineering, drug delivery, antimicrobials). Despite the progress made so far, exploring new design possibilities and optimizing manufacturing parameters is necessary to overcome challenges and achieve future progress in this field. View this paper
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15 pages, 3435 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effect of Magnetic Water and Polyethylene Fiber Insertion in Concrete Mix
by Tariq Alkhrissat
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070303 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 993
Abstract
The features of a concrete mix are determined by the hydration of cement, which is accomplished utilizing the water quality utilized in the mix. Numerous researchers have worked on integrating pozzolanic or nanoparticles to increase hydration processes and impart high strength to concrete. [...] Read more.
The features of a concrete mix are determined by the hydration of cement, which is accomplished utilizing the water quality utilized in the mix. Numerous researchers have worked on integrating pozzolanic or nanoparticles to increase hydration processes and impart high strength to concrete. Magnetic-field-treated water (MFTW) has been used in a novel method to enhance the characteristics of concrete. Due to magnetization, water particles become charged, and the molecules inside the water cluster fall from 13 to 5 or 6, lowering the hardness of water and so boosting the strength of concrete when compared to the usage of regular water (NW). Magnetic water (MW) is used in advanced building methods and procedures to improve physicochemical qualities. This study focuses on analyzing water quality standards using physiochemical analysis, such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) using the MW at various magnetizations (0.9 Tesla (MW0.9), 0.6 Tesla (MW0.6), 0.3 Tesla (MW0.3). Tests were carried out to assess the fresh, hardened, and microstructural behavior of concrete created with magnetic water (MW) using techniques for microstructural characterization such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). According to the findings, the magnetic influence on water parameters improved significantly with increasing magnetic intensity. As compared to regular water concrete, the MW0.9 mix increased workability, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength by 9.2%, 32.9%, and 34.2%, respectively, compared to normal water concrete (NWC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
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14 pages, 3426 KiB  
Article
Metallic Iron or a Fe-Based Glassy Alloy to Reinforce Aluminum: Reactions at the Interface during Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of the Composites
by Dina V. Dudina, Vyacheslav I. Kvashnin, Boris B. Bokhonov, Mikhail A. Legan, Aleksey N. Novoselov, Yuliya N. Bespalko, Alberto Moreira Jorge, Jr., Guilherme Y. Koga, Arina V. Ukhina, Alexandr A. Shtertser, Alexander G. Anisimov and Konstantinos Georgarakis
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070302 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
The microstructural features and mechanical properties of composites formed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of Al + 20 vol.% Fe and Al + 20 vol.% Fe66Cr10Nb5B19 (glassy alloy) mixtures composed of micrometer-sized particles are presented. The [...] Read more.
The microstructural features and mechanical properties of composites formed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of Al + 20 vol.% Fe and Al + 20 vol.% Fe66Cr10Nb5B19 (glassy alloy) mixtures composed of micrometer-sized particles are presented. The interaction between the mixture components was studied by differential thermal analysis and through examining the microstructure of composites sintered at two different SPS pressures. When the pressure was increased from 40 MPa to 80 MPa, the thickness of the reaction products formed between the iron particles and aluminum increased due to a more intimate contact between the phases established at a higher pressure. When the metallic glass was substituted for iron, the pressure increase had an opposite effect. It was concluded that local overheating at the interface in the case of Al + 20 vol.% Fe66Cr10Nb5B19 composites governed the formation of the product layers at 40 MPa. The influence of the nature of reinforcement on the mechanical properties of the composites was analyzed, for which sintered materials with similar microstructural features were compared. In composites without the reaction products and composites with thin layers of the products, the hardness increased by 13–38% relative to the unreinforced sintered aluminum, the glassy alloy and iron inclusions producing similar outcomes. The effect of the nature of added particles on the hardness and compressive strength of composites was seen when the microstructure of the material was such that an efficient load transfer mechanism was operative. This was possible upon the formation of thick layers of reaction products. Upon compression, the strong glassy cores experienced fracture, the composite with the glassy component showing a higher strength than the composite containing core-shell structures with metallic iron cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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15 pages, 4638 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Method for Simulating the Temperature Distribution in Regions Containing YAG:Ce3+ Luminescence Composites of White LED
by Quang-Khoi Nguyen and Thi-Hanh-Thu Vu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070301 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
A thermal model was built to estimate the temperature distribution in the hemispherical packaging volume of a white LED at a steady state. Inherent heat sources appeared in the white LED when its power was measured. A simplified 3D to 2D space process [...] Read more.
A thermal model was built to estimate the temperature distribution in the hemispherical packaging volume of a white LED at a steady state. Inherent heat sources appeared in the white LED when its power was measured. A simplified 3D to 2D space process that improves the model and solves the heat diffusion equation in a simpler and faster manner is presented. The finite element method was employed using MATLAB software (version R2017b) to identify the temperature distribution. The model was applied for different values of injection current, including 50 mA, 200 mA, 350 mA, and 500 mA. The influence of the injection current and thermal conductivity difference on the temperature distribution of the encapsulant, blue LED die, and substrate region was clearly observed. The results indicate that white light packaging technology should locate phosphor far from the LED die, that the thermal conductivity of the silicone–phosphor region should be improved, that heat should be dissipated for pc-WLEDs when using a high operating power, and that the injection current should be kept as moderate as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Modelling of Composites, Volume III)
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19 pages, 6106 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Optimization of Cu-Al2O3 Nanocomposites Synthesized via High Energy Planetary Milling: A Morphological and Structural Study
by Mohammad Rezayat, Mojtaba Karamimoghadam, Omid Ashkani and Mahdi Bodaghi
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070300 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
This study examines the synthesis and characterization of a copper–alumina nanocomposite powder. Mechanical milling is employed to synthesize the powder, and a holistic analysis is conducted to evaluate its morphological and structural properties. TEM analysis reveals the presence of alumina particles within the [...] Read more.
