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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Fiber Reinforced Plastics by Ultrasonic Welding
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030056
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Ultrasonic fabrication of fiber reinforced plastics made from thermoplastic polymer films and carbon or glass fibers enables cycle times of a few seconds and requires investment costs of only some 10,000 €. Besides this, the raw materials can be stored at room temperature.
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Ultrasonic fabrication of fiber reinforced plastics made from thermoplastic polymer films and carbon or glass fibers enables cycle times of a few seconds and requires investment costs of only some 10,000 €. Besides this, the raw materials can be stored at room temperature. A fiber content of 33 vol % and a tensile strength of approximately 1.2 GPa have been achieved by ultrasonic welding of nine layers of foils from polyamide, each 100 µm in thickness, and eight layers of carbon fibers, each 100 µm in thickness, in between. Besides unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) samples, multi-directional CFRP plates, 116 mm, 64 mm and 1.2 mm in length, width and thickness respectively, were fabricated by processing three layers of carbon fiber canvas, each 300 µm in thickness, and eight layers of polyamide foils, each 100 µm in thickness. Furthermore, both the discontinuous and the continuous ultrasonic fabrication processes are described and the results are presented in this paper. Large-scale production still needs to be demonstrated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Investigation of FRCC Shear Walls Reinforced with Steel and GFRP Bars
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030055
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Contemporary structures can resist earthquakes as they deform and dissipate energy. However, during strong ground motions, these structures can sustain significant concrete damage and overall permanent deformations. Therefore, it is of great benefit if earthquake-resisting structures can deform and dissipate energy, and yet
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Contemporary structures can resist earthquakes as they deform and dissipate energy. However, during strong ground motions, these structures can sustain significant concrete damage and overall permanent deformations. Therefore, it is of great benefit if earthquake-resisting structures can deform and dissipate energy, and yet sustain mitigated damage. This paper illustrates the findings of an experimental study focused on the mitigation of damage and reduction of residual displacements in reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls. In this study, the cyclic properties of two innovative shear walls—a slender and a squat wall—which were cast with fiber-reinforced cementitious composites and reinforced with steel and glass fiber reinforced polymer bars are investigated. Then, the improvements of the innovative specimens with respect to two conventional RC shear walls are discussed in terms of damage propagation, self-centering, stiffness retention and energy dissipation. As the experiments showed, the innovative walls sustained mitigated concrete damage and less residual drift ratios while illustrating significant stiffness and energy dissipation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Active Components in Iron-Elastomer Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030054
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
The magneto-rheological effects in iron-elastomer composites (IEC) were investigated by simulation, surface topography, and 3D representation. The simulated behavior of magneto-rheological elastomeric composites in the presence of an external magnetic field was determined and the influence of magnetic intensity on the isotropic distribution
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The magneto-rheological effects in iron-elastomer composites (IEC) were investigated by simulation, surface topography, and 3D representation. The simulated behavior of magneto-rheological elastomeric composites in the presence of an external magnetic field was determined and the influence of magnetic intensity on the isotropic distribution of iron filler particles in IECs was investigated. The magnetic intensity distribution was analyzed from the edge of the surface towards the center of the IEC. The samples were characterized for microstructural images after experimental tests using both micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adhesion of filler particles within the matrix of the magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) composite and their distributions were also investigated. µCT showed the overall 3D representation of IEC and the inner distribution of filler particles revealed the presence of some porosity which may be due to bubbles and voids in the matrix of the composite. Finally, a mechanism was established governing particle–particle interactions on the basis of dipole–dipole interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Characterisation of SMC Composite Car Hood Specimens under Complex Loadings
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030053
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Composite materials have recently been of particular interest to the automotive industry due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and versatility. Among the different composite materials used in mass-produced vehicles are sheet moulded compound (SMC) composites, which consist of random fibres, making them inexpensive
