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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 18 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Multifunctional Carbon Nanotubes Enhanced Structural Composites with Improved Toughness and Damage Monitoring
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040109 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 254
Abstract
The potential of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as multifunctional filler in poly(epoxy)-based structural composites has been investigated. In a first step the reinforcement effect of CNT has been studied by tensile and three points bending tests, which evidenced significant improvements of stress and strain [...] Read more.
The potential of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as multifunctional filler in poly(epoxy)-based structural composites has been investigated. In a first step the reinforcement effect of CNT has been studied by tensile and three points bending tests, which evidenced significant improvements of stress and strain at break (respectively +17% and +30% for tensile tests on unidirectional carbon fibre-epoxy composites). Moreover, fracture experiments have also revealed a positive effect of CNT on the toughness (G1c) of carbon fibres-epoxy composites (+105% of improvement at the initial stage). In a second step, the health monitoring capability quantum resistive strain sensors (sQRS) made of CNT filled epoxy nanocomposite, incorporated in the core of glass fibres-epoxy composites has been studied. It was shown that during cyclic tensile tests, following the evolution of the relative resistance amplitude (Ar) of sQRS with strain gives a pertinent information on non-reversible phenomena such as plastic deformation and cracks’ development within the composite. In particular, the evolution of the sQRS sensitivity (gauge factor GF) under and over the elastic limit, allows to track damage accumulation throughout the composite. These results suggest a possible use of sQRS for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of composites in fields such as boating, wind energy, aeronautics and automotive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Designed Conducting Polymer Composites That Facilitate Long-Lived, Light-Driven Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution from Water in a Photoelectrochemical Concentration Cell (PECC)
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040108 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Light-driven water-splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water is typically carried out in an electrochemical cell with an external voltage greater than 1.23 V applied between the electrodes. In this work, we examined the use of a concentration/chemical bias as a means [...] Read more.
Light-driven water-splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water is typically carried out in an electrochemical cell with an external voltage greater than 1.23 V applied between the electrodes. In this work, we examined the use of a concentration/chemical bias as a means of facilitating water-splitting under light illumination without the need for such an externally applied voltage. Such a concentration bias was created by employing a pH differential in the liquid electrolytes within the O2-generating anode half-cell and the H2-generating cathode half-cell. A novel, stretchable, highly ion-conductive polyacrylamide CsCl hydrogel was developed to connect the two half-cells. The key feature of the cell was the half-cell electrodes, which comprised thin-film conducting polymer composites that were previously designed to maximize light-driven catalysis at moderate pH. Upon being connected with the hydrogel in the presence of light irradiation (0.25 sun intensity on each electrode), the half-cells spontaneously produced hydrogen and oxygen from water, without the need for an externally applied voltage bias greater than 1.23 V. The cell operated reliably and efficiently for 14 h of continuous testing. These results demonstrate the fundamental feasibility of light-driven water-splitting in a photoelectrochemical concentration cell when employing electrodes that operate efficiently at moderate pH, even with low levels of light illumination. The designed conducting polymer composites proved ideal in that regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Conductive Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Silica-Milled Paulownia Biochar as Partial Replacement of Carbon Black Filler in Natural Rubber
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040107 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler in the tire industry for decades. The demand for this petroleum byproduct is ever increasing, although petroleum markets can be volatile due to geopolitical issues. Finding sustainable, renewable substitutes for CB reduces the dependence on [...] Read more.
Carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler in the tire industry for decades. The demand for this petroleum byproduct is ever increasing, although petroleum markets can be volatile due to geopolitical issues. Finding sustainable, renewable substitutes for CB reduces the dependence on petroleum. Biochar is a renewable source of carbon that was studied as a potential CB replacement filler in styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) composites, but little has been done in terms of natural rubber (NR). In this work, biochar made from fast-growing Paulownia elongata was co-milled with small amounts of silica in order to reduce the larger particle size typical with biochar respective to CB. The resulting silica-milled Paulownia biochar (PB) was then used to replace CB in natural rubber (NR) composites. By using this method to make natural rubber composites with 30% total filler, half of the CB was fully replaced with silica-milled biochar with very little loss (<6%) of tensile strength, and equal or better elongation and toughness compared to the 100% CB-filled control composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Rubber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Screening of Different Carbon Nanotubes in Melt-Mixed Polymer Composites with Different Polymer Matrices for Their Thermoelectrical Properties
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040106 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 214
Abstract
The aim of this study is to reveal the influences of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polymer type as well as CNT content on electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient (S), and the resulting power factor (PF) and figure of merit (ZT). Different commercially available and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to reveal the influences of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polymer type as well as CNT content on electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient (S), and the resulting power factor (PF) and figure of merit (ZT). Different commercially available and laboratory made CNTs were used to prepare melt-mixed composites on a small scale. CNTs typically lead to p-type composites with positive S-values. This was found for the two types of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT) whereby higher Seebeck coefficient in the corresponding buckypapers resulted in higher values also in the composites. Nitrogen doped MWCNTs resulted in negative S-values in the buckypapers as well as in the polymer composites. When using single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) with a positive S-value in the buckypapers, positive (polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)) or negative (polyamide 66 (PA66), polyamide 6 (PA6), partially aromatic polyamide (PARA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)) S-values were obtained depending on the matrix polymer and SWCNT type. The study shows that the direct production of n-type melt-mixed polymer composites from p-type commercial SWCNTs with relatively high Seebeck coefficients is possible. The highest Seebeck coefficients obtained in this study were 66.4 µV/K (PBT/7 wt % SWCNT Tuball) and −57.1 µV/K (ABS/0.5 wt % SWCNT Tuball) for p- and n-type composites, respectively. The highest power factor and ZT of 0.28 µW/m·K2 and 3.1 × 10−4, respectively, were achieved in PBT with 4 wt % SWCNT Tuball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro Flowers of SrS/Bi2S3 Nanocomposite and Its Field Emission Properties
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040105 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 180
Abstract
The three-dimensional hierarchical SrS/Bi2S3 heterostructures were synthesized by a template-free single-step hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies revealed the formation of a single crystalline orthorhombic heterostructure with rod-like morphologies possessing a high aspect ratio. The field emission properties of [...] Read more.
The three-dimensional hierarchical SrS/Bi2S3 heterostructures were synthesized by a template-free single-step hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies revealed the formation of a single crystalline orthorhombic heterostructure with rod-like morphologies possessing a high aspect ratio. The field emission properties of SrS/Bi2S3 nanorods were investigated. J–E and the Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) plot, as well as long-term field emission (FE) stability, were studied. SrS/Bi2S3 nanoflowers have enhanced the FE properties more than the virgin Bi2S3. The observed values of the re-producible turn-on field for SrS/Bi2S3 defined to draw an emission current density of ca. 1 µA/cm2 were found to be ca. 2.50 V/µm, and of the threshold field to draw a current density of ca. 10 µA/cm2 were found to be ca. 3.00 V/µm (without visible light illumination). A maximum emission current density of ca. 527 μA/cm2 was drawn without light and a current density of ca. 1078 μA/cm2 with light, which is higher than that of pristine Bi2S3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Doubly Curved Shallow Shell Panels Using a New Four-Variable Refined Theory
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040104 - 01 Dec 2019
Viewed by 238
Abstract
In this paper, a new four-variable refined shell theory is developed for free vibration analysis of multi-layered functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) doubly curved shallow shell panels. The theory has only four unknowns and satisfies zero stress conditions at the free surfaces [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new four-variable refined shell theory is developed for free vibration analysis of multi-layered functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) doubly curved shallow shell panels. The theory has only four unknowns and satisfies zero stress conditions at the free surfaces without correction factor. Five different types of carbon nanotube (CNTs) distribution through the thickness of each FG-CNT layer are considered. Governing equations of simply supported doubly curved FG-CNTRC panels are derived from Hamilton’s principle. The resultant eigenvalue system is solved to obtain the frequencies and mode shapes of the anti-symmetric cross-ply laminated panels by using the Navier solution. The numerical results in the comparison examples have proved the accuracy and efficiency of the developed model. Detailed parametric studies have been carried out to reveal the influences of CNTs volume fraction, CNTs distribution, CNTs orientation, dimension ratios and curvature on the free vibration responses of the doubly curved laminated FG-CNTRC panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Ageing of a Hybrid Composite Rod for Next Generation Overhead Power Lines
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040103 - 27 Nov 2019
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The thermal stability of a hybrid composite rod, made of epoxy-anhydride matrix reinforced with both unidirectional carbon and glass fibers, has been evaluated between 180 and 210 °C in different nitrogen/oxygen gas mixtures with several conventional but complementary laboratory techniques such as Fourier [...] Read more.
