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Proceedings, 2019, UCAml 2019

13th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence UCAmI 2019

Toledo, Spain | 2–5 December 2019

Volume Editors: José Bravo, Iván González


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Open AccessArticle
Using IoT for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Education
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031001 - 14 Nov 2019
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Whereas the demand of pure Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) jobs is increasing, young people interested on STEM studies are decreasing. Among the reasons, different studies show that male and female students do not have a clear perception of engineering. Furthermore, there [...] Read more.
Whereas the demand of pure Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) jobs is increasing, young people interested on STEM studies are decreasing. Among the reasons, different studies show that male and female students do not have a clear perception of engineering. Furthermore, there is a very worrying gender gap in fields as Computer Science. The lack of role models, stereotypes and the perception of a machine and programming oriented discipline are pointed out as possible reasons. In order to reverse the situation, this paper presents an ongoing project to be conducted at the early years of high school to connect computer engineering with environment giving the students the idea that computer engineering is not only about programming and giving them real-life applications. Then, the project serves of Internet of Things (IoT) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) to propose students a real world problem to face and promote engineering vocations. One of the key aspects of the project is to be directed to young students. This increases the impact in both number of students attending the activity and the possibility that teachers accomplish actions against the gender gap before it is well established. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assisted Behavior Control with Wearable Devices: A Case Study for High-Functioning Autism
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031002 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the efficacy of wearable and mobile systems to assist people with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) in their emotional self-regulation learning process compared to the proven efficacy of this technology with individuals with autism in the low functioning area of [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the efficacy of wearable and mobile systems to assist people with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) in their emotional self-regulation learning process compared to the proven efficacy of this technology with individuals with autism in the low functioning area of the spectrum. For that purpose, we carry out an experiment with a smartwatch system (Taimun-Watch) that had been tested previously with individuals in the low-functioning range. This experiment involves two (N = 2) individuals with HFA and we compare their performance to the obtained in the prior experiment by monitoring their activity and observing their behavior during 7 and 9 labor days, respectively. The results evidence that, although it takes more time to find and customize effective self-regulation strategies in comparison to the low-functioning autism individuals due to their sharper, more complex cognitive abilities and perception, they were able to use the system to recover from stress episodes as well using the system and tolerated suitably the devices in their daily activity. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Cybersecurity Experience with Cloud Virtual-Remote Laboratories
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031003 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 424
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a great increase in the daily use of technology, to the extent that people are almost permanently connected to the Internet. In our particular case, we are interested in maintaining information security, which is known as cybersecurity. [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a great increase in the daily use of technology, to the extent that people are almost permanently connected to the Internet. In our particular case, we are interested in maintaining information security, which is known as cybersecurity. Traditional security techniques are obsolete, so it becomes necessary to acquire new practical skills with a problem-based learning methodology. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach based on virtual-remote laboratories for the creation of dynamic cybersecurity scenarios in the Cloud. Additionally, the factors that influence the intentions of the participants in the subject employed for this work have been studied. This information has been gathered by using both the answers obtained from an opinion survey and available information in the activity records of the educative labs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Specification, Design and Development of a Pyramidal Learning Platform
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031004 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The aim of this article is to design an online learning platform that allows tutoring between learners from different levels and the possibility of adding content to the fields of knowledge, using measures that assess quality. It is a versatile technological tool appropriate [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to design an online learning platform that allows tutoring between learners from different levels and the possibility of adding content to the fields of knowledge, using measures that assess quality. It is a versatile technological tool appropriate for the collaboration between different agents, both for acquiring new professional skills and for lifelong learning and formal regulated learning of education systems. Learning takes place through a two-way scheme: On the one hand, the learner is assisted through online tutoring by another highly qualified learner (that acts as a teacher). On the other hand, the same learner assists others from lower categories. In that way, their-skills will be consolidated by forcing reflection on the subject in order to explain it. The knowledge base is a wiki platform stratified in the same levels as the professional and training categories. This platform features evaluation and accounting modules for tutorials and contributions to the content of the wiki. The assignment of several disciples of a given level to each tutor of the superior level makes possible an exponential expansion that is of great interest for using the pyramidal school in projects of solidarity cooperation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Improving the Teaching of Mathematics through Robotics
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031005 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
In our day to day, technology and robotics are increasingly present. Currently, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are undergoing a vertiginous development and this is affecting practically all fields of our society and education is no exception. On the other hand, the incorporation [...] Read more.