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Composite materials have recently been of particular interest to the automotive industry due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and versatility. Among the different composite materials used in mass-produced vehicles are sheet moulded compound (SMC) composites, which consist of random fibres, making them inexpensive candidates for non-structural applications in future vehicles. In this work, SMC composite materials were prepared with varying fibre orientations and volume fractions (25% and 45%) and subjected to a series of uniaxial tensile and flexural bending tests at a strain rate of 3 × 10−3 s−1. Tensile strength as well as failure strain increased with the increasing fibre volume fraction for the uniaxial tests. Flexural strength was found to also increase with increasing fibre percentage; however, failure displacement was found to decrease. The two material directions studied—longitudinal and transverse—showed superior strength and failure strain/displacement in the transverse direction. The experimental results were then used to create a finite element model to describe the deformation behaviour of SMC composites. Tensile results were first used to create and calibrate the model; then, the model was validated with flexural experimental results. The finite element model closely predicted both SMC volume fraction samples, predicting the failure force and displacement with less than 3.5% error in the lower volume fraction tests, and 6.6% error in the higher volume fraction tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Formation and Distribution of In Situ Synthesized TiB2 Reinforcements in Cast Aluminium Matrix Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030052
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Introduction of TiB2 reinforcements into aluminium matrices allows composites to be obtained that exhibit excellent mechanical properties and good wear and corrosion resistance. These composites find applications in the automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In the present work, the in situ synthesis
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Introduction of TiB2 reinforcements into aluminium matrices allows composites to be obtained that exhibit excellent mechanical properties and good wear and corrosion resistance. These composites find applications in the automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In the present work, the in situ synthesis of ultrafine TiB2 particulates in an aluminium matrix was accomplished by reaction synthesis of TiB2 using K2TiF6 and KBF4 (in 120% excess to the stoichiometrically needed) fluxes in pre-melted aluminium. Composites were prepared with different concentrations of TiB2 in (2.5, 5 and 10 wt %) in an aluminium matrix. The holding time of the molten composite in an induction furnace was varied from 10 min to 50 min. The in situ formation of TiB2 reinforcement and its distribution in cast aluminiummatrix composites was analyzed based on microstructural studies, microhardness measurements and wear tests. The exothermic reaction between the halide fluxes starts after 10 min of holding time and completes before 20 min of holding time. The dominant phase was TiB2 after 20 min of holding time, while the formation of Ti3B4 was observed as the holding time was extended. The distribution of the reinforcing phases was studied by analyzing the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. An optimum holding time (20 min) of the composite melt was determined based on the dominant wear mechanism, microhardness, and phase composition of the composites. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Chemical Stability of Tricalcium Phosphate–Iron Composite during Spark Plasma Sintering
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030051
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2, TCP) is a ceramic widely used as a bone filler material due to its good osteoconductivity. Nevertheless, its poor mechanical properties do not allow its use for load-bearing applications. Therefore, the option of improving
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Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2, TCP) is a ceramic widely used as a bone filler material due to its good osteoconductivity. Nevertheless, its poor mechanical properties do not allow its use for load-bearing applications. Therefore, the option of improving its strength and toughness by adding a biocompatible metallic component is a promising alternative to overcome this drawback, leading to the fabrication of improved bone implants. The present work is focused on defining the thermal stability of alpha-TCP (α-TCP) when it is sintered together with iron (Fe) by spark plasma sintering. The results showed the thermal stability of the composite with no degradation or oxidation in the ceramic or metal phase. A clear advantage from the TCP-Fe composites when compared with others, such as hydroxyapatite-titanium, is the complete retention of the TCP due to the less reactivity with iron respect to titanium. Furthermore, the allotropic phase transformation from alpha to beta-TCP polymorph was reduced by sintering at 900 °C. However, the densification of the material was also impaired at this temperature. It is expected that spark plasma sintering will allow the fabrication of TCP–Fe composites free of secondary phases that compromise the mechanical strength of the material. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study of Aluminum Wires Treated with MoB2 Nanoparticles
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030050
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
This research focuses on the fabrication of aluminum wires treated with MoB2 nanoparticles and their effect on selected mechanical and thermal properties of the wires. These nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation in a high-energy ball mill and then mechanically alloyed with pure
