Special Issue "Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Mohammad H. Malakooti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Interests: multifunctional composites; additive manufacturing; nanomaterial synthesis; wearable electronics, soft matter, integrated sensors
Dr. Christopher C. Bowland
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Interests: nanocomposites; fiber reinforced composite sensors; fiber–matrix interfaces; sustainable materials; printable composites; multifunctional composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become ubiquitous structural materials owing to their high specific strength, impact resistance, and scalable manufacturing. Unlike other structural materials, FRP composites, with their tailored mechanical behavior, can be engineered and optimized to fulfill specific engineering purposes. Various synthetic or natural short fibers, continuous tows, or woven fabrics can be used to reinforce. The polymer matrix can be thermoset or thermoplastic with different thermal and mechanical properties. FRP composites have gained even more popularity in recent years owing to the continued progress in additive manufacturing. With the increasing demand and user experience, there is a serious need for new materials, fabrication methods, characterization techniques, and design frameworks.

This Special Issue focuses on advanced composites with tailored mechanical properties and integrated functional properties. The authors are encouraged to submit papers related to the mechanics and manufacturing of FRP composites, as well as novel methodologies to integrate non-structural functions in FRP composites. Experimental and theoretical studies on the development of advanced composite materials with enhanced thermal and electrical properties are also welcome. Authors may contribute to this Special Issue by submitting their original papers as well as progress reports and review articles.

Prof. Mohammad H. Malakooti
Dr. Christopher C. Bowland
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Structural composites
  • Functional composites
  • Lightweight structures
  • Embedded sensing
  • Electronic composites
  • Recyclable composites
  • Sustainable composites
  • Self-healing
  • Impact resistant
  • Composite fabrication
  • Thermoplastic composites
  • 3D printing
  • Automated fiber placement
  • High temperature composites
  • Cryogenic composites
  • Surfaces and interfaces
  • Nanostructures
  • Composite failure
  • Tthermomechanical behavior
  • Fiber treatment
  • Tailored properties
  • Micromechanics modeling
  • Multiscale modeling
  • Topology optimization

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Structural Optimization of Locally Continuous Fiber-Reinforcements for Short Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5050118 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The integration of continuous fiber-reinforced structures into short or long fiber-reinforced plastics allows a significant increase in stiffness and strength. In order to make the best possible use of the high stiffness and strength of continuous fiber-reinforcements, they must be placed in the [...] Read more.
The integration of continuous fiber-reinforced structures into short or long fiber-reinforced plastics allows a significant increase in stiffness and strength. In order to make the best possible use of the high stiffness and strength of continuous fiber-reinforcements, they must be placed in the direction of load in the most stressed areas. A frequently used tool for identifying the most heavily loaded areas is topology optimization. Commercial topology optimization programs usually do not take into account the material properties associated with continuous fiber-reinforced hybrid structures. The anisotropy of the reinforcing material and the stiffness of the base material surrounding the reinforcement are not considered during topology optimization, but only in subsequent steps. Therefore in this publication, existing optimization methods for hybrid and anisotropic materials are combined to a new approach, which takes into account both the anisotropy of the continuous fiber-reinforcement and the stiffness of the base material. The results of the example calculations not only show an increased stiffness at the same material input but also a simplification of the resulting reinforcement structures, which allows more economical manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Ballistic Impact and Virtual Testing of Woven FRP Laminates
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5050115 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The aim of the work was to investigate the numerical simulations correlation with the experimental behaviour of steel ball high velocity impact onto a 2 × 2 twill woven carbon composite laminate. The experimental set up consisted of a pressurised gas-gun able to [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to investigate the numerical simulations correlation with the experimental behaviour of steel ball high velocity impact onto a 2 × 2 twill woven carbon composite laminate. The experimental set up consisted of a pressurised gas-gun able to shot steel ball projectiles onto two different composite plate layup configurations of plates made of the same composite material fabric. Subsequently, the experiments were replicated using the LSDYNA explicit finite element analysis software package. Progressive failure numerical models of two different fidelity levels were constructed. The higher fidelity model was simulating each of the plys of the composite panels separately, tied together using cohesive zone modelling properties. The lower fidelity model consisted of a single layer plate with artificial integration points for each ply. The simulation results came out to be in satisfactory agreement with the experimental ones. While the delamination extent was moderately under predicted by the higher fidelity model, the general behaviour was complying with the experimental results. The lower fidelity model was consistent in representing the damage of the panel during the impact and better predicted the impactor residual velocities due to the better matching of the pane stiffness. Despite the competency of the higher fidelity model to capture the damage of the laminate in a more detailed level, the computational cost was 80% higher than the lower fidelity case, which rendered that model impractical against the lower fidelity one, to use in larger models representing more substantial or more complex structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Moisture Adsorption and Desorption Behavior of Raw Materials for the T-RTM Process
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010012 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The use of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) has significant potential to reduce the weight of components. As regards the sustainability of these components, thermoplastic matrices offer more potential for recycling than thermoset ones. A possible manufacturing process for the production of thermoplastic FRPs [...] Read more.