In our day to day, technology and robotics are increasingly present. Currently, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are undergoing a vertiginous development and this is affecting practically all fields of our society and education is no exception. On the other hand, the incorporation of robotics in the classroom aims to promote learning experiences where students acquire and develop skills to solve specific problems, which allow them to acquire new knowledge and give answers to the changing environment of today’s world. This article presents the progress in the development of a project where robotics is implemented for the teaching of mathematics in preschool and first grade students; three public schools were selected for this purpose, and a series of playful educational activities were developed, using low cost robotic tools. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Applying Pedagogical Usability for Designing a Mobile Learning Application that Support Reading Comprehension
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031006 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The pedagogical usability is an important characteristic of applications that support learning as it relates to the added value students perceive while using it for learning. A good pedagogical usability means that an application has more chances to be accepted and used by [...] Read more.
The pedagogical usability is an important characteristic of applications that support learning as it relates to the added value students perceive while using it for learning. A good pedagogical usability means that an application has more chances to be accepted and used by the students thus raising the possibilities that students actually will learn with it. However important, this concept tends to be neglected by many authors. In this work we show how this concept can be applied to evaluate an application by presenting a real example of an application that has been re-designed to improve its usability, thus showing how pedagogical usability can be operationalized to be applied in general. The application shown in this work is called RedCoMulApp (Reading Collaborative Multiple-option Application) and its goal is to raise the reading comprehension ability of 12th grade high school students. In order to capture the pedagogical usability, we used 12 metrics to design a questionnaire with 26 questions to be answered with a 5-point Likert-scale, plus two open-ended questions to capture aspects that were positively valued, and those that should be improved. The results for the pedagogical usability allow us to validate that the design of the application was perceived by the students as pedagogically useful to learning about reading comprehension. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Teaching Scrum Using Gamification
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031007 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Teaching Scrum is a complex task in an academic setting. However, it is even more complex when it is taught in an industrial setting. This paper presents our experiences in the implementation of two different Scrum training workshop for workers. We have evaluated [...] Read more.
Teaching Scrum is a complex task in an academic setting. However, it is even more complex when it is taught in an industrial setting. This paper presents our experiences in the implementation of two different Scrum training workshop for workers. We have evaluated and improved these workshops over the past two years. More than 450 trainees with little or no background on Scrum receive the workshop. Furthermore, we present the implementation of three educational devices that automate activities in the context of this workshop. The automation aims to liberate some operative charge from the trainer to allow them to focus on the learning points and explanations of the activities rather than keeping track of the results of the participants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Supporting Data Structures Visualization for Teachers and Learners
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031008 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Teachers of first courses in Computing face the problem of making slides showing data structures. Students must also show them in their assignments. Drawing them may not be the best choice. The Data Structures (DSTR) language proposed here is intended as an easy-to-use [...] Read more.
Teachers of first courses in Computing face the problem of making slides showing data structures. Students must also show them in their assignments. Drawing them may not be the best choice. The Data Structures (DSTR) language proposed here is intended as an easy-to-use tool to describe those structures for visualization. A preliminary evaluation of a tool to interpret DSTR statements shows users’ acceptance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Blockchain-Based Ubiquitous Transport and Logistics Monitoring System
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031009 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Logistics and transport have become an increasingly important topic in recent years. In this kind of scenario, being able to offer added value to users means an important improvement in the services offered by the different companies. Different actors take part in the [...] Read more.
