Nanocomposite Materials for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 20202

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Department of Materials Science and Functional Materials, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
Interests: carbon materials; oxides and oxide supports; heterogeneous catalysts; bimetallic systems; alloys; membranes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Based on the “The 8th Asian Symposium on Advanced Materials (ASAM-8)” held in Novosibirsk, Russia from the 3rd to the 7th of July 2023 and organized by the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis (BIC), this special issue is aimed to collect the latest results, progress and remaining challenges related to Advanced Nanocomposite Materials for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. Nowadays, nanocomposite materials are widely applied in various fields of science and technology. The scholars working in such areas as materials sciences, catalysis and adsorption, nano- and biotechnologies are welcome to contribute to this Special Issue. The scientific topics are as follows:

  • Synthesis and Structure of Advanced Nanocomposites;
  • Novel Functional Nanocomposites and Bionanocomposites;
  • Application of Nanocomposites in Energy, Optoelectronics, Sensors and Biomedicine

Prof. Dr. Aleksey A. Vedyagin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • porous, 2D, and 3D Nanocomposites
  • nanocomposite functional materials
  • nanocomposite catalysts, adsorbents, and ceramics
  • bionanocomposites
  • nanocomposites for biomedical engineering

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3809 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Polyacrylic Acid/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites’ Optical Properties for Potential Application in Renewable Energy
by Farhan Lafta Rashid, Ahmed Hashim, Anmar Dulaimi, Aseel Hadi, Hamed Ibrahim, Mudhar A. Al-Obaidi and Arman Ameen
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8040123 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 962
Abstract
Composites made from polymers and nanoparticles have promise to be effective solar collectors and thermal energy storage devices due to benefits including improved thermal characteristics and increased structural stability. This study intends to fabricate polyacrylic acid/silicon carbide (PAA−SiC) nanocomposites and examine the optical [...] Read more.
Composites made from polymers and nanoparticles have promise to be effective solar collectors and thermal energy storage devices due to benefits including improved thermal characteristics and increased structural stability. This study intends to fabricate polyacrylic acid/silicon carbide (PAA−SiC) nanocomposites and examine the optical properties for use in solar collectors and thermal energy storage (TES) fields. The optical properties of PAA−SiC nanocomposites are investigated within the wavelength between 340 and 840 nm. The findings indicate that an increase in SiC concentration in the PAA aqueous solution to 50 g/L at a wavelength of λ = 400 nm causes an increase in the absorption by 50.2% besides a reduction in transmission by 6%. Furthermore, the energy band gaps were reduced from 3.25 eV to 2.95 eV to allow for the transition, and subsequently reduced from 3.15 eV to 2.9 eV to allow for forbidden transition as a result of the increasing SiC concentration from 12.5 g/L to 50 g/L. The optical factors of energy absorption and optical conductivity were also enhanced with a rising SiC concentration from 12.5 to 50 g/L. Specifically, an improvement of 61% in the melting time of PAA−SiC−H2O nanofluids is concluded. Accordingly, it can be said that the PAA−SiC−H2O nanofluids are suitable for renewable energy and TES systems. Full article
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16 pages, 3653 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Decomposition of Rhodamine B and Selective Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by β-Bi2O3/Bi12SiO20 Nanocomposites Produced by Laser
by Aleksandra G. Golubovskaya, Tamara S. Kharlamova, Ekaterina A. Gavrilenko, Elena D. Fakhrutdinova, Olga V. Vodyankina, Sergei A. Kulinich and Valery A. Svetlichnyi
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8020042 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1544
Abstract
In this work, we studied the catalytic performance of a β-Bi2O3/Bi12SiO20 nanocomposite material in the reactions involving the photodecomposition of rhodamine B and selective photooxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The semiconductor composite nanomaterial was obtained by means [...] Read more.