This study examines the synthesis and characterization of a copper–alumina nanocomposite powder. Mechanical milling is employed to synthesize the powder, and a holistic analysis is conducted to evaluate its morphological and structural properties. TEM analysis reveals the presence of alumina particles within the copper matrix, indicating the formation of both coarse and fine particles at different stages of synthesis. XRD analysis demonstrates a reduction in copper’s crystallite size with increasing milling time, attributed to defects generated within the crystal lattice during milling. Additionally, statistical analysis is utilized to determine the significance of different factors influencing the synthesis process. ANOVA analysis reveals that milling time has a significant impact on the particle size of the nanocomposite powder, while temperature and their interaction do not exhibit significant effects. Optimization techniques are utilized to identify solutions that meet the specified constraints for milling time, temperature, particle size, and differential thermal response, resulting in favorable solutions within the desired ranges. The study highlights the efficacy of mechanical milling for producing nanocomposite powders with enhanced mechanical properties, offering promising prospects for advanced materials in various industries. Additionally, the characterization results provide valuable insights into the microstructure and phase distribution of the nanocomposite powder. The application of the Williamson–Hall method proves to be effective in determining the crystallite size of the synthesized powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposites)
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21 pages, 5396 KiB  
Article
Solving Some Graph Problems in Composite 3D Printing Using Spreadsheet Modeling
by Larysa Hlinenko, Volodymyr Fast, Yevheniia Yakovenko, Roman Trach, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Sylwia Szymanek, Aleksandra Leśniewska, Yuriy Daynovskyy, Vasyl Rys and Eugeniusz Koda
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070299 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 891
Abstract
The use of composite materials in additive manufacturing has significant potential and prospects for development. However, the 3D printing of composite materials also has some challenges, such as tool path planning and optimization, material distribution and planning, optimization of printing parameters, and others. [...] Read more.
The use of composite materials in additive manufacturing has significant potential and prospects for development. However, the 3D printing of composite materials also has some challenges, such as tool path planning and optimization, material distribution and planning, optimization of printing parameters, and others. Graph theory may be suitable for solving some of them. Many practical problems can be modeled as problems of identifying subsets of graph vertices or edges with certain extremal properties. Such problems belong to the category of graph extremal problems. Some of these problems can be represented as integer linear programming problems, for which, in order to solve, modifications of simplex method can be used. These methods are supported by MS Excel Solver add-in, which suggests the possibility of solving these problems effectively with its help. The task of implementing procedures for solving such problems by means of standard engineering software seems to be possible. This paper aims to develop efficient spreadsheet models of some extremal problems for graphs of higher strength in order to prove the feasibility and to unify the procedures of solving such problems via the MS Excel Solver add-in. Several spreadsheet models based on the graph representation by its expanded incidence matrix, while specifying a vector of unknowns as the vector of binary variables associated with vertices or edges of the sought parts of the graph, have been developed and proven to be efficient for solving such problems by simplex method via the MS Excel Solver add-in. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Composites)
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12 pages, 4329 KiB  
Article
Topology Optimization of a Femoral Stem in Titanium and Carbon to Reduce Stress Shielding with the FEM Method
by Mario Ceddia, Bartolomeo Trentadue, Giuseppe De Giosa and Giuseppe Solarino
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070298 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Arthroplasty is commonly performed to treat advanced osteoarthritis or other degenerative joint conditions; however, it can also be considered for young patients with severe joint damage that significantly limits their functionality and quality of life. Young patients are still at risk of aseptic [...] Read more.
Arthroplasty is commonly performed to treat advanced osteoarthritis or other degenerative joint conditions; however, it can also be considered for young patients with severe joint damage that significantly limits their functionality and quality of life. Young patients are still at risk of aseptic mobilization and bone resorption due to the phenomenon of stress shielding that causes an uneven distribution of tensions along the femoral contact surface prosthesis. This phenomenon can be limited by choosing the material of the prosthesis appropriately or by varying its stiffness, making sure that its mechanical behavior simulates that of the femur as much as possible. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical strength of a prosthesis optimized both in shape and material and compare the results with a standard titanium prosthesis. Methods: Through three-dimensional modeling and the use of finite element method (FEM) software such as ANSYS, the mechanical behavior of traditional prosthesis and prosthesis optimized topologically respecting the ASTM F2996-13 standard. Results: With topological optimization, there is a stress reduction from 987 MPa to 810 MPa with a mass reduction of 30%. When carbon fiber is used, it is possible to further reduce stress to 509 MPa. Conclusions: The reduction in stress on the femoral stem allows an optimal distribution of the load on the cortical bone, thus decreasing the problem of stress shielding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
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13 pages, 5015 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Multilayer-Coated 3D-Printed Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nylon Composites
by Hongwei Chen, Kaibao Wang, Yao Chen and Huirong Le
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070297 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
This paper evaluates the mechanical and thermal properties of 3D-printed short carbon fiber reinforced composites (sCFRPs). A numerical analysis was developed to predict the mechanical and thermal properties of the sCFRPs, which were verified via experimental tests. In the experiments, a novel technique [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the mechanical and thermal properties of 3D-printed short carbon fiber reinforced composites (sCFRPs). A numerical analysis was developed to predict the mechanical and thermal properties of the sCFRPs, which were verified via experimental tests. In the experiments, a novel technique was adopted by coating the sCFRPs with carbon fiber fabric and copper mesh to further improve its mechanical and thermal performance. Various copper meshes (60-mesh, 100-mesh and 150-mesh) were integrated with carbon fiber fabric to form a multilayer structure, which was then coated on the surface of Nylon 12-CF composite material (base material) to form a composite plate. The effects of the copper mesh on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite plate were studied theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the addition of different copper meshes had a significant influence on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite plate, which contained carbon fiber fabric, copper mesh and the base material. Among them, the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite plate with the 60-mesh copper mesh were significantly improved, while the improvement effect slowly declined with the increase in the thickness of the base material. The composite plate with 100-mesh and 150-mesh copper meshes had improved mechanical properties, whereas the influence on its thermal conductivity was limited. For thermal conductivity calculation, both the thickness and length directions of the heat transfer were considered. The comparative analysis indicated that the calculated values and experimental results are in excellent agreement, meaning that this numerical model is a useful tool for guiding the design of surface lamination for 3D-printed sCFRPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Composites, Volume II)
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17 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surface Coating and Plasma Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites
by Wycliffe Ondiek, Masahiro Kondo, Maki Adachi, Arnaud Macadre and Koichi Goda
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070296 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Mechanical properties of plasma-irradiated and surface-coated wood plastic composites (WPCs) have been investigated in this paper. WPCs were developed by injection molding technique using wood fiber (WF) as reinforcement and polypropylene (PP) as matrix. The short, discontinuous WF was compounded with thermoplastic PP [...] Read more.