Logistics and transport have become an increasingly important topic in recent years. In this kind of scenario, being able to offer added value to users means an important improvement in the services offered by the different companies. Different actors take part in the process of sending, transportation and collection of the different products through roads, ports and airports. During this process different aspects of security must be taken into account, since an error in one of them can cause major problems for public health, nature or even the economy of a country. With all this in mind, this work proposes a new system that allows us, through the use of wireless technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification, Global Positioning System, Wi-Fi Direct and mobile communication technologies, to automate the process of authentication and tracking of different products and goods. The proposed scheme allows through the use of the cloud the creation of a ubiquitous communications system for monitoring, control and even automation of repositioning orders automatically. In addition, the use of a system based on blockchain allows to carry out the whole process in an optimal way that guarantees the privacy and immutability of the data referring to the transports and merchandise. This work allows to reduce costs and improve the quality of the processes of sending, transport and reception of products for the different companies involved in the supply chain. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Toward Precision Rehabilitation for Neurological Diseases: Data-Driven Approach to Exergame Personalization
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031010 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Physical rehabilitation of patients affected by neurological diseases is currently an unmet clinical need due to the high cost of health systems and the impact that rehabilitation has on patients and their families. This paper introduces an approach based on the idea of [...] Read more.
Physical rehabilitation of patients affected by neurological diseases is currently an unmet clinical need due to the high cost of health systems and the impact that rehabilitation has on patients and their families. This paper introduces an approach based on the idea of precision rehabilitation, where personalization of the physical rehabilitation for each patient and accessibility to technological tools that support it are pursued. A general architecture that contemplates functional modules related to multiple work areas and different roles is proposed. One of these modules is related to gamification and delves into the design and development of exergames, defined from a general data model, in order to increase the level of patient motivation when exercising. The paper discusses the creation and evaluation of an exergame designed for the rehabilitation of lower limbs. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Connected Health Living Lab
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031011 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The school of computing, in collaboration with the institute of nursing and health research and the school of engineering, recently established the connected health living lab (CH:LL) at Ulster University. CH:LL offers a dedicated environment to support user and clinical engagement, access to [...] Read more.
The school of computing, in collaboration with the institute of nursing and health research and the school of engineering, recently established the connected health living lab (CH:LL) at Ulster University. CH:LL offers a dedicated environment to support user and clinical engagement, access to state-of-the-art technology to assess usability and interaction with innovative technologies, in addition to being a dedicated environment to record user behaviours with new connected health solutions. The creation of such a dedicated environment offers a range of benefits to support multi-disciplinary research in the area of connected health. This paper illustrates the design, development, and implementation of CH:LL, including a description of the various technologies associated with the living lab at Ulster University. To conclude, the paper highlights how these resources have been used to date within various research projects. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Improving Packaging Design Using Virtual Reality in the Market Research Process
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031012 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Market research is important because every company wants to stand out from their competitors. However, there are well-known weaknesses of traditional market research methods. This research presents a virtual reality system that aims to improve the quality of the data collected in marketing [...] Read more.
Market research is important because every company wants to stand out from their competitors. However, there are well-known weaknesses of traditional market research methods. This research presents a virtual reality system that aims to improve the quality of the data collected in marketing research. The system was designed and developed using Human–Computer Interaction techniques like iterative design, storyboards and prototypes. One hundred and twenty eight participants were involved in this research. Thirty five computer science graduate students, and twelve marketing professors validated the idea through a storyboard. Adjectives like innovative, useful and interesting were used by the participants to refer to the idea presented. Furthermore, eighty one marketing graduate students validated the prototype’s user experience and usability using the AttrakDiff survey. Unquestionably, 100% of the participants agreed that the prototype could help improve market studies of product packaging design. In addition, 99% of the participants said that they would use the prototype when executing market research of product packaging design. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
FLEXEHR: Proposal of a Platform for Interoperability between Information Systems Based on Electronic Medical Records in Panama
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031013 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 396
Abstract
The existing technologies, systems, or models in the hospital system, in certain aspects have, in terms of integrity, difficulties in carrying out an adequate, systematic, and automated record of patient data. To this end, the electronic health records (EHR) have been designed to [...] Read more.