In this work, we studied the catalytic performance of a β-Bi2O3/Bi12SiO20 nanocomposite material in the reactions involving the photodecomposition of rhodamine B and selective photooxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The semiconductor composite nanomaterial was obtained by means of the mechanical grinding of a mixture of nanopowders of β-Bi2O3 and sillenite, both individually produced via pulsed laser ablation. The crystal structure of the prepared composite particles was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction, while the optical properties of both individual components and their composite (with different ratios of Bi2O3 and Bi12SiO20) were also studied. The photocatalytic activity of the composite particles was studied in the course of their decomposition of rhodamine B under LED excitation at wavelengths of 375, 410 and 470 nm. It was shown that the optimal β-Bi2O3/Bi12SiO20 ratio in the composite particles resulted in their photocatalytic activity exceeding those of both single-phase β-Bi2O3 and Bi12SiO20, as well as that of their mixtures (by ~2.3 times for the excitation of an LED with λ = 375 nm). The novel composite particles were also found to perform better in the selective photocatalytic oxidation of HMF: at a conversion of ~5%, the selectivity toward DFF of the nanocomposite was significantly higher (10.3%) than that of sample Bi2O3 (−4.2%). A model was proposed that explains the increase in activity of the newly prepared photocatalyst due to the formation of a type II heterojunction in its particles. Full article
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14 pages, 6088 KiB  
Article
Glass-Containing Matrices Based on Borosilicate Glasses for the Immobilization of Radioactive Wastes
by Olga N. Koroleva, Lyubov A. Nevolina and Nadezhda M. Korobatova
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(12), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7120505 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Glass-containing materials are widely considered among the most reliable materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste materials. The present work considers the synthesis of glass–ceramic and glass crystalline composite materials based on borosilicate glasses. The synthesis of glass–ceramic materials was carried out by [...] Read more.
Glass-containing materials are widely considered among the most reliable materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste materials. The present work considers the synthesis of glass–ceramic and glass crystalline composite materials based on borosilicate glasses. The synthesis of glass–ceramic materials was carried out by a gradual temperature decrease, followed by crystallization for several hours. Sintering of crushed samples with crystalline components was carried out as an alternative procedure. Porous glasses were produced from glass melts by quenching. After impregnating the resulting porous materials with aqueous solutions of cesium nitrate, compaction of the glass was carried out to form glass crystalline composites. The thermochemical characteristics of the parent glasses were determined using the differential scanning calorimetry method. The phase composition and structure of the glass-containing materials were determined using X-ray phase analysis, X-ray spectral microanalysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Full article
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11 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Sulfur-Doped Nickel–Iron LDH@Cu Core–Shell Nanoarrays on Copper Mesh as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction
by Zhichao Zhang, Jiahao Guo, Yuhan Sun, Qianwei Wang, Mengyang Li, Feng Cao and Shuang Han
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7120486 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a slow step in electrocatalytic water splitting. NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDH) have shown promise as affordable OER electrocatalysts, but their performance is hindered by poor charge transfer and sluggish kinetics. To address this, we doped NiFe [...] Read more.
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a slow step in electrocatalytic water splitting. NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDH) have shown promise as affordable OER electrocatalysts, but their performance is hindered by poor charge transfer and sluggish kinetics. To address this, we doped NiFe LDH with sulfur (S) using an in situ electrodeposition method. By growing S-doped NiFe LDH on Cu nanoarrays, we created core–shell structures that improved both the thermodynamics and kinetics of OER. The resulting S-NiFe LDH@Cu core–shell nanoarrays exhibited enhanced activity in water oxidation, with a low potential of 236 mV (at 50 mA cm−2) and a small Tafel slope of 50.64 mV dec−1. Moreover, our alkaline electrolyzer, based on these materials, demonstrated remarkable activity, with a low voltage of 1.56 V at 100 mA cm−2 and excellent durability. The core–shell nanoarray structures provided a larger electroactive surface area, facilitated fast electron transport, and allowed for effective gas release. These findings highlight the potential of S-NiFe LDH@Cu core–shell nanoarrays as efficient OER electrocatalysts. Full article
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12 pages, 2519 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Properties of Flexible CuI/Polyvinylpyrrolidone Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film
by Xiaowen Han, Xinru Zuo, Ying Liu, Zixing Wang and Kefeng Cai
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(11), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7110461 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
A facile preparation method for flexible p-type CuI/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposite thermoelectric (TE) film is developed. First, CuI powder was synthesized by a one-pot method; second, PVP was coated in situ with the CuI powder; third, the CuI/PVP nanocomposite film was prepared on a [...] Read more.