The thermal stability of a hybrid composite rod, made of epoxy-anhydride matrix reinforced with both unidirectional carbon and glass fibers, has been evaluated between 180 and 210 °C in different nitrogen/oxygen gas mixtures with several conventional but complementary laboratory techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, thermogravimetry, differential calorimetry, optical microscopy, and three-point bending. Thermolysis predominates in the carbon-fiber core, where it induces an efficient chain scission process, leading to a decrease in the glass transition temperature and the formation of small macromolecular fragments, presumably diacids. These very polar fragments remain trapped in the carbon core, where they initiate micro-cavities when their concentration exceeds the solubility threshold. These micro-cavities accumulate in rich-matrix regions, where they coalesce to form apparent large cracks. They are thus responsible for the catastrophic decrease in elastic and fracture properties of the composite rod. In contrast, thermal oxidation affects a too thin superficial layer (typically 60 µm) of the glass-fiber shell to change significantly the global mechanical behavior of the composite rod. Based on these experimental observations, a kinetic model has been proposed to predict the initiation and development of damage in the composite rod. Its validity is successfully checked by comparing its predictions with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability of Composites Under Severe Environmental Conditions)
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Open AccessReview
Characterization of Agricultural and Food Processing Residues for Potential Rubber Filler Applications
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040102 - 26 Nov 2019
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Large volumes of agricultural and food processing residues are generated daily around the world. Despite the various potential uses reported for this biomass, most are still treated as waste that requires disposal and negatively impacts the environmental footprint of the primary production process. [...] Read more.
Large volumes of agricultural and food processing residues are generated daily around the world. Despite the various potential uses reported for this biomass, most are still treated as waste that requires disposal and negatively impacts the environmental footprint of the primary production process. Increasing attention has been paid toward the use of these residues as alternative fillers for rubber and other large-scale commodity polymers to reduce dependence on petroleum. Nevertheless, characterization of these alternative fillers is required to define compatibility with the specific polymer, identify filler limitations, understand the properties of the resulting composites, and modify the materials to enable the engineering of composites to exploit all the potential advantages of these residue-derived fillers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Rubber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical and Mechanical Properties of Highly Transparent Glass-Flake Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040101 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic mechanic and optical properties of composites made of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) and Micro Glass Flakes (MGF) with matching refractive indices (RIs) are investigated. The composite is produced by a slurry-based process using additional blade casting and lamination. It [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dynamic mechanic and optical properties of composites made of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) and Micro Glass Flakes (MGF) with matching refractive indices (RIs) are investigated. The composite is produced by a slurry-based process using additional blade casting and lamination. It can be shown that a high degree of ordering of the MGF in the polymer matrix can be achieved with this method. This ordering, combined with the platelet-like structure of the MGF, leads to very efficient strengthening of the PVB with increasing content of the MGF. By carefully adjusting the RIs of the polymer, it is shown that haze is reduced to below 2%, which has not been achieved with irregular fillers or glass fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Innovative Materials in Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Family of C0 Quadrilateral Plate Elements Based on the Refined Zigzag Theory for the Analysis of Thin and Thick Laminated Composite and Sandwich Plates
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040100 - 16 Nov 2019
Viewed by 255
Abstract