Mechanical properties of plasma-irradiated and surface-coated wood plastic composites (WPCs) have been investigated in this paper. WPCs were developed by injection molding technique using wood fiber (WF) as reinforcement and polypropylene (PP) as matrix. The short, discontinuous WF was compounded with thermoplastic PP at varying weight fractions of 0 wt%, 25 wt% (WP25), and 50 wt% (WP50) to yield tensile test specimens in accordance with JIS K7139-A32 standards. Subsequently, plasma treatment was performed on the test-pieces, followed by surface coating by immersion in acrylic resin liquid containing homogeneously dispersed TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The results indicate an increase in surface roughness after plasma irradiation, but surface coating of the specimens with acrylic paint and CNF decreased their surface roughness by ∼50% in comparison to the untreated specimens. Plasma treatment and surface coating also increased the tensile strength of neat PP, WP25 and WP50 specimens by 5.4–7.1%, 3.5–3.7% and 3.0–3.6%, respectively, whereas their fracture strains tended to decrease. Compared to the untreated specimens, the surface-coated specimens generally displayed higher tensile strength. This finding is a corroboration that the observed increase in strength is highly contingent on the adhesion between the specimen surface and the coating layer than on the improvement in surface roughness. Thus, it is inferable that surface coating could be of great importance in enhancing the mechanical performance of WPCs. Full article
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16 pages, 4218 KiB  
Article
TiO2-CoFe2O4 and TiO2-CuFe2O4 Composite Films: A New Approach to Synthesis, Characterization, and Optical and Photocatalytic Properties
by Denis Balatskiy, Yulia Budnikova, Svetlana Bratskaya and Marina Vasilyeva
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070295 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Here, we report a new simple and fast method of cobalt and copper ferrites film fabrication on the Ti/TiO2 surface. The approach is based on the deposition of gelatin gel containing copper and cobalt nitrates on the surface of porous oxide-silicon coatings [...] Read more.
Here, we report a new simple and fast method of cobalt and copper ferrites film fabrication on the Ti/TiO2 surface. The approach is based on the deposition of gelatin gel containing copper and cobalt nitrates on the surface of porous oxide-silicon coatings on titanium obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) followed by two-stage annealing at 300 °C and 800 °C to yield ferrite films with good adhesion to PEO layer. The presence of Co/Cu ferrite phases was confirmed by EDX analysis, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. TiO2-CoFe2O4 and TiO2-CuFe2O4 composite films have excellent performance in the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine as a model dye at pH 3 under UV and visible irradiation. The suggested approach to obtain ferrite/TiO2 composite films is promising for the development of magnetic materials, sensors, catalysts, and photocatalysts for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
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14 pages, 46566 KiB  
Article
Examining the Effect of MnS Particles on the Local Deformation Behavior of 8MnCrS4-4-13 Steel by In Situ Tensile Testing and Digital Image Correlation
by Faisal Qayyum, Shao-Chen Tseng, Sergey Guk, Frank Hoffmann, Ching-Kong Chao and Ulrich Prahl
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070294 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
In this study, the behavior of MnS particles in a steel matrix is investigated through in situ tensile testing and digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The goal of this research is to understand the mechanical behavior of MnS inclusions based on their position [...] Read more.
In this study, the behavior of MnS particles in a steel matrix is investigated through in situ tensile testing and digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The goal of this research is to understand the mechanical behavior of MnS inclusions based on their position in the steel matrix. To accomplish this, micro-dog bone-shaped samples are prepared, tensile tested, and analyzed. Macro-mechanical results reveal that the material yields at a stress of 350 MPa and has an ultimate tensile strength of 640 MPa, with a total elongation of 17%. For micro-mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are taken at incremental strains and processed using DIC software to visualize the local strain evolution. The DIC analysis quantifiably demonstrates that the local strain is highest in the ferrite matrix, and while lowest in the pearlite matrix, the MnS particles and the interfaces between different materials experienced intermediate strains. The research provides new insights into the micro-mechanical deformation behavior of MnS particles in a steel matrix and has the potential to inform the optimization of the microstructure and properties of materials containing MnS inclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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14 pages, 5790 KiB  
Article
Flexural Characteristics of Functionally Layered Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite with Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers
by Hang Zhang and Toshiyuki Kanakubo
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070293 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the flexural characteristics of a functionally layered fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (FL-FRCC) with polyvinyl alcohol fibers and to verify the adaptability of the proposed tri-linear stress-strain model based on the bridging law for large fiber [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the flexural characteristics of a functionally layered fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (FL-FRCC) with polyvinyl alcohol fibers and to verify the adaptability of the proposed tri-linear stress-strain model based on the bridging law for large fiber orientation intensity, which shows the fiber orientation distribution as almost 2-D. The average maximum bending moment of FL-FRCC specimens is almost twice that of homogeneous (Hmg-FRCC) specimens, which indicates that the FL-FRCC specimens lead to larger bending capacity. The proposed wide-range stress-strain model based on the bridging law was verified and showed good adaptability with the experimental results through a comparison with the conducted section analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composites: Fabrication and Application)
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12 pages, 4405 KiB  
Article
Effect of ECAP on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Corrosion Behavior, and Biocompatibility of Mg-Ca Alloy Composite
by Song-Jeng Huang, Chih-Feng Wang, Murugan Subramani and Fang-Yu Fan
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070292 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of incorporating MgO into magnesium–calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy composites and subjecting them to the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process on the resulting mechanical and corrosive properties, as well as biocompatibility. Initially, the incorporation of MgO into the Mg-Ca [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of incorporating MgO into magnesium–calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy composites and subjecting them to the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process on the resulting mechanical and corrosive properties, as well as biocompatibility. Initially, the incorporation of MgO into the Mg-Ca alloy composites did not yield significant improvements in grain refinement, tensile strength, or corrosion rate reduction, despite exhibiting improved biocompatibility. However, upon subjecting the Mg-Ca-MgO alloy composites to the ECAP process, noteworthy outcomes were observed. The ECAP process resulted in substantial grain refinement, leading to significant improvements in tensile strength. Furthermore, a marked decrease in corrosion rate was observed, indicating enhanced corrosion resistance. Additionally, the biocompatibility of the Mg-Ca-MgO alloy composites improved after undergoing the ECAP process. These findings highlight the synergistic effect of incorporating MgO and employing the ECAP process, providing valuable insights into the development of advanced magnesium-based materials with superior mechanical properties, reduced corrosion rates, and improved biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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16 pages, 3443 KiB  
Article
Excellent Thermal and Dielectric Properties of Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Phenolic Resin Bulk Composite Material for Heatsink Applications
by Egor A. Danilov, Vladimir M. Samoilov, Innokenty M. Kaplan, Elena V. Medvedeva, Andrey A. Stepashkin and Victor V. Tcherdyntsev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070291 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
In the present paper, we report polymer composites based on phenolic resin filled with hexagonal boron nitride; hot compression molding coupled with solution-based mixing were used to manufacture the composites. The paper presents experimental results on the physical and physicochemical properties of the [...] Read more.