A facile preparation method for flexible p-type CuI/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposite thermoelectric (TE) film is developed. First, CuI powder was synthesized by a one-pot method; second, PVP was coated in situ with the CuI powder; third, the CuI/PVP nanocomposite film was prepared on a nylon membrane by vacuum filtration and then hot-pressing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation indicates that the film consists of CuI nanograins with an average size of ~15 nm and PVP distributed at the inner wall of nanopores and the surface of the CuI nanograins. The composite film shows a large Seebeck coefficient of ~605 µVK−1 and a power factor of ~8.05 µWm−1K−2 at 300 K. The nanocomposite film also exhibits excellent flexibility (~96% of initial electrical conductivity retention after being bent 1000 times along a 4 mm radius rod). A single-leg TE module outputs a voltage of ~3.6 mV when the temperature difference is 6 K. This work provides a fast, simple, and environmentally friendly method by which to prepare flexible CuI/PVP nanocomposite TE film with a large Seebeck coefficient, which could be used as a wearable sensor. Full article
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16 pages, 3484 KiB  
Article
Mesoporous Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis for High Effective Uranium Ions Sorption from Seawater and Salt Solutions on Nanocomposite Functional Materials
by Valeria A. Balybina, Artur N. Dran’kov, Oleg O. Shichalin, Natalia Yu. Savel’eva, Nadezhda G. Kokorina, Zhanna C. Kuular, Nikita P. Ivanov, Svetlana G. Krasitskaya, Andrei I. Ivanets and Evgeniy K. Papynov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7110458 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
A series of sorption materials based on layered double hydroxides (Co-Fe LDH, Ni-Fe LDH, and Zn-Ti LDH) were obtained by a facile and environmentally friendly method of coprecipitation. A low particle size of no more than 10 µm was achieved. The use of [...] Read more.
A series of sorption materials based on layered double hydroxides (Co-Fe LDH, Ni-Fe LDH, and Zn-Ti LDH) were obtained by a facile and environmentally friendly method of coprecipitation. A low particle size of no more than 10 µm was achieved. The use of transition metals makes it possible to obtain compounds that are mechanically and chemically stable in aggressive environments. XRD analysis revealed that the compounds have a highly organized crystalline structure. Using SEM, it was determined that Co-Fe LDH and Ni-Fe LDH had a loose, highly dispersed surface structure, while Zn-Ti LDH had a monolithic surface structure. U(VI) adsorption on the obtained materials in solutions containing Na2CO3, Na2SO4, KNO3, NaCl, K3PO4, and NaHCO3, was studied in batch mode. The degree of purification in the presence of these salts reached 99.9%, while the distribution coefficient Kd reached 105 mL/g. Sorption capacity qmax and equilibrium adsorption constants Kf and KL for U(VI) adsorption in batch mode (for 24 h) from distilled and seawater were determined using the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The highest sorption capacity of 101.6 mg/g in seawater and 114.1 mg/g in distilled water was registered for Co-Fe-LDH. The presence of competing ions in seawater can reduce sorption efficiency by up to 40%. The provided research allowed us to conclude that the obtained materials, Co-Fe LDH, Ni-Fe LDH, and Zn-Ti LDH are promising for the sorption removal of U(VI) from aqueous media of medium salinity. Full article
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13 pages, 5100 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Properties of Rubidium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid
by Andrey A. Belmesov, Alexander A. Glukhov, Maxim V. Tsvetkov, Lyubov V. Shmygleva, Timofey A. Shikhov, Aleksey O. Lembikov, Anton A. Belov, Nikita P. Ivanov and Oleg O. Shichalin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7110454 - 1 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
The work is devoted to the study of the influence of synthesis conditions on the properties of water-insoluble rubidium salts of phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Such heteropoly compounds have a wide range of applications, including in the field of electrocatalysts and solid electrolytes for [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the study of the influence of synthesis conditions on the properties of water-insoluble rubidium salts of phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Such heteropoly compounds have a wide range of applications, including in the field of electrocatalysts and solid electrolytes for various electrochemical devices. The acid salts of PTA with high activity of acid sites on the particle surface are of particular interest. It is known that the properties of water-insoluble PTA salts strongly depend on synthesis conditions, such as the ratio of reagents, temperature, concentrations, and other parameters. The work examines the influence of the ratio and concentration of reagents on the sizes of crystallites and agglomerates, specific surface area (SSA), porosity, water content, and ionic conductivity of the synthesized PTA salts. The SSA value of the obtained samples varied in the range of 84–123 m2 g−1, and the ionic conductivity was 13–90 mS cm−1 at room temperature and 75% RH. An increase in the acid concentration and the degree of proton substitution led to an increase in SSA, accompanied by an increase in particle sizes without changing the size of crystallites. The results of the work may be useful for the development of new materials based on the obtained salts in many fields, including hydrogen energy. Full article
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16 pages, 4726 KiB  
Article
Thermoelectric and Magnetic Properties and Electronic Structure of Solid Solutions CuCr1-xLaxS2
by Evgeniy V. Korotaev, Mikhail M. Syrokvashin and Irina Yu. Filatova
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(10), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7100436 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The oxidation states of atoms in CuCr1-xLaxS2 (x = 0–0.03) solid solutions were determined using the analysis of Cu2p, Cr2p, S2p, and La3d core level binding energy. The cationic substitution did not significantly affect the charge distribution on [...] Read more.