The present work focuses on the formulation and numerical assessment of a family of C0 quadrilateral plate elements based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT). Specifically, four quadrilateral plate elements are developed and numerically tested: The classical bi-linear 4-node element (RZT4), the [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on the formulation and numerical assessment of a family of C0 quadrilateral plate elements based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT). Specifically, four quadrilateral plate elements are developed and numerically tested: The classical bi-linear 4-node element (RZT4), the serendipity 8-node element (RZT8), the virgin 8-node element (RZT8v), and the 4-node anisoparametric constrained element (RZT4c). To assess the relative merits and drawbacks, numerical tests on bending (maximum deflection and stresses) and free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates under different boundary conditions and transverse load distributions are performed. Convergences studies with regular and distorted meshes, transverse shear-locking effect for thin and very thin plates are carried out. It is concluded that the bi-linear 4-node element (RZT4) has performances comparable to the other elements in the range of thin plates when reduced integration is adopted but presents extra zero strain energy modes. The serendipity 8-node element (RZT8), the virgin 8-node element (RZT8v), and the 4-node anisoparametric constrained element (RZT4c) show remarkable performance and predictive capabilities for various problems, and transverse shear-locking is greatly relieved, at least for aspect ratio equal to 5 × 102, without using any reduced integration scheme. Moreover, RZT4c has well-conditioned element stiffness matrix, contrary to RZT4 using reduced integration strategy, and has the same computational cost of the RZT4 element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Boundary Characteristic Bernstein Polynomials Based Solution for Free Vibration of Euler Nanobeams
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040099 - 13 Nov 2019
Viewed by 344
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the free vibration problem of nanobeams based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The governing equations for the vibration of Euler nanobeams are considered based on Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. In this investigation, computationally efficient Bernstein polynomials have been used [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the free vibration problem of nanobeams based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The governing equations for the vibration of Euler nanobeams are considered based on Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. In this investigation, computationally efficient Bernstein polynomials have been used as shape functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method. It is worth mentioning that Bernstein polynomials make the computation efficient to obtain the frequency parameters. Different classical boundary conditions are considered to address the titled problem. Convergence of frequency parameters is also tested by increasing the number of Bernstein polynomials in the simulation. Further, comparison studies of the results with existing literature are done after fixing the number of polynomials required from the said convergence study. This shows the efficacy and powerfulness of the method. The novelty of using the Bernstein polynomials is addressed in detail and solutions obtained by this method provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of Euler nanobeams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cellulose Reducing Ends on the Reinforcing Capacity of Powdered Cellulose in Polypropylene Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040098 - 09 Nov 2019
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Powdered cellulose-reinforced (20 wt%) polypropylene composites were prepared by melt compounding and subsequent injection moldings. We assessed the effect of cellulose reducing ends on the capacity of powdered cellulose to reinforce polypropylene composites after seven days exposure to air circulation during the conditioning [...] Read more.
Powdered cellulose-reinforced (20 wt%) polypropylene composites were prepared by melt compounding and subsequent injection moldings. We assessed the effect of cellulose reducing ends on the capacity of powdered cellulose to reinforce polypropylene composites after seven days exposure to air circulation during the conditioning of samples. Tensile tests on the composites were performed at 5.08 mm/min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some changes that occurred within the composites by demonstrating a practical decrease in –C=O (1744 cm−1) absorption band intensity. A thermogravimetric analysis indicated differences within the thermal behavior of the prepared composites, showing a higher onset of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture areas, together with load–extension curves, further characterized the development of interfacial cellulose/matrix adhesion as well as the brittle and ductile behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the thermal and tensile properties of powdered cellulose/polypropylene are improved by decreasing the amount of cellulose reducing ends in the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Composite Electrodes of Activated Carbon and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles for High Power Energy Storage
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040097 - 08 Nov 2019
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Composite materials in electrodes for energy storage devices can combine different materials of high energy density, in terms of high specific surface area and pseudocapacitance, with materials of high power density, in terms of high electrical conductivity and features lowering the contact resistance [...] Read more.