In the present paper, we report polymer composites based on phenolic resin filled with hexagonal boron nitride; hot compression molding coupled with solution-based mixing were used to manufacture the composites. The paper presents experimental results on the physical and physicochemical properties of the obtained composites: thermal stability in air and argon, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, active electrical resistance, thermal conductivity (mean and anisotropy), and mechanical strength. It is shown that the proposed technique of composite manufacturing, including the application of high-process pressures, makes it possible to obtain materials with high anisotropy of thermal conductivity, extremely high-filler content, and excellent dielectric properties, all of which are very important for prospective highly efficient lightweight heatsink elements for electronic devices. Experimental values of thermal conductivity and dielectric constant were analyzed using known mathematical models. Experimental values for thermal conductivities (up to 18.5 W·m−1·K−1) of composites at filler loadings of 65–85 vol.% are significantly higher than published data for bulk boron nitride/polymer composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
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21 pages, 4574 KiB  
Review
Electrospinning Processing of Polymer/Nanocarbon Nanocomposite Nanofibers—Design, Features, and Technical Compliances
by Ayesha Kausar and Ishaq Ahmad
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070290 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Polymeric nanofibers have emerged as exclusive one-dimensional nanomaterials. Various polymeric nanofibers and nanocomposite nanofibers have been processed using the thermoplastic, conducting, and thermoset matrices. This review aims to highlight the worth of electrospinning technology for the processing of polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposite nanofibers. In this [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanofibers have emerged as exclusive one-dimensional nanomaterials. Various polymeric nanofibers and nanocomposite nanofibers have been processed using the thermoplastic, conducting, and thermoset matrices. This review aims to highlight the worth of electrospinning technology for the processing of polymer/nanocarbon nanocomposite nanofibers. In this regard, the design, morphology, physical properties, and applications of the nanofibers were explored. The electrospun polymer/nanocarbon nanofibers have a large surface area and fine fiber orientation, alignment, and morphology. The fiber processing technique and parameters were found to affect the nanofiber morphology, diameter, and essential physical features such as electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, etc. The polymer nanocomposites with nanocarbon nanofillers (carbon nanotube, graphene, fullerene, etc.) were processed into high-performance nanofibers. Successively, the electrospun nanocomposite nanofibers were found to be useful for photovoltaics, supercapacitors, radiation shielding, and biomedical applications (tissue engineering, antimicrobials, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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16 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
Research on the Production of Pigments Based on Composite Pellets in the Recycling of Industrial Waste
by Bakhriddin Turakulov, Kurmanbek Zhantasov, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Bakyt Smailov and Yury Liseitsev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070289 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This article presents the complex processing of low-grade and substandard chromium ores, as well as sludge tailings, with the production of composite chromium-containing materials and pigments, while improving environmental performance in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the utilization and processing of technogenic raw [...] Read more.
This article presents the complex processing of low-grade and substandard chromium ores, as well as sludge tailings, with the production of composite chromium-containing materials and pigments, while improving environmental performance in the Republic of Kazakhstan through the utilization and processing of technogenic raw materials. In this work, to study the physicochemical properties of the starting materials, modern analytical, thermodynamic, chemical, granulometric, as well as computational, mathematical, laboratory, and experimental methods were used. In particular, studies of a method for producing composite pellets for chromite pigments based on industrial technogenic waste of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. Based on the results of the experimental studies, composite pellets were obtained, having a compressive strength of 150–220 kg/pellet and containing 49.7% of chromium oxide and 0.5–1.0% of carbon in its composition. The resulting chromite pigment based on the composite pellets is a modification of chromium oxohydroxide with the formula γ-CrOOH. The density of the resulting pigment is 3.4 kg/m3. The chromite pigment based on the composite pellets is recommended for use in various coloring compositions, including using it for printing on cotton and mixed fabrics intended for sewing outerwear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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11 pages, 3172 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Aloe Vera-Treated False Banana (Ensete Ventricosum) Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Composite
by Hailu G. Shimels, Sisay Ketema, Tomasz Trzepieciński and Temesgen Batu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070288 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 909
Abstract
This research work investigates the effects of the concentration and treatment of chopped false banana (Ensete ventricosum) fibres on the mechanical properties of a polypropylene matrix. The chopped false banana fibres (FBFs) were modified using Aloe Vera gel following treatment with [...] Read more.