The oxidation states of atoms in CuCr1-xLaxS2 (x = 0–0.03) solid solutions were determined using the analysis of Cu2p, Cr2p, S2p, and La3d core level binding energy. The cationic substitution did not significantly affect the charge distribution on matrix elements (Cu, Cr, and S). The oxidation states of the atoms were identified as S2− for sulfur, Cu+ for copper, and Cr3+ for chromium. The cationic substitution in CuCr1-xLaxS2 was found to occur via the isovalent principle. The cationic substitution of CuCrS2 matrix with lanthanum ions led to the enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient comparing CuCr1-xLaxS2 to the initial matrix. The observed enhancement was attributed to the reconstruction of the valence band electronic structure after the cationic substitution. The maximum Seebeck coefficient value of 412 μV/K was measured for CuCr0.985La0.015S2 at 420 K. An increase in the lanthanum concentration to x = 0.03 caused a suppression of the Seebeck coefficient. The synthetic route was found to significantly affect both the magnetic properties and charge carrier concentration. The magnetic properties of CuCr1-xLaxS2 synthesized using metal sulfide reagents cannot be interpreted using the simple isovalent Cr3+ to La3+ cationic substitution model. The defectiveness of the samples and the formation of the impurity CuLaS2 phase could be additional factors that affect the magnetic properties of CuCr1-xLaxS2. Full article
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20 pages, 20009 KiB  
Article
Study on the Impact of a Combination of Synthetic Wollastonite and 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole-Based Fillers on UHMWPE Polymeric Matrix
by Sakhayana N. Danilova, Aitalina A. Okhlopkova, Sofia B. Yarusova, Afanasy A. Dyakonov, Pavel S. Gordienko, Evgeniy K. Papynov, Oleg O. Shichalin, Igor Yu. Buravlev, Andrey P. Vasilev, Ivan G. Zhevtun and Natalya V. Ivanenko
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(10), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7100431 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of a binary filler on the physicomechanical and tribological properties, as well as structure, of polymeric composite materials based on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. The organic modifier—2-mercaptobenzothiazole and wollastonite particles synthesized from two different systems (modeled and derived from waste) [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of a binary filler on the physicomechanical and tribological properties, as well as structure, of polymeric composite materials based on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. The organic modifier—2-mercaptobenzothiazole and wollastonite particles synthesized from two different systems (modeled and derived from waste) were used as the binary filler. The synthesis of wollastonite was carried out in the complex model system (CaSO4·2H2O–SiO2·nH2O–KOH–H2O) and from technogenic waste (borogypsum). It was demonstrated that the introduction of the binary filler made it possible to obtain an optimal combination of mechanical and tribological properties. It was found that during the wear of polymeric composite materials loaded with organic fillers, the fillers migrate to the friction surface, providing a shield against abrasive wear of the steel counterface. Due to the modification of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, the interdiffusion of polymeric matrix macromolecules and interphase coupling with wollastonite particles improve. The 2-mercaptobenzothiazole organic compound used as the filler facilitates the relaxation processes within the composite under external loads. Full article
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14 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Sol–Gel and Spark Plasma Sintering to Produce Perovskite-like SrTiO3 Ceramics for Radioactive Waste Isolation
by Anton A. Belov, Oleg O. Shichalin, Evgeniy K. Papynov, Igor Yu. Buravlev, Erhan S. Kolodeznikov, Olesya V. Kapustina, Semen A. Azon, Nikolay B. Kondrikov, Alexander N. Fedorets and Ivan G. Tananaev
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(10), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7100421 - 9 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
The paper presents a reliable technology combining sol–gel synthesis and spark plasma sintering (SPS) to obtain SrTiO3 perovskite-type ceramics with excellent physicomechanical properties and hydrolytic stability for the long-term retention of radioactive strontium radionuclides. The Pechini sol–gel method was used to synthesize [...] Read more.