The use of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) has significant potential to reduce the weight of components. As regards the sustainability of these components, thermoplastic matrices offer more potential for recycling than thermoset ones. A possible manufacturing process for the production of thermoplastic FRPs is thermoplastic resin transfer molding (T-RTM). In this very moisture-sensitive process, ε-caprolactam in addition to an activator and catalyst polymerizes anionically to polyamide 6 (aPA6). The anionic polymerization of aPA6 is slowed down or even completely blocked by the presence of water. This study analyses the sorption behavior of the matrix, fiber, binder and core materials for the production of anionic polyamide 6 composites, which are processed in the thermoplastic RTM process. Water vapor sorption measurements are used to determine the adsorption and desorption behavior of the materials. The maximum moisture loading of the materials provides information about the water adsorption capacity of the material. This knowledge is crucial for correct handling of the materials to achieve a fast process and good properties of the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Nanocellulose from Unbleached Hemp Fibers as a Filler for Biobased Photocured Composites with Epoxidized Cardanol
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010011 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Biobased composites were successfully prepared using raw materials derived from biomass waste, i.e., an epoxy resin obtained from cardanol and nanocellulose from unbleached hemp fibers. The composites were prepared by solvent exchange and an impregnation of the cellulosic mat with the resin, followed [...] Read more.
Biobased composites were successfully prepared using raw materials derived from biomass waste, i.e., an epoxy resin obtained from cardanol and nanocellulose from unbleached hemp fibers. The composites were prepared by solvent exchange and an impregnation of the cellulosic mat with the resin, followed by photocuring. Quantitative conversion was obtained, despite the high amount of fibers (30 wt%) and their absorbance in the UV region of the light spectrum. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the crystalline structure of cellulose did not change during the impregnation and curing process. The cured composites were flexible, hydrophobic, water resistant, transparent with a yellow/brown color, and in the rubbery state at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Hybrid Joining by Induction Heating of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Laminates
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010010 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Induction heating was used to join basalt fiber reinforced polymer laminates (BFRPL) using the process called inductive contact joining (ICJ). Two other mechanical joining processes, nut and bolt (NB) and two-piece hollow riveting (2PR), were compared to ICJ. The obtained joints were evaluated [...] Read more.