The existing technologies, systems, or models in the hospital system, in certain aspects have, in terms of integrity, difficulties in carrying out an adequate, systematic, and automated record of patient data. To this end, the electronic health records (EHR) have been designed to provide updated information to the entire health system. This document is one of the most important that exists within the hospital system throughout the country, and its main objective is the care, treatment, and monitoring of peoples’ health in a simple and conceptualized way. This article proposes the design of a flexible electronic health record system (FLEXEHR), integrating generic systems and totally flexible, based on web services so that different hospital information systems can be interconnected, thus creating a patient data gateway in an orderly and structured way, considering its availability, confidentiality, and integrity. In Panama, existing health systems have the disadvantage that they are not interoperable, which generates duplication of EHR according to the type of health entity visited. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Standardized Questionnaires for User Experience Evaluation: A Systematic Literature Review
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031014 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Standardized questionnaires are one of the methods used to evaluate User Experience (UX). Standardized questionnaires are composed of an invariable group of questions that users answer themselves after using a product or system. They are considered reliable and economical to apply. The standardized [...] Read more.
Standardized questionnaires are one of the methods used to evaluate User Experience (UX). Standardized questionnaires are composed of an invariable group of questions that users answer themselves after using a product or system. They are considered reliable and economical to apply. The standardized questionnaires most recognized for UX evaluation are AttrakDiff, UEQ, and meCUE. Although the structure, format, and content of each of the questionnaires are known in detail, there is no systematic literature review (SLR) that categorizes the uses of these questionnaires in primary studies. This SLR presents the eligibility protocol and the results obtained by reviewing 946 papers from four digital databases, of which 553 primary studies were analyzed in detail. Different characteristics of use were obtained, such as which questionnaire is used more extensively, in which geographical context, and the size of the sample used in each study, among others. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Balancing Timing and Accuracy Requirements in Human Activity Recognition Mobile Applications
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031015 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Timing requirements are present in many current context-aware and ambient intelligent applications. These kinds of applications usually demand a timing response according to needs dealing with context changes and user interactions. The current work introduces an approach that combines knowledge-driven and data-driven methods [...] Read more.
Timing requirements are present in many current context-aware and ambient intelligent applications. These kinds of applications usually demand a timing response according to needs dealing with context changes and user interactions. The current work introduces an approach that combines knowledge-driven and data-driven methods to check these requirements in the area of human activity recognition. Such recognition is traditionally based on machine learning classification algorithms. Since these algorithms are highly time consuming, it is necessary to choose alternative approaches when timing requirements are tight. In this case, the main idea consists of taking advantage of semantic ontology models that allow maintaining a level of accuracy during the recognition process while achieving the required response times. The experiments performed and their results in terms of checking such timing requirements along with keeping acceptable recognition levels confirm this idea as shown in the final section of the work. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Enhancing the Children’s Learning Experience of Mexican Traditions through Augmented Reality
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031016 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 555
Abstract
During the “Day of the Dead” celebration in México, altars are installed to commemorate the dead in different places, such as schools’ libraries. To preserve this cultural tradition, students visit them to know about the meaning of the altars’ elements. In a similar [...] Read more.
During the “Day of the Dead” celebration in México, altars are installed to commemorate the dead in different places, such as schools’ libraries. To preserve this cultural tradition, students visit them to know about the meaning of the altars’ elements. In a similar way to museums, children can perceive altars as boring places where they should see objects passively or listen to historical accounts of the past. To address these challenges, we propose using augmented reality to make this cultural tradition a more engaging learning experience. We implemented an augmented reality (AR) prototype which recognizes the altar’s elements/objects to present narrative information through video, text, and images. We evaluated it through a within-subjects experiment to test two conditions: (A) A teacher explaining the altar (the usual method), and (B) Using the AR application. For collecting data, we used the User Engagement Scale (UES), a questionnaire to assess children’s perception about the learning experience, and observations. From twenty-nine students, only nine perceived that condition A was more engaging than B (augmenting reality). A Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test indicated a significant difference between both conditions (W = 124.5; Z = −2.012; p < 0.05). Our results helped us identify new design features in order for AR support learning experiences about this tradition, such as including narratives through multimedia. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Architecture to Design Booking Appointment Applications for the Smart Personal Assistant Alexa
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031017 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 430
Abstract
The intelligent smart assistants are becoming more interactive and helpful for everyday tasks. The Amazon Echo has potential for advanced voice interactions and as a tool for conducting complex tasks. The potential of the Amazon Echo in the area of booking appointments is [...] Read more.