Composite materials in electrodes for energy storage devices can combine different materials of high energy density, in terms of high specific surface area and pseudocapacitance, with materials of high power density, in terms of high electrical conductivity and features lowering the contact resistance between electrode and current collector. The present study investigates composite coatings as electrodes for supercapacitors with organic electrolyte 1.5 M TEABF4 in acetonitrile. The composite coatings contain high surface area activated carbon (AC) with only 0.15 wt% multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which, dispersed to their percolation limit, offer high conductivity. The focus of the investigations is on the decoration of MWCNTs with silver nanoparticles, where smaller Ag crystallites of 16.7 nm grew on carboxylic group-functionalized MWCNTs, MWCNT–COOH, against 27–32 nm Ag crystallites grown on unfunctionalized MWCNTs. All Ag-decorated MWCNTs eliminate the contact resistance between the composite electrode and the current collector that exists when undecorated MWCNTs are used in the composite electrodes. Ag-decorated MWCNT–COOH tripled the power density and Ag-decorated MWCNT additive doubled the power density and increased the maximum energy density by 6%, due to pseudocapacitance of Ag, compared to composite electrodes with undecorated MWCNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature Self-Compensated Strain Sensors based on MWCNT-Graphene Hybrid Nanocomposite
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040096 - 07 Nov 2019
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Sensors based on carbon nanomaterials are gaining importance due to their tunable properties and their potentially outstanding sensing performance. Despite their advantages, carbon-based nanomaterial sensors are prone to cross-sensitivities with environmental factors like temperature. Thus, to reduce the temperature influence on the sensing [...] Read more.
Sensors based on carbon nanomaterials are gaining importance due to their tunable properties and their potentially outstanding sensing performance. Despite their advantages, carbon-based nanomaterial sensors are prone to cross-sensitivities with environmental factors like temperature. Thus, to reduce the temperature influence on the sensing material, compensation and correction procedures are usually considered. These methods may require the use of additional sensors which can themselves be subject to residual errors. Hence, a more promising approach consists of synthesizing a material that is capable of self-compensating for the influence of temperature. In this study, a hybrid nanocomposite based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene is proposed, which can compensate, by itself, for the influence of temperature on the material conductivity. The hybrid nanocomposite material uses the different temperature behavior of MWCNTs, which have a negative temperature coefficient, and graphene, which has a positive temperature coefficient. The influence of the material ratio and dispersion quality are investigated in this work. Material composition and dispersion quality are analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A composition of 70% graphene and 30% MWCNT exhibits a nearly temperature-independent hybrid nanocomposite with a sensitivity of 0.022 Ω/°C, corresponding to a resistance change of ~1.2 Ω for a temperature range of 25 to 80 °C. Additionally, a simple investigation of the strain sensing behavior of the hybrid material is also presented. The hybrid nanocomposite-based, thin-film strain sensor exhibits good stability over 100 cycles and a significantly high gauge factor, i.e., 16.21. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Graphene-based Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessReview
A Survey of Scrutinizing Delaminated Composites via Various Categories of Sensing Apparatus
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040095 - 30 Oct 2019
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Scrutinizing delaminated composites is extensively conducted based on measurements of various types of nondestructive sensing apparatus, classified herein as systems of thermographic inspection, piezoelectric inspection, optical interferometric inspection, electromagnetic testing, ultrasonic testing, and visual testing. The development of the subject has been reviewed [...] Read more.