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This research focuses on the fabrication of aluminum wires treated with MoB2 nanoparticles and their effect on selected mechanical and thermal properties of the wires. These nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation in a high-energy ball mill and then mechanically alloyed with pure aluminum powder to form Al/MoB2 pellets. The pellets were added to molten pure aluminum (99.5%) at 760 °C. Afterwards, the treated melt was cast into cylindrical ingots, which were cold-formed to the desired final diameter with intermediate annealing. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy allowed characterizing the structure and microstructure of the material. The wires underwent tensile and bending tests, as well as electrical measurements. Finally, this research demonstrated how the mechanical properties of aluminum wires can be enhanced with the addition of MoB2 nanoparticles with minimal effects on the material resistivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of an Al6061 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030049
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
The demand for aluminum hybrid metal matrix composites has increased in recent times due to their enhanced mechanical properties for satisfying the requirements of advanced engineering applications. The performance of these materials is greatly influenced by the selection of an appropriate combination of
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The demand for aluminum hybrid metal matrix composites has increased in recent times due to their enhanced mechanical properties for satisfying the requirements of advanced engineering applications. The performance of these materials is greatly influenced by the selection of an appropriate combination of reinforcement materials. The reinforcement materials include carbides, nitrides, and oxides. The ceramic particles, such as silicon carbide and aluminum oxide, are the most widely used reinforcement materials for preparing these composites. In this paper, an attempt has been made to prepare an Al6061 hybrid metal matrix composite (HAMMC) reinforced with particulates with different weight fractions of SiC and Al2O3 and a constant weight fraction (5%) of fly ash by a stir-casting process. The experimental study has been carried out on the prepared composite to investigate the mechanical properties due to the addition of multiple reinforcement materials. The density and mechanical properties, such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, impact strength, and the hardness and wear characteristics of the proposed composite, are compared with those of unreinforced Al6061. The experimental investigation is also aimed at observing the variation of properties with a varying weight percentage of the reinforcement materials SiC and Al2O3 simultaneously with the fly ash content maintained constant. The outcome of the experimental investigation revealed that the proposed hybrid composite with 20% of total reinforcement material exhibits high hardness, high yield strength, and low wear rate but no considerable improvement in impact strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Marine Bio-Composite Using Empirical Data Combined with Finite Element Technique
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030048
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
After development of world-first marine bio-composite from 100% waste materials, the necessity of obtaining a simulation tool to predict the performance of this novel material under different conditions has arisen. This study examines the combination of empirical optimization and finite element simulation method
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After development of world-first marine bio-composite from 100% waste materials, the necessity of obtaining a simulation tool to predict the performance of this novel material under different conditions has arisen. This study examines the combination of empirical optimization and finite element simulation method as an economic and time-effective tool to predict the mechanical performance of novel complex bio-composite mixtures at the design phase. Bio-composite panels were manufactured introducing marine bio-fillers as secondary reinforcements in a wood–polypropylene particulate blend, from 100% waste resources. The particulate panels were subject to tensile test for mechanical characterization. Based on these results, some of the necessary parameters for finite element simulation has defined empirically and a finite element model was developed utilizing ANSYS software, performing a simulation series. Post-processing of the simulation results was carried out to predict the deformation behavior of the material during the three-point bending test. To validate this technique of material definition, the simulated static bending test results were verified with factual physical tests, and both techniques were well in accordance with each other. This simulation method demonstrated reliable feedback on the behavior of materials for the development of innovative complex materials. Therefore, the time invested, materials used and experimental procedures can be significantly reduced, having significant economic benefits for research and industrial projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Young’s Modulus for Injection Molded Long Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030047
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
In this article, the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs) are investigated by micro-mechanical approaches including the Halpin-Tsai (HT) model and the Mori-Tanaka model based on Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion (EMT). In the modeling, the elastic properties are calculated by the fiber content,