The intelligent smart assistants are becoming more interactive and helpful for everyday tasks. The Amazon Echo has potential for advanced voice interactions and as a tool for conducting complex tasks. The potential of the Amazon Echo in the area of booking appointments is not being fully exploited by developers. A flexible architecture for developing appointment booking applications for the Amazon Echo was proposed. The architecture serves as guide for developers without experience working with Voice User Interfaces and saves development time by abstracting the complexity of voice interactions. A prototype skill was developed following the architecture principles and evaluated by a group of users. The skill successfully defines how an appointment booking skill should be. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Study on the Behavior of Clustering Techniques for Modeling Travel Time in Road-Based Mass Transit Systems
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031018 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 270
Abstract
In road-based mass transit systems, the travel time is a key factor affecting quality of service. For this reason, to know the behavior of this time is a relevant challenge. Clustering methods are interesting tools for knowledge modeling because these are unsupervised techniques, [...] Read more.
In road-based mass transit systems, the travel time is a key factor affecting quality of service. For this reason, to know the behavior of this time is a relevant challenge. Clustering methods are interesting tools for knowledge modeling because these are unsupervised techniques, allowing hidden behavior patterns in large data sets to be found. In this contribution, a study on the utility of different clustering techniques to obtain behavior pattern of travel time is presented. The study analyzed three clustering techniques: K-medoid, Diana, and Hclust, studying how two key factors of these techniques (distance metric and clusters number) affect the results obtained. The study was conducted using transport activity data provided by a public transport operator. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Generation of Adaptive Mobile Applications Based on Design Patterns for User Interfaces
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031019 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Generating mobile apps represents a big challenge in several areas, such as considering audience needs, adapting their user interfaces to such needs, dealing with design constraints or using different development technologies. The present work seeks to examine how design patterns can help to [...] Read more.
Generating mobile apps represents a big challenge in several areas, such as considering audience needs, adapting their user interfaces to such needs, dealing with design constraints or using different development technologies. The present work seeks to examine how design patterns can help to support the generation of this kind of adaptive mobile application. In particular, design patterns related to user interfaces are reviewed, and an ontology-based framework is proposed to manage their pattern descriptions and associated rules. Such a framework enables a more versatile and powerful organization of mobile interface items, as well as their adaptation to context changes and user requirements in specific scenarios. An example of adaptive mobile application has been developed to show the suitability of the proposed framework, and the application usability has been evaluated in terms of satisfaction, learnability, and efficiency. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Evaluating the Nao Robot in the Role of Personal Assistant: The Effect of Gender in Robot Performance Evaluation
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031020 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 408
Abstract
By using techniques such as the Wizard of Oz (WoZ) and video capture, this paper evaluated the performance of the Nao Robot in the role of a personal assistant, which was valuated alongside the impact of the assigned gender (male/female) in the perceived [...] Read more.
By using techniques such as the Wizard of Oz (WoZ) and video capture, this paper evaluated the performance of the Nao Robot in the role of a personal assistant, which was valuated alongside the impact of the assigned gender (male/female) in the perceived performance of the robot assistant. Within a sample size of 39 computer sciences students, this study assessed criteria such as: perceived enjoyment, intention to use, perceived sociability, trust, intelligence, animacy, anthropomorphism, and sympathy, utilizing testing tools such as Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Godspeed Questionnaire (GSQ). These methods identified a significant effect of the gender assigned to the robot in variables such as intelligence and sympathy. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Collaborative Modeling of Group Learning Applications Using Eclipse Technology
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031021 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The design and creation of groupware tools is a complex task that usually requires the participation of different stakeholders (software engineers, designers, etc.), either working at the same time or collaborating asynchronously. This paper describes an innovative model-driven development process to support the [...] Read more.