The paper presents a reliable technology combining sol–gel synthesis and spark plasma sintering (SPS) to obtain SrTiO3 perovskite-type ceramics with excellent physicomechanical properties and hydrolytic stability for the long-term retention of radioactive strontium radionuclides. The Pechini sol–gel method was used to synthesize SrTiO3 powder from Sr(NO3)2 and TiCl3 (15%) precursors. Ceramic matrix samples were fabricated by SPS in the temperature range of 900–1200 °C. The perovskite structure of the synthesized initial SrTiO3 powder was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis results. Scanning electron microscopy revealed agglomeration of the nanoparticles and a pronounced tendency for densification in the sintered compact with increasing sintering temperature. Chemical homogeneity of ceramics was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Physicochemical characteristic studies included density measurement results (3.11–4.80 g·cm−3), dilatometric dependencies, Vickers microhardness (20–900 HV), and hydrolytic stability (10−6–10−7 g·cm−2·day−2), exceeding GOST R 50926-96 and ISO 6961:1982 requirements for solid-state matrices. Ceramic sintered at 1200 °C demonstrated the lowest strontium leaching rate of 10−7 g/cm2·day, optimal for radioactive waste (RAW) isolation. The proposed approach can be used to fabricate mineral-like forms suitable for RAW handling. Full article
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21 pages, 11499 KiB  
Article
Al2O3-Phosphate Bioceramic Fabrication via Spark Plasma Sintering-Reactive Synthesis: In Vivo and Microbiological Investigation
by Evgeniy Papynov, Oleg Shichalin, Vladimir Apanasevich, Nataliya Plekhova, Anton Belov, Igor Buravlev, Arseny Portnyagin, Vitaliy Mayorov, Yuliya Skurikhina, Alexander Fedorets, Anastasiya Buravleva, Ekaterina Gridasova and Yun Shi
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(10), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7100409 - 3 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
This research introduces a method to enhance the biocompatibility of bioinert Al2O3-based ceramics by incorporating calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)) into alumina via spark plasma sintering-reactive sintering (SPS-RS). TGA/DTG/DTA and XRD revealed phase formation of HAp [...] Read more.
This research introduces a method to enhance the biocompatibility of bioinert Al2O3-based ceramics by incorporating calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)) into alumina via spark plasma sintering-reactive sintering (SPS-RS). TGA/DTG/DTA and XRD revealed phase formation of HAp and TCP and determined the main temperature points of solid-phase reactions occurring in situ during the sintering of the CaO-CaHPO4 mixture within the volume of Al2O3 under SPS-RS conditions in the range of 900–1200 °C. SEM, EDX, low temperature, and nitrogen physisorption were used to monitor changes in the morphology, structure, and elemental composition of bioceramics. Structural meso- and macroporosity, with a mean mesopore size of 10 nm, were revealed in the ceramic volume, while sintering temperature was shown to play a destructive role towards the porous inorganic framework. The physico-chemical characterization demonstrated increased relative density (up to 95.1%), compressive strength (640 MPa and above), and Vickers microhardness (up to 700 HV) depending on the HAp and TCP content and sintering temperature. Four bioceramic samples with different contents of HAP (20 and 50 wt.%) were bio-tested in in vivo models. The samples were implanted into the soft tissues under the superficial fascia of the thorax of a laboratory animal (a New Zealand White rabbit, female) in the area of the trapezius muscle and the broadest muscle of the back. Based on the results of the assessment of the surrounding tissue reaction, the absence of specific inflammation, necrosis, and tumor formation in the tissues during the implantation period of 90 days was proven. Microbial tests and dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial film formation on bioceramic surfaces were studied with respect to HAp content (20 and 50 wt.%) and holding time (18, 24, and 48 h) in the feed medium. Full article
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19 pages, 5271 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Photocatalytic Pollutant Degradation through S-Scheme Electron Transfer and Sulfur Vacancies in BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 Heterojunctions
by Ge-Ge Zheng, Xin Lin, Zhen-Xing Wen, Yu-Hao Ding, Rui-Hui Yun, Gaurav Sharma, Amit Kumar and Florian J. Stadler
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(7), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7070280 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Photocatalytic degradation plays a crucial role in wastewater treatment, and the key to achieving high efficiency is to develop photocatalytic systems that possess excellent light absorption, carrier separation efficiency, and surface-active sites. Among various photocatalytic systems, S-type heterojunctions have shown remarkable potential for [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic degradation plays a crucial role in wastewater treatment, and the key to achieving high efficiency is to develop photocatalytic systems that possess excellent light absorption, carrier separation efficiency, and surface-active sites. Among various photocatalytic systems, S-type heterojunctions have shown remarkable potential for efficient degradation. This work delves into the construction of S-type heterojunctions of ternary indium metal sulfide and bismuth ferrite nanofibers with the introduction of sulfur vacancy defects and morphology