Induction heating was used to join basalt fiber reinforced polymer laminates (BFRPL) using the process called inductive contact joining (ICJ). Two other mechanical joining processes, nut and bolt (NB) and two-piece hollow riveting (2PR), were compared to ICJ. The obtained joints were evaluated using tensile shear tests and by analyzing fractured surfaces. Furthermore, simulation of the ICJ process was used to estimate the effective parameters. Joints produced by ICJ had superior joint strength compared to joints manufactured by 2PR. In addition, during ICJ, the BFRPL fibers were not damaged and the strength of the base material was maintained. The tensile shear forces of the ICJ process exceeded 3.5 kN and 2.5 kN for a joined, sandblasted aluminum sheet with BFRPL and for joining BFRPL to itself, respectively. Further optimization potential of the ICJ process was discovered during the investigation, so that potentially higher joint strengths and shorter processing times can be expected, making the process interesting for future industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Highly Hydrophobic, Homogeneous Suspension and Resin by Graft Copolymerization Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC)
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4040186 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a nanoscale colloid with superior potential for coatings, liquid crystal displays, and optoelectronics. However, to date, the presence of hydrophilicity still limits its application. Multifunction via graft copolymerization modification of CNC appears to be breaking into a new direction. [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a nanoscale colloid with superior potential for coatings, liquid crystal displays, and optoelectronics. However, to date, the presence of hydrophilicity still limits its application. Multifunction via graft copolymerization modification of CNC appears to be breaking into a new direction. In this study, we used the residual hydroxyl groups on the CNC to react with 2-bromoisobu-tyryl bromide, and the initiator was therefore anchored on the CNC surface. Through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), CNC was successfully grafted to azobenzene monomer, i.e., 9-[4-[2-[4-(trifluorometh) phenyl] diazenyl] phenoxy] nonayl acrylate (FAZO). After a series of characterization methods, such as FTIR, NMR and XRD, it was found that the surface water contact angle of the CNC-PFAZO prepared by the modification was as high as 134.4°, and the high hydrophilicity of this material could be maintained for up to one month, even longer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Modeling and Two-Step Homogenization of Aperiodic Heterogenous 3D Four-Directional Braided Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4040179 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
The mechanical properties of the material are essential to identify the material behavior of the structure. Predicting four-directional braided composites’ mechanical properties based on accurate modeling is an essential issue among researchers. In this research, the principle of minimum energy loss-based mechanics of [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of the material are essential to identify the material behavior of the structure. Predicting four-directional braided composites’ mechanical properties based on accurate modeling is an essential issue among researchers. In this research, the principle of minimum energy loss-based mechanics of structure genome was used for the two-step homogenization of three-dimensional (3D) four-directional braided composites. In the first step homogenization, the micro-scale model’s effective mechanical properties were decided by considering fibers and matrix; in the second step homogenization, the final effective mechanical properties of the meso-scale model were obtained by considering yarns and matrix. TexGen python script was implemented for accurate modeling of 3D four-directional braided cells with jamming effects. The current process sustainability was validated for 3D four-directional braided polymer matrix composites (PMCs) material by available finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental literature. The method is further extended for 3D four-directional braided ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) to confirm its versatility for standard composites. A commercial FEA was also performed on the meso-scale braided cell to validate the two-step homogenization results. This research explored fast and more accurate modeling and analysis techniques for 3D four-directional braided composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Influence of Fiber Coating and Polymer Modification on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bast/Basalt Reinforced Polypropylene Hybrid Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030119 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Natural fibers, such as kenaf, hemp, and flax, also known as bast fibers, offer several benefits such as low density, carbon dioxide neutrality, and less dependence on petroleum sources. Their function as reinforcement in polymer composites offers a great potential to replace a [...] Read more.