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In this article, the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs) are investigated by micro-mechanical approaches including the Halpin-Tsai (HT) model and the Mori-Tanaka model based on Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion (EMT). In the modeling, the elastic properties are calculated by the fiber content, fiber length, and fiber orientation. Several closure approximations for the fourth-order fiber orientation tensor are evaluated by comparing the as-calculated elastic stiffness with that from the original experimental fourth-order tensor. An empirical model was developed to correct the fibers’ aspect ratio in the computation for the actual as-formed LFTs with fiber bundles under high fiber content. After the correction, the analytical predictions had good agreement with the experimental stiffness values from tensile tests on the LFTs. Our analysis shows that it is essential to incorporate the effect of the presence of fiber bundles to accurately predict the composite properties. This work involved the use of experimental values of fiber orientation and serves as the basis for computing part stiffness as a function of mold filling conditions. The work also explains why the modulus tends to level off with fiber concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessEditorial Manufacturing, Characterisation and Properties of Advanced Nanocomposites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030046
Received: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Open AccessArticle Process-Induced Fiber Orientation in Fused Filament Fabrication
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030045
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
As the applications for additive manufacturing have continued to grow, so too has the range of available materials, with more functional or better performing materials constantly under development. This work characterizes a copper-filled polyamide 6 (PA6) thermoplastic composite designed to enhance the thermal
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As the applications for additive manufacturing have continued to grow, so too has the range of available materials, with more functional or better performing materials constantly under development. This work characterizes a copper-filled polyamide 6 (PA6) thermoplastic composite designed to enhance the thermal conductivity of fused filament fabrication (FFF) parts, especially for heat transfer applications. The composite was mixed and extruded into filament using twin screw extrusion. Because the fiber orientation within the material governs the thermal conductivity of the material, the orientation was measured in the filament, through the nozzle, and in printed parts using micro-computed tomography. The thermal conductivity of the material was measured and achieved 4.95, 2.38, and 0.75 W/(m·K) at 70 °C in the inflow, crossflow, and thickness directions, respectively. The implications of this anisotropy are discussed using the example of an air-to-water crossflow heat exchanger. The lower conductivity in the crossflow direction reduces thermal performance due to the orientation in thin-walled parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Human Skin-Like Composite Materials for Blast Induced Injury Mitigation
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030044
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Armors and military grade personal protection equipment (PPE) materials to date are bulky and are not designed to effectively mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, a human skin-like castable simulant material was developed and its blast mitigation characteristics (in terms of induced
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Armors and military grade personal protection equipment (PPE) materials to date are bulky and are not designed to effectively mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, a human skin-like castable simulant material was developed and its blast mitigation characteristics (in terms of induced stress reduction at the bone and muscles) were characterized in the presence of composite reinforcements. The reinforcement employed was Kevlar 129 (commonly used in advanced combat helmets), which was embedded within the novel skin simulant material as the matrix and used to cover a representative extremity based human skin, muscle and bone section finite element (FE) model. The composite variations tested were continuous and short-fiber types, lay-ups (0/0, 90/0, and 45/45 orientations) and different fiber volume fractions. From the analyses, the 0/0 continuous fiber lay-up with a fiber volume fraction close to 0.1 (or 10%) was found to reduce the blast-induced dynamic stresses at the bone and muscle sections by 78% and 70% respectively. These findings indicate that this novel skin simulant material with Kevlar 129 reinforcement, with further experimental testing, may present future opportunities in blast resistant armor padding designing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on the Dynamic and Impact Behavior of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030043
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
In this article, the effect of polycaprolactone nanofibers on the dynamic behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites is investigated. The vibratory behavior of composite beams in their pristine state (without any nano modification) and the same beams modified with polycaprolactone fibers is
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In this article, the effect of polycaprolactone nanofibers on the dynamic behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites is investigated. The vibratory behavior of composite beams in their pristine state (without any nano modification) and the same beams modified with polycaprolactone fibers is considered experimentally. The experimental results show that the incorporation of polycaprolactone nanofibers increases the damping; however, it does not significantly affect the natural frequencies. Additionally, the paper analyses the effect of polycaprolactone nanofibers on the impact behavior of glass fiber/epoxy composites. This has already been analyzed experimentally in a previous study. In this work, we developed a finite element model to simulate the impact behavior of such composite laminates. Our results confirm the conclusions done experimentally and prove that composites reinforced with polycaprolactone nanofibers are more resistant to damage and experience less damage when subjected to the same impact as the pristine composites. This study contributes to the knowledge about the dynamic behavior and the impact resistance of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites reinforced with polycaprolactone nanofibers. The findings of this study show that interleaving with polycaprolactone nanofibers can be used to control the vibrations and improve the impact damage resistance of structures made of composite mats as aircrafts or wind turbines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach: Combination of Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) and Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM)