modifications to enhance the photocatalytic degradation performance. Through the impregnation method, BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction materials were synthesized and optimized. The 30% BiFeO3/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction exhibited superior photocatalytic performance with higher sulfur vacancy concentration than ZnIn2S4. The in-situ XPS results demonstrate that the electrons between ZnIn2S4 and BFO are transferred via the S-Scheme, and after modification, ZnIn2S4 has a more favorable surface morphology for electron transport, and its flower-like structure interacts with the nanofibers of BFO, which has a further enhancement of the reaction efficiency for degrading pollutants. This exceptional material demonstrated a remarkable 99% degradation of Evans blue within 45 min and a significant 68% degradation of ciprofloxacin within 90 min. This work provides a feasible idea for developing photocatalysts to deal with the problem of polluted water resources under practical conditions. Full article
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20 pages, 5745 KiB  
Article
Ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O Composites: In-Depth Optical Spectroscopy Study and Catalytic Performance in CO Oxidation
by Grigory B. Veselov, Vladimir O. Stoyanovskii and Aleksey A. Vedyagin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060251 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
In the present work, ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites containing various amounts of NiO and CeO2 were synthesized via a sol-gel approach. Aqueous solutions of cerium and nickel nitrates were introduced at the stage of hydrolysis of magnesium methoxide, which allowed for avoiding the [...] Read more.
In the present work, ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites containing various amounts of NiO and CeO2 were synthesized via a sol-gel approach. Aqueous solutions of cerium and nickel nitrates were introduced at the stage of hydrolysis of magnesium methoxide, which allowed for avoiding the use of expensive organic precursors. It was revealed that the properties of the composites were defined by the complex interactions between NiO, CeO2, and MgO components. In order to perform an in-depth characterization of the prepared samples, diffuse reflectance UV–vis and Raman spectroscopies were applied. According to the results of these methods, Mg2+ ions did not substitute Ce4+ ions in the CeO2 lattice. However, in the case of the Ni-containing samples, approximately 2–3% of the Ce4+ ions were substituted by Ni2+, thus resulting in the formation of vacancies in the CeO2. The strong interaction of NiO with MgO predictably resulted in the formation of NixMg1−xO solid solutions. When the NiO content in the sample was 20 wt%, the composition of the formed solid solution was estimated to be Ni0.60Mg0.40O. In addition, the presence of CeO2 affected the texture of the ternary composites, thus leading to a slight decrease in the specific surface area. The catalytic performance of the Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites was examined in the CO oxidation reaction under prompt thermal aging conditions. The choice of reaction conditions was due to a high sensitivity of the CO oxidation response toward the available metal surface area and possible metal-support interactions. Full article
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18 pages, 5100 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Ni-Cu-CNF Composite Materials via Carbon Erosion of Ni-Cu Bulk Alloys Prepared by Mechanochemical Alloying
by Sofya D. Afonnikova, Grigory B. Veselov, Yury I. Bauman, Evgeny Y. Gerasimov, Yury V. Shubin, Ilya V. Mishakov and Aleksey A. Vedyagin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060238 - 6 Jun 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
The unique physical and chemical properties of composite materials based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) makes them attractive to scientists and manufacturers. One promising method to produce CNFs is catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). In the present work, a method based on carbon erosion [...] Read more.
The unique physical and chemical properties of composite materials based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) makes them attractive to scientists and manufacturers. One promising method to produce CNFs is catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). In the present work, a method based on carbon erosion (CE) of bulk microdispersed Ni-Cu alloys has been proposed to prepare efficient catalysts for the synthesis of CNF-based composites. The initial Ni-Cu alloys were obtained by mechanochemical alloying (MCA) of metallic powders in a planetary mill. The effect of MCA duration on the phase composition of Ni-Cu samples was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature-programmed reduction in hydrogen. It has been also revealed that, during such stages as heating, reduction, and short-term exposure to the reaction mixture (C2H4/H2/Ar) at 550 °C, the formation of a Ni-based solid solution from the initial Ni-Cu alloys takes place. The early stages of the CE process were monitored by transmission electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis. It was found that the composition of the catalytic particles is identical to that of the initial alloy. The morphological and structural features of the prepared Ni-Cu-CNF composites were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The textural characteristics of the composites were found to be dependent on the reaction time. Full article
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