This research work investigates the effects of the concentration and treatment of chopped false banana (Ensete ventricosum) fibres on the mechanical properties of a polypropylene matrix. The chopped false banana fibres (FBFs) were modified using Aloe Vera gel following treatment with 5% NaOH for 12 h at room temperature, with 1% acetic acid used to neutralise the remaining NaOH. FBF-reinforced polypropylene composite plates were then manufactured with 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of chopped FBF. The mechanical properties were investigated using the compressive, impact, and three-point bending tests. Regarding the mechanical properties of the FBF-reinforced polypropylene composites, it was found that they have a maximum average compressive strength of 17.2 MPa. A maximum bending strength of 12.109 MPa was found for the Aloe Vera gel-treated composite with 30 wt.% of FBF. The maximum average compressive strength for this composite was 17.19 MPa. A maximum bending strength of 9.97 MPa for untreated composites was recorded for the composite with 10 wt.% of FBF. Finally, Aloe Vera-treated FBF-reinforced composites have better mechanical properties than untreated ones. The mechanical properties of Aloe Vera-treated FBF-reinforced polypropylene composites, as determined via impact, compressive and flexural tests, were superior for composites with 30 wt.% of FBF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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12 pages, 2448 KiB  
Article
Asymmetric Magneto-Optical Rotation in Magnetoplasmonic Nanocomposites
by Sergey Tomilin, Andrey Karavaynikov, Sergey Lyashko, Olga Tomilina, Vladimir Berzhansky, Alexey Gusev, Wolfgang Linert and Alexander Yanovsky
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070287 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The results of the asymmetric magneto-optical rotation in the magnetoplasmonic nanocomposite study are presented. The asymmetry is observed in spectra of magneto-optical rotation when a magneto-optical medium with a plasmonic subsystem is magnetized along or against the radiation wave vector. The asymmetry is [...] Read more.
The results of the asymmetric magneto-optical rotation in the magnetoplasmonic nanocomposite study are presented. The asymmetry is observed in spectra of magneto-optical rotation when a magneto-optical medium with a plasmonic subsystem is magnetized along or against the radiation wave vector. The asymmetry is observed as vertical displacement of a magneto-optical hysteresis loop too. Such asymmetry is detected in magnetoplasmonic nanocomposite, which consists of a magneto-optical layer of Bi substituted iron-garnet intercalated with a plasmonic subsystem of gold self-assembled nanoparticles. It is shown that the physical reason for the asymmetric magneto-optical rotation is the manifestation of the Cotton–Mouton birefringence effect when the normal magnetization of the sample to a radiation wave vector appears due to the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field of resonating nanoparticles. This effect is additive to the basic magneto-optical Faraday Effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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15 pages, 3395 KiB  
Article
Strontium-Induced Gelation of Sodium Alginate in the Presence of Carbon Nanotubes: Elemental Analysis and Gel Structure
by Olga S. Zueva, Tahar Khair, Svetlana R. Derkach, Mariia A. Kazantseva and Yuriy F. Zuev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070286 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
The elemental composition and structural features of the junction zones of a strontium–alginate hydrogel and their alteration under the intercalation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into the hydrogel structure were studied. It was shown that the crosslinking with Sr2+ cations due to electrostatic [...] Read more.
The elemental composition and structural features of the junction zones of a strontium–alginate hydrogel and their alteration under the intercalation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into the hydrogel structure were studied. It was shown that the crosslinking with Sr2+ cations due to electrostatic interactions leads to the association of polymer chains into junction zones with incompletely filled cells. It was found that in strontium alginate, the average cell occupation number of Sr2+ cations is less than 1 and approximately equal to 0.64. In nanocomposite hydrogels including multi-walled carbon nanotubes, its increase to 0.81 indicates the appearance of a more ordered structure of alginate chains in junction zones. The information about the most preferred types of egg-box cells for binding with Sr2+ cations was analyzed. The existence of Sr2+ cations in nonequivalent positions was established. The possibility of separating the contributions of chemical adsorption due to ionic bonds with alginate chains and physical adsorption due to the appearance of local energy minima near alginate chains, leading to the appearance of ordered secondary structures, was demonstrated. It has been shown that the addition of carbon nanotubes to a hydrogel changes their sorption capability, leading, first of all, to an increase in the possible sites of physical adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogel and Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 5311 KiB  
Article
Carbon-Fiber- and Nanodiamond-Reinforced PLA Hierarchical 3D-Printed Core Sandwich Structures
by Michel Theodor Mansour, Konstantinos Tsongas and Dimitrios Tzetzis
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070285 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the mechanical behavior of FFF 3D-printed specimens of polylactic acid (PLA), PLA reinforced with nanodiamonds (PLA/uDiamond) and PLA reinforced with carbon fibers (PLA/CF) under various experimental tests such as compressive and cyclic compressive tests, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the mechanical behavior of FFF 3D-printed specimens of polylactic acid (PLA), PLA reinforced with nanodiamonds (PLA/uDiamond) and PLA reinforced with carbon fibers (PLA/CF) under various experimental tests such as compressive and cyclic compressive tests, nanoindentation tests, as well as scanning electron microscopy tests (SEM). Furthermore, the current work aims to design and fabricate hierarchical honeycombs of the zeroth, first and second order using materials under investigation, and perform examination tests of their dynamic behavior. The mechanical behavior of hierarchical sandwich structures was determined by conducting experimental bending tests along with finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. The results reveal that the incorporation of nanodiamonds into the PLA matrix enhanced the elastic modulus, strength and hardness of the 3D-printed specimens. In addition, the second order of the PLA/uD hierarchical sandwich structure presented increased strength, elastic and flexural modulus in comparison with the zeroth and first hierarchies. Regarding the dynamic behavior, the second order of the PLA/uD honeycomb structure revealed the biggest increase in stiffness as compared to PLA nanocomposite filaments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Composites)
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17 pages, 8678 KiB  
Article
Electrical Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Silver and Copper Composites for Switching Contacts
by Bruno Alderete, Frank Mücklich and Sebastian Suarez
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070284 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced silver and copper metal matrix composites—at three different reinforcement phase concentrations (0.5 wt.%, 0.75 wt.%, and 1 wt.%)—were produced via powder metallurgy and sintered via hot uniaxial pressing. Optical and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the powder mixtures [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced silver and copper metal matrix composites—at three different reinforcement phase concentrations (0.5 wt.%, 0.75 wt.%, and 1 wt.%)—were produced via powder metallurgy and sintered via hot uniaxial pressing. Optical and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the powder mixtures and sintered composites. The latter were also electrically characterized via load-dependent electrical contact resistance (ECR) and surface fatigue tests. Particle size and morphology play a crucial role in CNT deposition onto the metallic powder. CNT were deposited exceptionally well onto the dendritic copper powder regardless of its larger size (compared with the silver flakes) due to the higher surface area caused by the grooves and edges of the dendritic structures. The addition of CNT to the metallic matrices improved their electrical performance, in general outperforming the reference material. Higher CNT concentrations produced consistently low ECR values. In addition, high CNT concentrations (i.e., 1 wt.%) show exceptional contact repeatability due to the elastic restitutive properties of the CNT. The reproducibility of the contact surface was further evaluated by the fatigue tests, where the composites also showed lower ECR than the reference material, rapidly reaching steady-state ECR within the 20 fatigue cycles analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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16 pages, 5486 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Rubberized Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
by Ashraf A. M. Fadiel, Taher Abu-Lebdeh, Iulian Sorin Munteanu, Elisabeta Niculae and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070283 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
The use of rubberized concrete has become increasingly popular as a means of disposing of waste materials, such as used and end-of-life tires, while also providing an effective solution for construction applications. The strength and durability of rubberized concrete can be negatively affected [...] Read more.