Scrutinizing delaminated composites is extensively conducted based on measurements of various types of nondestructive sensing apparatus, classified herein as systems of thermographic inspection, piezoelectric inspection, optical interferometric inspection, electromagnetic testing, ultrasonic testing, and visual testing. The development of the subject has been reviewed during 2000–2017. Not only does the substantial corresponding literature strongly indicates numerous increasing industrial demand for composites, including carbon fiber-reinforced polymer, glass fiber-reinforced polymer, and fiber-reinforced metal laminate, but also the significant potential of composites to delaminate when subjected particularly to impact, machining operation or manufacturing imperfections. Conducting a study on the corresponding literature, the subject of delamination inspection within composites is found to be a dynamic, mature field, while lacking a thorough literature review. Therefore, the present study addresses the mentioned gap regarding various sensation systems utilized so as to detect internal anomalies in composites for the review arrangement. To that end, the literature inclusion in terms of citation times is electronically adopted associated with an appropriate combination of keywords. The study may be considered as a comprehensive, up-to-date review covering all delamination inspection techniques founded on sensation systems, thus benefiting the readers with information in an organized configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thermoelastic Stress and Deformation Analyses of Functionally Graded Doubly Curved Shells
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040094 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 309
Abstract
In this paper, the authors develop Reissner’s mixed variational theorem (RMVT)-based finite layer methods for the three-dimensional (3D) coupled thermoelastic analysis of simply supported, functionally graded, doubly curved (DC) shells with temperature-independent material properties. A two-phase composite material is considered to form the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors develop Reissner’s mixed variational theorem (RMVT)-based finite layer methods for the three-dimensional (3D) coupled thermoelastic analysis of simply supported, functionally graded, doubly curved (DC) shells with temperature-independent material properties. A two-phase composite material is considered to form the shell, and its material properties are assumed to obey a power–law distribution of the volume fractions of the constituents through the thickness direction of the shell. The effective material properties are estimated using the Mori–Tanaka scheme. The accuracy and convergence rate of these RMVT-based finite layer methods are validated by comparing their solutions with the quasi 3D and accurate two-dimensional solutions available in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of N-doped Cu2O/ZnO Nanocomposite on Degradation of Methyl Red
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040093 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 341
Abstract
In this study, a N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by a co-precipitation and thermal decomposition technique from CuCl2, 2H2O, ZnSO4, 7H2O and CO(NH2)2 as precursors. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized [...] Read more.
In this study, a N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by a co-precipitation and thermal decomposition technique from CuCl2, 2H2O, ZnSO4, 7H2O and CO(NH2)2 as precursors. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT–IR) and an ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) reflectance spectrometer. From the XRD diffractogram of N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite, cubic and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures of Cu2O, and ZnO, respectively were identified. The UV-vis reflectance spectra illustrated that the absorption edge of N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite is more extended to the longer wavelength than ZnO, Cu2O and Cu2O/ZnO nanomaterials. FT–IR bands confirmed the presence of ZnO, Cu2O, and nitrogen in the N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite. Photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized nanocomposite was tested for methyl red degradation using sunlight as an energy source by optimizing the concentration of the dye and amount of the catalyst loaded. The degradation efficiency was greater in N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite as compared to ZnO, Cu2O and Cu2O/ZnO nanomaterials. This is due to the coupling of the semiconductors which increases the absorption and exploitation capability of solar light and increases the charge separation as well. Besides that, nitrogen doping can extend absorption of light to the visible region by decreasing the energy gap. Therefore, N-doped Cu2O/ZnO nanocomposite is a solar light-active photocatalyst which can be used in the degradation of organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanomechanical Properties of a Bicomponent Epoxy Resin via Blending with Polyaryletherketone
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3040092 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 316
Abstract
In order to investigate the nanomechanical behaviors and nanotribological properties of bicomponent epoxy resin (BE) blends, which were filled with thermoplastic polyaryletherketone (PAEK) powders, nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests were performed. The brittle fractured morphologies of bicomponent epoxy resin blends were studied. The microhardness [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the nanomechanical behaviors and nanotribological properties of bicomponent epoxy resin (BE) blends, which were filled with thermoplastic polyaryletherketone (PAEK) powders, nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests were performed. The brittle fractured morphologies of bicomponent epoxy resin blends were studied. The microhardness and elastic modules of the materials were measured using the nanoindentation technology. The hardness, elastic modulus, and other mechanical properties of materials on a nanoscale were determined. Nanoindentation and scratch experiments showed that the indentation response is dominated by plastic deformation. The microhardness is the lowest as the content of PAEK powders is increased to 30 parts per hundred parts of resin (phr), while that of the neat bicomponent epoxy resin specimen is the highest. Furthermore, the pristine bicomponent epoxy resin (BE) exhibited better load-carrying and indentation recovery capacity than the other three samples. The nanoscratch results indicate that the frictional coefficient of the BE/PAEK-30 blend is the lowest, and while that of the pristine bicomponent epoxy resin is the highest, with better scratch/wear resistance. Full article
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