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030042
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Automated processing techniques such as automated fiber placement (AFP) or automated tape laying (ATL) are well known nowadays. However, there is still a lot of potential for these methods to achieve better results, especially for large and complex composite structures. In this experimental
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Automated processing techniques such as automated fiber placement (AFP) or automated tape laying (ATL) are well known nowadays. However, there is still a lot of potential for these methods to achieve better results, especially for large and complex composite structures. In this experimental work, the gap effect with the Automated Fiber Placement is shown and a solution to overcome this drawback is presented. The gaps are particularly apparent on complex and/or double-curved surfaces and reduce the mechanical properties of the composite structure. In order to cover the unavoidable weak area of this effect, a plurality of fiber composite layers are laid on top of one another in order to increase the mechanical properties of components. This in turn makes the components heavier and more expensive to produce. In this new method, the gaps are detected by profile sensor after placement of the tape on the mold. The gaps are filled with the aid of a 3D printer with carbon continuous-fiber reinforced plastics. By combining the 3D printing and AFP technology, composite parts can be manufactured in a more homogeneous manner. Subsequently, the components are produced faster, cheaper and even lighter because of the avoidance of the additional layers. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Thermal Properties of Multilayer Nanocomposites Based on Halloysite Nanotubes and Biopolymers
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030041
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports a novel procedure to fabricate multilayer composite biofilms based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and sustainable polymers. Among the biopolymers, the non-ionic (hydroxypropyl cellulose) and cationic (chitosan) molecules were selected. The nanocomposites were prepared by the sequential casting of ethanol solutions
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This paper reports a novel procedure to fabricate multilayer composite biofilms based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and sustainable polymers. Among the biopolymers, the non-ionic (hydroxypropyl cellulose) and cationic (chitosan) molecules were selected. The nanocomposites were prepared by the sequential casting of ethanol solutions of hydroxypropyl cellulose and aqueous dispersions of chitosan/HNTs. The composition of the bio-nanocomposites was systematically changed in order to investigate the effect of the hydroxypropyl cellulose/HNTs ratio on the thermal properties of the films, which were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). DSC studies were conducted in the static air (oxidative atmosphere), while TG measurements were carried out under nitrogen flow (inert atmosphere). The analysis of DSC data provided the enthalpy and the temperature for the oxidative degradation of the bio-nanocomposites. These results were helpful to estimate the efficacy of the well-compacted middle layer of HNTs as a flame retardant. TG experiments were performed at a variable heating rate and the collected data were analyzed by the Friedman’s method (non-isothermal thermogravimetric approach) with the aim of studying the kinetics of the hydroxypropyl cellulose degradation in the multilayer nanocomposites. This work represents an advanced contribution for designing novel sustainable nanocomposites with excellent thermal behavior as a consequence of their peculiar multilayer structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Construction of CFRP Rod Panel Retrofit for Impacted RC Bridge Girders
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030040
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
CFRP Rod Panels (CRPs) have been recently developed to externally strengthening concrete structures in flexure, especially over multi-lane highways. Both exterior beams of a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge traversing southbound Interstate 71 (I-71) in Kentucky were damaged by an over-height truck impact. Rebars
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CFRP Rod Panels (CRPs) have been recently developed to externally strengthening concrete structures in flexure, especially over multi-lane highways. Both exterior beams of a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge traversing southbound Interstate 71 (I-71) in Kentucky were damaged by an over-height truck impact. Rebars within the bottom mat of each exterior beam were severely bent due to the impact. CRP 195, with CFRP rods 3.96-mm (0.156 in) in diameter, and having a capacity of 870 kN (195.6 kips) per 300 mm (12 in) width of panel, were selected for flexural strengthening. CRPs were chosen due to their modular construction capability permitting a smaller work crew to carry out the retrofit construction while requiring closure of only a single lane of traffic on I-71. As current codes do not address CRPs, the retrofit design was based on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines for externally bonded FRP. A load rating of the impacted girders was carried out for the as-built, damaged, and retrofitted stages. This paper details the retrofit construction of the bridge girders, highlighting the advantages of the CRPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Multilayered Composite, Obtained by Explosive Welding of High-Strength Titanium Alloys