The design and creation of groupware tools is a complex task that usually requires the participation of different stakeholders (software engineers, designers, etc.), either working at the same time or collaborating asynchronously. This paper describes an innovative model-driven development process to support the collaborative modeling of group learning applications, as well as the Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool that technologically supports it, the Learning Collaborative Interactive Applications Tool (Learn-CIAT) graphical editor. In its development, we applied technologies integrated within the Eclipse platform. The processes and tools described in this paper supply an important contribution to systematize the design and development of these kinds of applications. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Challenges of Ethical Evaluation Models for Intelligent Assistive Technologies. An Initial Ethical Model Based on Linguistic Decision Analysis
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031022 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Some ethical evaluation models for Intelligent Assistive Technologies (IATs) have been presented in the literature. However, it has been proven that the vast majority of IATs were designed in the absence of explicit ethical values and considerations. In order to shed light on [...] Read more.
Some ethical evaluation models for Intelligent Assistive Technologies (IATs) have been presented in the literature. However, it has been proven that the vast majority of IATs were designed in the absence of explicit ethical values and considerations. In order to shed light on this problem, this paper presents a review of the literature on ethical values and considerations regarding IATs. According to this review, four challenges are identified to facilitate the evaluation of ethical models in IAT design: (i) Rational method, (ii) uncertainty evaluation process, (iii) evaluation results and aggregation process, (iv) software tool. These challenges are analyzed in order to propose an initial ethical model based on linguistic decision analysis. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Self-Adaptation of mHealth Devices: The Case of the Smart Cane Platform
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031023 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 313
Abstract
Nowadays, more than one billion people are in need of one or more assistive technologies, and this number is expected to increase beyond two billion by 2050. The majority of assistive technologies are supported by battery-operated devices like smartphones and wearables. This means [...] Read more.
Nowadays, more than one billion people are in need of one or more assistive technologies, and this number is expected to increase beyond two billion by 2050. The majority of assistive technologies are supported by battery-operated devices like smartphones and wearables. This means that battery weight is an important concern in such assistive devices because it may affect negatively its ergonomics. Saving power in these assistive devices is of utmost importance for its potential twofold benefits: extend the device life and reduce the global warming aggravated by billion of these devices. Dynamic Software Product Lines (DSPLs) are a suitable technology that supports system adaptation, in this case, to reduce energy consumption at runtime, considering contextual information and the current state of the device. However, a reduction in battery consumption could negatively affect other quality of service parameters, like response time. Therefore, it is important to trade-off battery saving and these other concerns. This work illustrates how to approach the self-adaptation of smart assistive devices by means of a DSPL-based strategy that optimizes battery consumption taking into account other QoS parameters at the same time. We illustrate our proposal with a real case study: a Smart Cane that is integrated with a DSPL platform, Tanit. Experimentation shows that it is possible to make a trade-off between different quality concerns (energy consumption and relative error). The results of the experiments allow us to conclude that the Tanit approach elongates battery duration of the Smart Cane in one day (an increase of a 6% with a relative error of 1%), so we improve the user quality of experience and reduce the energy footprint with a reasonable relative error. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
How to Enable Delay Tolerant Network Solutions for Internet of Things: From Taxonomy to Open Challenges
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031024 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) is witnessing an increasing range of application domains (industry 4.0, eHealth, smart city, etc.). Meanwhile, IoT is still facing communication challenges because of limited capabilities in computing, storage and energy constraints of smart objects. The use of Delay Tolerant [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) is witnessing an increasing range of application domains (industry 4.0, eHealth, smart city, etc.). Meanwhile, IoT is still facing communication challenges because of limited capabilities in computing, storage and energy constraints of smart objects. The use of Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) as basis for communication in IoT is promising but needs more development. In this paper, we present a literature review and a classification of DTN routing protocols. Furthermore, we survey a number of DTN solutions for IoT and propose a new taxonomy to motivate the importance of enabling DTN for IoT applications. The novelty of this classification is the focus on X-DTN category, which combines Delay Tolerant schemes with new technologies (e.g., Fog Computing). We also point out some open issues for potential Delay Tolerant IoT schemes. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Data Framework for Road-Based Mass Transit Systems Data Mining Project
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031025 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The current paradigm of intelligent transport systems (ITS) is based on the continuous observation of what is happening in the transport network and the continuous processing of data coming from these observations. This implies the handling and processing of a massive amount of [...] Read more.