The use of rubberized concrete has become increasingly popular as a means of disposing of waste materials, such as used and end-of-life tires, while also providing an effective solution for construction applications. The strength and durability of rubberized concrete can be negatively affected by temperature fluctuations, but little is known about the performance of this material. Hence, the work presented herein aims to evaluate the performance of rubberized concrete when it is exposed to different temperature levels. In this study, rubberized concrete specimens were prepared by replacing 5–20% of crumb rubber by volume of fine aggregate. The specimens underwent a curing process for 28 days, followed by exposure to temperatures of 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C for a period of 2 h. The residual test and normal cooling method were adapted. Surface characteristics by visual inspection, the residual weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and dynamic modulus of elasticity were assessed and compared to unheated specimens. The study’s findings revealed that, when exposed to temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C, rubberized concrete containing a 5% to 15% rubber content experienced less reduction in compressive strength than conventional concrete, which showed a reduction of 43% to 48.5%. Also, it was observed that the splitting tensile strength was more sensitive to elevated temperatures than the compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
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11 pages, 7435 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Lithium Doping on the Dielectric Properties of Solid Solutions LixCa(1−x)Cu3Ti4O12 (x = 0.01–0.1)
by Alexey Tsyganov, Natalia Morozova, Maria Vikulova, Aleksandra Asmolova, Denis Artyukhov, Ilya Zotov, Alexander Gorokhovsky and Nikolay Gorshkov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070282 - 09 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
In this paper, LixCa(1−x)Cu3Ti4O12 (LCCTO) solid solutions were successfully synthesized. XRD diagrams showed that dopant acceptor Li+ cations, in a concentration range of x = 0.01–0.10, were successfully merged into CCTO structure. It [...] Read more.
In this paper, LixCa(1−x)Cu3Ti4O12 (LCCTO) solid solutions were successfully synthesized. XRD diagrams showed that dopant acceptor Li+ cations, in a concentration range of x = 0.01–0.10, were successfully merged into CCTO structure. It was found that doping with low concentrations of lithium (x < 0.05) inhibited grain growth during annealing; however, for x > 0.05, the grain growth process resumed. Permittivity and dielectric losses of obtained LCCTO ceramics were analyzed by the means of impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range from 10−1 to 106 Hz. It was revealed that acceptor doping with lithium at an appropriate concentration of x = 0.05 allowed to obtain ceramics with a permittivity level of ε′ = 3 × 104 and low dielectric losses tanδ < 0.1 at 1 kHz. Further addition of lithium in a concentration range of x = 0.075–0.10 led to a sharp decline in permittivity and an increase in dielectric losses. It was discovered that lithium addition to CCTO ceramics drastically decreased grain boundary resistivity from 115 MΩ·cm to 5–40 MΩ·cm at x = 0.01–0.10. Using Havriliak–Negami equation, the relaxation times for grain dipoles and grain boundary dipoles were found to be ranging from 0.8 × 10−6 to 1.7 × 10−6 s and from 0.4 × 10−4 to 7.1 × 10−4 s, respectively. The developed materials can be used in the manufacture of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors (MLCC) as a dielectric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced in Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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15 pages, 11538 KiB  
Article
Study on Bearing Capacity of Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Embedded Parts
by Wei Sun, Junyi Xiao, Xuanwei Hu, Baoxin Hao, Huan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Tianhe Gao and Kuo Tian
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070281 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
In the composite structure of spacecraft, the honeycomb sandwich structure is the basic bearing component used to bear and transmit loads. To explore the influencing factors on the bearing capacity of honeycomb sandwich structures, this study combines local tests and speckle measurement systems [...] Read more.