Natural fibers, such as kenaf, hemp, and flax, also known as bast fibers, offer several benefits such as low density, carbon dioxide neutrality, and less dependence on petroleum sources. Their function as reinforcement in polymer composites offers a great potential to replace a segment of the glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites, especially in automotive components. Despite their promising benefits, they cannot meet the structural and durability demands of automobile parts because of their poor mechanical properties compared to glass fibers. The focus of this research work was the improvement of the mechanical property profile of the bast fiber reinforced polypropylene composites by hybridization with natural high-performance basalt fibers and the influence of basalt fibers coating and polymer modification at the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The specific tensile strength of the composite with polymer tailored coating was 39% and the flexural strength was 44% higher than the composite with epoxy-based basalt fibers. The mechanical performance was even better when the bast/basalt hybridization was done in maleic anhydride modified polymer. This led to the conclusion that basalt fibers sizing and polymer modification are the deciding factors in defining the optimal mechanical performance of the composites by influencing the fiber-matrix interaction. The composites were analyzed for their mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. The comparison of bast/basalt hybrid composite with bast/glass fibers hybrid composite showed a 32% higher specific flexural and tensile strength of the basalt hybrid composite, supporting the concept of basalt fibers as a natural alternative of the glass fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Through-Thickness Strength Properties of Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Laminates under Combined Tensile and Shear Loading
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030112 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the through-thickness stresses of woven glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminates under combined tensile and shear loading. Tensile tests were carried out with cross specimens at room temperature under various stacking angles, and the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the through-thickness stresses of woven glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminates under combined tensile and shear loading. Tensile tests were carried out with cross specimens at room temperature under various stacking angles, and the through-thickness strength properties of the woven GFRP laminates were evaluated. The failure characteristics of the woven GFRP laminates were also studied by optical microscopy observations. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to calculate the stress distributions in the cross specimens, and the failure conditions of the specimens were examined. The numerically determined interlaminar tensile and shear stresses at failure location were consistent with Hoffman and Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria when the stacking angle was relatively small. This work is the first attempt to quantify the relation between interlaminar tensile and shear strengths of GFRP composite laminates under tensile and shear loading simultaneously using a combined numerical and experimental approach. A method based on finite element stress analysis was developed for estimating the through-thickness strength of the composite laminates using the experimentally determined fracture load and location. The results suggest that the through-thickness strength under combined tensile and shear loading can be determined effectively by this approach for relatively small stacking angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
A Characterization of the Damage Process under Buckling Load in Composite Reinforced by Flax Fibres
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030085 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to analyze the damage process resulting from buckling load applied on composites reinforced by flax fibre. Continous buckling test was performed on specimens until cracks appeared on their outer face. This test was monitored with an acoustic [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the damage process resulting from buckling load applied on composites reinforced by flax fibre. Continous buckling test was performed on specimens until cracks appeared on their outer face. This test was monitored with an acoustic emission system. The high sensitivity of this method allows the detection of any process or mechanism generating sound waves. Moreover, this technic has the advantage of not causing contact in the deformed zone and thus to overcome the parasitic damage that may result from the stress concentrations in these areas. A multiparametric analysis is used to identify the acoustic signatures corresponding to each damage mechanism involved in the materials, and then follow their evolution in order to identify the most critical mechanisms leading to the final breakage of the material. The presence of these damage mechanisms was confirmed post-test by microscopic observations. Three orientations of laminate specimens (0°, 90° and 45°), relative to flax fabric architecture, were tested in order to characterize and highlight on their own damage process. Similarities as differences were observed between these mechanisms. We have deduced that the high porosity rate found in our composites are resulting from manufacturing parameters. Architecture and properties of the flax fabric influenced negatively the mechanical properties later by accentuating the gap between theoretical and practical values (17% to 22.4%) and by accelerating the development of certain damages such as matrix cracking which acoustic hit density is superior to 70% and fiber/matrix decohesion which occurs very early. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Tensile Properties of Z-Pin Reinforced Laminates with Circumferentially Notched Z-Pins
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020078 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
This paper describes experimental investigations on the in-plane tensile properties of unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy laminates reinforced with circumferentially notched z-pins with different notch designs. From the results it can be concluded that the application of circumferential notches at the z-pin surface with constant notch [...] Read more.
This paper describes experimental investigations on the in-plane tensile properties of unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy laminates reinforced with circumferentially notched z-pins with different notch designs. From the results it can be concluded that the application of circumferential notches at the z-pin surface with constant notch depth of 20 μm and distance of 100 μm has no significant effect on the in-plane tensile strength values, regardless of the notch designs investigated. For circular and rectangular notch designs, no dependence of the tensile strength from the notch depth could be observed. Only changing the notch distances at a constant notch depth and width leads to small increases in the tensile strength values with increasing notch distance. The determined tensile modulus values indicate that there are no substantial deviations between laminates reinforced with unnotched and circumferentially notched z-pins, no matter which notch design is considered. It can be observed that there are no dependencies of the tensile modulus from notch depth and distance. Therefore, it can be assumed that the microstructural changes influencing the in-plane tensile properties will not be changed, or only to a very small extent, by the presence of notches on the pin surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Article
Nonlinear-Elastic Orthotropic Material Modeling of an Epoxy-Based Polymer for Predicting the Material Behavior of Transversely Loaded Fiber-Reinforced Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020046 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Micromechanical analyses of transversely loaded fiber-reinforced composites are conducted to gain a better understanding of the damage behavior and to predict the composite behavior from known parameters of the fibers and the matrix. Currently, purely elastic material models for the epoxy-based polymeric matrix [...] Read more.