The current paradigm of intelligent transport systems (ITS) is based on the continuous observation of what is happening in the transport network and the continuous processing of data coming from these observations. This implies the handling and processing of a massive amount of data, and for this reason, data mining and big data are fields increasingly used in transportation engineering. A framework to facilitate the phases of data preparation and knowledge modeling in the context of data mining projects for road-based mass transit systems is presented in this paper. To illustrate the utility of the framework, its utilization in the analysis of travel time in a road-based mass transit system is presented as a use case. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Machine Learning Methods for Inferring Interaction Design Patterns from Textual Requirements
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031026 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Ambient intelligence is one of the most exciting fields of application for pervasive, wireless, and embedded computing. However, the design and implementation of real-world systems must be conducted utilizing software engineering approaches. Some types of environments (hospitals, older adults homes, emergency scenarios, etc.) [...] Read more.
Ambient intelligence is one of the most exciting fields of application for pervasive, wireless, and embedded computing. However, the design and implementation of real-world systems must be conducted utilizing software engineering approaches. Some types of environments (hospitals, older adults homes, emergency scenarios, etc.) are particularly critical, especially in terms of the issues concerning expressing requirements, verifying and validating them, or ensuring functional correctness. To provide adequate ambient intelligence solutions, it is necessary to place special emphasis on obtaining, specifying, and documenting software requirements. To address this issue, our paper presents a model that integrates both requirements and design patterns. This is done through a natural language processing application in conjunction with other artificial intelligence algorithms. This work aims to support designers when analyzing text requirements and support design decisions. Our results were evaluated according to the cross-validated accuracy of predicting design patterns. The results obtained indicate that this approach could lead to good recommendations of design patterns, as it demonstrated an acceptable classification performance over the balanced dataset of requirements instances. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Harassment Detection Using Machine Learning and Fuzzy Logic Techniques
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031027 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Social networks, instant messaging applications, smartphones and the Internet are the main technological tools used by adolescents for communication. While they can benefit from those tools, they can also be used as a weapon for harassment. Cyberbullying is the name used for a [...] Read more.
Social networks, instant messaging applications, smartphones and the Internet are the main technological tools used by adolescents for communication. While they can benefit from those tools, they can also be used as a weapon for harassment. Cyberbullying is the name used for a current global social problem derived from harassment that uses offensive messages, which is severely affecting the youngest. Different types of software to identify and filter offensive contents have been developed in the last years. However, most of them are time consuming, not scalable and focused on very specific environments. To address this problem, we propose a mobile application for smartphones that provides a potential offensive content detection in order to determine whether a cyberbullying attack exists or not. In particular, we have developed an application that combines data pre-processing, fuzzy logic and machine learning to predict cyberbullying content. The main idea is to install a mobile application on the smartphone of a possible victim, so that it runs in the background. The system analyzes all received messages and notifications using data processing and decision-making algorithms. Finally, a fuzzy logic technique helps the system to reach a conclusion under a certain degree of imprecision. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Optimal Assignment of Augmented Reality Tasks for Edge-Based Variable Infrastructures
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031028 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
In the last few years, the number of devices connected to the Internet has increased considerably; so has the data interchanged between these devices and the Cloud, as well as energy consumption and the risk of network congestion. The problem can be alleviated [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the number of devices connected to the Internet has increased considerably; so has the data interchanged between these devices and the Cloud, as well as energy consumption and the risk of network congestion. The problem can be alleviated by reducing communication between Internet-of-Things devices and the Cloud. Recent paradigms, such as Edge Computing and Fog Computing, propose to move data processing tasks from the Cloud to nearby devices to where data is produced or consumed. One of the main challenges of these paradigms is to cope with the heterogeneity of the infrastructures where tasks can be offloaded. This paper presents a solution for the optimal allocation of computational tasks to edge devices, with the aim of minimizing the energy consumption of the overall application. The heterogeneity is represented and managed by using Feature Models, widely employed in Software Product Lines. Given the application and infrastructure configurations, our Optimal Tasks Assignment Framework generates the optimal task allocation and resources assignment. The resultant deployment represents the most energy efficient configuration at load-time, without compromising the user experience. The scalability and energy saving of the approach are evaluated in the domain of augmented reality applications. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Tracking and Separation of Smart Home Residents through Ambient Activity Sensors
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031029 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 898
Abstract
To enable independent living for people in need of care and to accommodate the increasing demand of ambulant care due to demographic changes, a multitude of systems and applications that monitor activities and health-related data based on ambient sensors commonly found in smart [...] Read more.