In the composite structure of spacecraft, the honeycomb sandwich structure is the basic bearing component used to bear and transmit loads. To explore the influencing factors on the bearing capacity of honeycomb sandwich structures, this study combines local tests and speckle measurement systems to conduct tensile tests on 10 test specimens with different parameters. Firstly, a comprehensive assessment was conducted on the accuracy of the loading and measurement system, the rationality of the testing method, and the mechanical properties of the test piece. It was found that the maximum measurement error of the speckle measurement system did not exceed 0.01 mm, and the differences between the yield load and failure load measured using different inner diameters of the compression ring were 0.15% and 3.84%, respectively. This indicates that the measurement system is accurate and that the influence of the inner diameter of the compression ring can be ignored. Moreover, it was found that considering the accuracy retention ability of the structure under load, the allowable load of the embedded parts is about 90% of the yield load. Finally, the data of specimens with different parameters were compared and it was found that the strength of the honeycomb sandwich structure is directly proportional to the thickness of the skin, the density of the honeycomb core cells, and the size of the embedded parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Manufacturing and Processing)
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19 pages, 5271 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Photocatalytic Pollutant Degradation through S-Scheme Electron Transfer and Sulfur Vacancies in BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 Heterojunctions
by Ge-Ge Zheng, Xin Lin, Zhen-Xing Wen, Yu-Hao Ding, Rui-Hui Yun, Gaurav Sharma, Amit Kumar and Florian J. Stadler
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070280 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Photocatalytic degradation plays a crucial role in wastewater treatment, and the key to achieving high efficiency is to develop photocatalytic systems that possess excellent light absorption, carrier separation efficiency, and surface-active sites. Among various photocatalytic systems, S-type heterojunctions have shown remarkable potential for [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic degradation plays a crucial role in wastewater treatment, and the key to achieving high efficiency is to develop photocatalytic systems that possess excellent light absorption, carrier separation efficiency, and surface-active sites. Among various photocatalytic systems, S-type heterojunctions have shown remarkable potential for efficient degradation. This work delves into the construction of S-type heterojunctions of ternary indium metal sulfide and bismuth ferrite nanofibers with the introduction of sulfur vacancy defects and morphology modifications to enhance the photocatalytic degradation performance. Through the impregnation method, BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction materials were synthesized and optimized. The 30% BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction exhibited superior photocatalytic performance with higher sulfur vacancy concentration than ZnIn2S4. The in-situ XPS results demonstrate that the electrons between ZnIn2S4 and BFO are transferred via the S-Scheme, and after modification, ZnIn2S4 has a more favorable surface morphology for electron transport, and its flower-like structure interacts with the nanofibers of BFO, which has a further enhancement of the reaction efficiency for degrading pollutants. This exceptional material demonstrated a remarkable 99% degradation of Evans blue within 45 min and a significant 68% degradation of ciprofloxacin within 90 min. This work provides a feasible idea for developing photocatalysts to deal with the problem of polluted water resources under practical conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 3749 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Supported over Graphene-like Material Composite as a Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution
by Qui Quach, Erik Biehler and Tarek M. Abdel-Fattah
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070279 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The need for an alternative energy source that is both clean and abundant has led to research into a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen gas can be produced slowly via the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). A catalyst can be used to speed [...] Read more.
The need for an alternative energy source that is both clean and abundant has led to research into a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen gas can be produced slowly via the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). A catalyst can be used to speed up the rate at which hydrogen is produced, however many catalysts involve relatively expensive materials like precious metals. This study explores a novel copper nanoparticle supported on a graphene-like material composite as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The material was characterized via powdered X-ray diffraction (P-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The P-XRD confirmed the crystallinity structures of graphene-like material (GLM) and copper nanoparticles supported over graphene-like material (CuGLM). The P-XRD spectra indicated the (110), (111), and (200) lattice planes of copper nanoparticles. In FTIR analysis, the shifted and sharpening functional group peaks were observed when copper nanoparticles were supported by the GLM template. The TEM result indicated that the copper nanoparticle had a size of approximately 10 nm. The catalyst (CuGLM) was tested under different doses of NaBH4, solution pH, and reaction temperatures. Temperature data were used to determine the activation energy of the reaction to be 46.8 kJ mol−1, which is competitive when compared to similar catalysts. The catalyzed reaction generated the highest volume of hydrogen at pH 8 (51 mL), 303 K (32 mL), and 1225 μmol of NaBH4 (37 mL). The catalyst was found to be able to be used multiple times in succession without any significant loss in hydrogen generated. This catalyst is an exciting option for the sustainable generation of hydrogen gas as a fuel source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
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20 pages, 5685 KiB  
Article
Bio-Based White Eggshell as a Value-Added Filler in Poly(Lactic Acid) Composites
by Duncan Cree and Majid Soleimani
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070278 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Based on its positive environmental impact, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been a gradual substitute for synthetic plastics used in diverse applications. The use of industrial limestone (ILS) as a filler in polymers can have advantages of changing the properties of pure polymers. Waste [...] Read more.
Based on its positive environmental impact, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been a gradual substitute for synthetic plastics used in diverse applications. The use of industrial limestone (ILS) as a filler in polymers can have advantages of changing the properties of pure polymers. Waste eggshells (WE) can be seen as an alternative filler to ILS as they are also a source of calcium carbonate. To assess the feasibility of both filler types and sizes, PLA composites were manufactured by injection molding with filler contents of 5, 10, and 20 wt.%. Tensile, flexural, and impact mechanical properties were evaluated in addition to water absorption. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine whether statistically significant differences among the measured mechanical properties existed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to view the morphology of the fillers and fractured surfaces. The composite tensile strengths and flexural strengths performed the best when filler loadings were 5 wt.% and 10 wt.%, respectively, for both filler types. The tensile and flexural modulus both increased with filler loadings. The impact strength for the composites was obtained at a threshold level of 5 wt.% filler loadings for both filler types and slightly better for smaller particles sizes. ANOVA identified statistically significant differences for the mean mechanical property values evaluated. SEM showed the fractured surfaces of the PLA composites were different from the pure PLA indicating some transformation occurred to the matrix. The weight gains due to water absorption were observed to increase with increase in content of both filler types while the smaller particles had slightly higher water weight gains. Although the composites containing ILS fillers had somewhat enhanced mechanical properties over the WE-filled composites, the end application will dictate which filler type to use in PLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biocomposites)
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14 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Study of Radiation Damage Kinetics in Dispersed Nuclear Fuel on Zirconium Dioxide Doped with Cerium Dioxide
by Artem L. Kozlovskiy, Daryn B. Borgekov, Maxim V. Zdorovets, Inesh E. Kenzhina and Dmitriy I. Shlimas
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070277 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
One area that holds promise for nuclear energy advancement, which is the most attractive industry for eliminating the imbalance in the energy sector and reducing the world’s energy shortage for the long term, is the replacement of traditional uranium fuel with plutonium fuel. [...] Read more.