Micromechanical analyses of transversely loaded fiber-reinforced composites are conducted to gain a better understanding of the damage behavior and to predict the composite behavior from known parameters of the fibers and the matrix. Currently, purely elastic material models for the epoxy-based polymeric matrix do not capture the nonlinearity and the tension/compression-asymmetry of the resin’s material behavior. In the present contribution, a purely elastic material model is presented that captures these effects. To this end, a nonlinear-elastic orthotropic material modeling is proposed. Using this matrix material model, finite element-based simulations are performed to predict the composite behavior under transverse tension, transverse compression and shear. Therefore, the composite’s cross-section is modeled by a representative volume element. To evaluate the matrix modeling approach, the simulation results are compared to experimental data and the prediction error is computed. Furthermore, the accuracy of the prediction is compared to that of selected literature models. Compared to both experimental and literature data, the proposed modeling approach gives a good prediction of the composite behavior under matrix-dominated load cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Recent Advances in Multi-Scale Experimental Analysis to Assess the Role of Compatibilizers in Cellulosic Filler-Reinforced Plastic Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5050138 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Adding acid-modified resin compatibilizers is essential for plastic composites reinforced with carbon-neutral cellulosic filler. Researchers have measured the efficacy of adding a compatibilizer in the context of mechanics. However, it is necessary to microscopically clarify how the compatibilizer actually works for quality control [...] Read more.
Adding acid-modified resin compatibilizers is essential for plastic composites reinforced with carbon-neutral cellulosic filler. Researchers have measured the efficacy of adding a compatibilizer in the context of mechanics. However, it is necessary to microscopically clarify how the compatibilizer actually works for quality control and further expansion of applications. In this review, the author first describes the situation of cellulosic composites and presents issues regarding how one assesses the role of the compatibilizer. The author then reviews recent multi-scale experimental approaches to the detection of covalent bonds between the cellulosic filler and compatibilizer, estimation of nanoscale interphases, and the micron-scale dispersibility of the fillers. With accumulation of such experimental facts, appropriate parameter settings can be expected for the structural analysis such as the finite-element method, as well as the potential to provide appropriate explanatory variables for material/process informatics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Review
Fused Deposition Modelling of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Parametric Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010029 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a widely used additive layer manufacturing process that deposits thermoplastic material layer-by-layer to produce complex geometries within a short time. Increasingly, fibres are being used to reinforce thermoplastic filaments to improve mechanical performance. This paper reviews the available [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a widely used additive layer manufacturing process that deposits thermoplastic material layer-by-layer to produce complex geometries within a short time. Increasingly, fibres are being used to reinforce thermoplastic filaments to improve mechanical performance. This paper reviews the available literature on fibre reinforced FDM to investigate how the mechanical, physical, and thermal properties of 3D-printed fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite materials are affected by printing parameters (e.g., printing speed, temperature, building principle, etc.) and constitutive materials properties, i.e., polymeric matrices, reinforcements, and additional materials. In particular, the reinforcement fibres are categorized in this review considering the different available types (e.g., carbon, glass, aramid, and natural), and obtainable architectures divided accordingly to the fibre length (nano, short, and continuous). The review attempts to distil the optimum processing parameters that could be deduced from across different studies by presenting graphically the relationship between process parameters and properties. This publication benefits the material developer who is investigating the process parameters to optimize the printing parameters of novel materials or looking for a good constituent combination to produce composite FDM filaments, thus helping to reduce material wastage and experimental time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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