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030039
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
One of the ways to simultaneously increase the strength and the fracture and impact toughness of structural materials is by producing multilayered materials. In this paper we discuss the structure and properties of a seven-layer composite obtained by explosive welding of high-strength titanium
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One of the ways to simultaneously increase the strength and the fracture and impact toughness of structural materials is by producing multilayered materials. In this paper we discuss the structure and properties of a seven-layer composite obtained by explosive welding of high-strength titanium alloys. The structure of the composite was characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At the interfaces between plates, formation of waves and vortices was observed. The wave formation is discussed with respect to the kinetic energy loss. The vortices consisted of a mixture of two alloys and possessed a martensitic structure comprising α′ and β phases of titanium. Localized plastic deformation occurred along the interfaces during explosive welding by formation of shear bands. The most intensive shear banding occurred in the vicinity of the upper interfaces. The local hardness at the interfaces increased due to the formation of the quenched structures. The interfaces between titanium alloys positively influenced the impact toughness of the composite, which increased in comparison with that of bulk titanium alloys by a factor of 3.5. The strength characteristics of the composite remained at the same level as that of the bulk material (1100–1200 MPa). Full article
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Open AccessReview S-N Curve Models for Composite Materials Characterisation: An Evaluative Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030038
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
S-N behavior has been a backbone of material fatigue life studies since the 19th century. Numerous S-N curve models have been produced but they have been arbitrarily chosen in numerous research works dominantly for composite materials. In this paper, they were critically reviewed
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S-N behavior has been a backbone of material fatigue life studies since the 19th century. Numerous S-N curve models have been produced but they have been arbitrarily chosen in numerous research works dominantly for composite materials. In this paper, they were critically reviewed and evaluated for capability using the following criteria: data fitting capability, efficiency of curve fitting, applicability to data sets at various stress ratios (−0.43, −1, −3, 0.1, and 10), representability of fatigue damage at failure, and satisfaction of the initial boundary condition. The S-N curve models were found to be in two categories—one for fatigue data characterization independent of stress ratio, and the other for those designed for predicting the effect of stress ratio. The models proposed by Weibull, Sendeckyj, and Kim and Zhang for fatigue data characterization appeared to have the best capabilities for experimental data obtained from Weibull for R = −1, from Sendeckyj for R = 0.1, and from Kawai and Itoh (for R = −0.43, −3, and 10). The Kim and Zhang model was found to have an advantage over the Weibull and the Sendeckyj models for representing the fatigue damage at failure. The Kohout and Vechet model was also found to have a good fitting capability but with an inherent limitation for shaping the S-N curve at some stress ratios (e.g., R = −0.43). The S-N curve models developed for predicting the effect of stress ratio were found to be relatively inferior in data fitting capability to those developed directly for fatigue data characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploration of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of CTAB-Modified MoS2/LLDPE Composites Prepared by Melt Mixing
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2030037
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) was functionalized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through a one-pot hydrothermal technique, and subsequently, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) composites were prepared. The attachment of alkyl chains of CTAB onto the MoS2 surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared
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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) was functionalized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through a one-pot hydrothermal technique, and subsequently, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) composites were prepared. The attachment of alkyl chains of CTAB onto the MoS2 surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The enhanced mechanical properties of the composites relative to neat LLDPE revealed good compatibility between MoS2 and LLDPE. The improvement in thermomechanical properties further substantiated good interaction between MoS2 and LLDPE. The thermal stability of the prepared composites showed a small decrease in onset degradation temperature. Nevertheless, the char residue formation was found to be promoted in the presence of MoS2. Full article
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