One area that holds promise for nuclear energy advancement, which is the most attractive industry for eliminating the imbalance in the energy sector and reducing the world’s energy shortage for the long term, is the replacement of traditional uranium fuel with plutonium fuel. The focus on this research area is due to the growing concern of the world community about the problem of handling spent nuclear fuel, including its further use or storage and disposal. The main aims of this paper are to study the resistance of composite ceramics based on zirconium and cerium dioxide to the hydrogenation processes and subsequent destructive embrittlement, and to identify patterns of growth stability attributable to the occurrence of interfacial boundaries and changes in the phase composition of ceramics. Studies have shown that the main effects of the structural distortion of the crystalline structure of ceramics are caused primarily by tensile deformation distortions, resulting in the accumulation of radiation-induced damage. The formation of Zr0.85Ce0.15O2 tetragonal phase of replacement in the structure of ceramics results in a more than two-fold reduction in the deformation distortion degree in cases of high-dose radiation with protons. The evaluation of the alteration in the strength properties of ceramics revealed that the variation in the phase composition due to polymorphic transformation of the monoclinic Zr0.98Ce0.02O2 → tetragonal Zr0.85Ce0.15O2 type results in the strengthening of the damaged layers and the improvement of the resistance to radiation-induced embrittlement and softening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced in Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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12 pages, 16537 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Cenospheres from Ash and Their Application
by Sandugash K. Tanirbergenova, Balaussa K. Dinistanova, Nurzhamal K. Zhylybayeva, Dildara A. Tugelbayeva, Gulya M. Moldazhanova, Aizat Aitugan, Kairat Taju and Meruyert Nazhipkyzy
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070276 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
The possibility of improving the strength properties of concrete materials based on ash/slag waste from thermal power plants of Almaty (Kazakhstan) by adjusting their chemical composition is considered. An X-ray phase analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, infrared analysis (IR), and elemental determination [...] Read more.
The possibility of improving the strength properties of concrete materials based on ash/slag waste from thermal power plants of Almaty (Kazakhstan) by adjusting their chemical composition is considered. An X-ray phase analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, infrared analysis (IR), and elemental determination analysis (EDAX) of ash and slag wastes were carried out, and additives to correct their chemical composition were selected. The analysis of the conducted studies shows that the addition of polypropylene fiber leads to an increase in the compressive crack resistance compared to the composition of the mixture in which ash is present. The highest compressive strength in which cenospheres increase in strength characteristics is observed on samples modified with 7% cenospheres. It was found that the strength of the concrete with the addition of cenospheres increased by more than two times in comparison with a sample without additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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18 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
Wear Behavior of AZ61 Matrix Hybrid Composite Fabricated via Friction Stir Consolidation: A Combined RSM Box–Behnken and Genetic Algorithm Optimization
by Samuel Kefyalew Abebe, Habtamu Beri, Devendra Kumar Sinha, Ali A. Rajhi, Nazia Hossain, Alaauldeen A. Duhduh, Shaik Zainuddin and Gulam Mohammed Sayeed Ahmed
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070275 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Friction stir consolidation (FSC) is a promising manufacturing process for metal matrix hybrid composites (MMHC) with excellent mechanical properties. The originality of this study involves the exploration of the fabrication technique (FSC), the selection of materials and the optimization of wear behavior via [...] Read more.
Friction stir consolidation (FSC) is a promising manufacturing process for metal matrix hybrid composites (MMHC) with excellent mechanical properties. The originality of this study involves the exploration of the fabrication technique (FSC), the selection of materials and the optimization of wear behavior via a systematic investigation of the process parameters. The aim of this study was to optimize and investigate the wear behavior of MMHCs fabricated using FSC. The optimum sample was nominated for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wear morphology analysis using SEM imaging. Material compositions of 7.5%wt of SiC, 7.5%wt of ZrO2 and 85%wt of AZ61 were considered for the experimental investigation. The RSM Box–Behnken design followed by a genetic algorithm (GA) was implemented to optimize the process parameters of sliding distance, speed and load at 350 m, 500 m and 650 m; 220 rpm, 240 rpm and 260 rpm; and 20 N, 30 N and 40 N, respectively. The RSM Box–Behnken result showed that the minimum wear rate of 0.008 mg/m was obtained at 350 m, 20 N and 240 rpm, whereas GA predicted the optimum parametric setup at 350 m, 20 N and 220 rpm. Additionally, TGA showed the material’s thermal stability from 375 °C to 480 °C. Generally, MMHCs exhibited a promising wear performance, proving the effectiveness of the FSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
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11 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Advancing Photodynamic Therapy Efficiency on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells through Silica Nanoparticles-Safranin Encapsulation: In-Vitro Evaluation
by Khaled Aljarrah, M-Ali H. Al-Akhras, Ghaseb N. Makhadmeh, Tariq AlZoubi, Majed M. Masadeh, M. H. A. Mhareb, Samer H. Zyoud and Osama Abu Noqta
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070274 - 03 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Efficient drug delivery to target tissue is a major challenge in many cancer treatment modalities. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been identified as an ideal drug carrier due to their unique properties. In Photodynamic therapy (PDT), one of the key challenges in utilizing photosensitizers [...] Read more.
Efficient drug delivery to target tissue is a major challenge in many cancer treatment modalities. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been identified as an ideal drug carrier due to their unique properties. In Photodynamic therapy (PDT), one of the key challenges in utilizing photosensitizers (PS) lies in effectively delivering the PS to the targeted tissue. Using Silica nanoparticles encapsulation will effectively prevent the leakage of entrapped PS from the particles, protects against reduction by the retinal endothelial system, and reduces PS toxicity. In this study, Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were used as carriers for Safranin (SF) as a photosensitizer agent to treat MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. The SiNPs nanoparticles were synthesized, and their size and shape were measured using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity was evaluated for different concentrations of encapsulated and naked SF. The optimal concentrations and exposure times required to eliminate the MCF-7 under light (Intensity ~110 mW/cm2, red laser) were determined. The results indicated that encapsulated SF by SiNPs exhibited higher efficacy than naked SF with a +50% concentration efficacy and +78% exposure time efficacy. This confirmed the superior ability of encapsulated SF to eliminate MCF-7 cells compared to naked SF. The use of synthesized silica nanoparticles loaded with SF improved photodynamic therapy by increasing the bioavailability of SF in the target cells. Our results demonstrate that SiNP encapsulation significantly improves the efficacy of SF in eliminating MCF-7 cells compared to bare SF. This study underscores the potential of SiNPs as a drug delivery system for photodynamic therapy and could pave the way for developing more effective cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biocomposites)
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