To enable independent living for people in need of care and to accommodate the increasing demand of ambulant care due to demographic changes, a multitude of systems and applications that monitor activities and health-related data based on ambient sensors commonly found in smart homes have been developed. When such a system is used in a multi-person household, some form of identification or separation of residents is required. Most of these systems require permanent participation in the form of body-worn sensors or a complicated supervised learning procedure which may take hours or days to set up. To resolve this, we study several unsupervised learning approaches for the separation of activity data of multiple residents recorded with ambient, binary sensors such as light barriers and contact switches. We show how various clustering methods on data from a tracking system can, under optimal conditions, separate the activity of two residents with low error rates (<2%, Rand Index of 0 . 959 ). We also show that imprecisions in the underlying tracking algorithm have a significant impact on the clustering performance and that most of these errors can be corrected by adding a single “identifying sensor area” into the environment. As a consequence, activity monitoring applications need to rely less on body-worn sensors, which may be forgotten or biometric sensors, which may be perceived as a violation of privacy. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Distributed Architecture for Acquisition and Processing of Physiological Signals
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031030 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
The increase in the number of devices equipped with physiological sensors and their low price mean that they can be used in many fields. One of these fields is health-care and home-care for the elderly or people with disabilities. The development of such [...] Read more.
The increase in the number of devices equipped with physiological sensors and their low price mean that they can be used in many fields. One of these fields is health-care and home-care for the elderly or people with disabilities. The development of such devices makes it possible to monitor their condition continuously and at all times. A continuous monitoring not only establishes an image of the user’s status, but also detects possible anomalies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a distributed architecture that allows expert analysts to access the data provided by the sensors at all times and from anywhere. This paper introduces the development and implementation of the concept of distributed architecture, focusing on the minimum requirements needed to carry it out. All the necessary modules are described for different stages: acquisition, communication and processing of physiological signals. The last stage is carried out by a machine learning system. The complete reporting and storage system is also described. Finally, the most important conclusions that have emerged during the development are reported. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
In-Home Behavioral Observation Method Employing Internet of Things Sensors for Barrier Investigation of Energy Saving Activities
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031031 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 964
Abstract
This paper proposes an in-home behavioral observation method employing Internet of Things (IoT) sensors. Behavioral change programs based on information provision approaches have begun to be employed in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the residential sector. To improve efforts to save [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an in-home behavioral observation method employing Internet of Things (IoT) sensors. Behavioral change programs based on information provision approaches have begun to be employed in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the residential sector. To improve efforts to save energy, a behavioral observation method that aims to understand the reality of users’ daily activities could be an effective approach. However, problems with existing methods include observations costs, privacy implications and the other complications regarding the specific behaviors of the person being observed. An in-home behavioral observation method employing IoT sensors is therefore proposed to both reduce costs and alleviate the privacy impact on user’s in-home activities. The use of sensor-based observation presents several relevant advantages. For example, the cost of sensor-based observation is relatively cheap compared to human-based approaches. In addition, it employs a minimum number of necessary sensors and has a relatively small impact on privacy and personal activities. These advantages imply that the proposed method could allow long-term observations targeting a number of households, thus enabling exhaustive investigations. Sensory-based observation approaches are applied to investigations of the barriers to in-home energy-saving activities with a goal of improving relevant behavioral change programs. The results showed that the in-home activities of the twenty target households were successfully observed for six weeks with various barriers having been extracted and organized. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Using Conversational Assistants and Connected Devices to Promote a Responsible Energy Consumption at Home
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031032 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Today, households worldwide are being increasingly connected. Mobile devices and embedded systems carry out many tasks supported by applications which are based on artificial intelligence algorithms with the aim of leading homes to be smarter. One of the purposes of these systems is [...] Read more.
Today, households worldwide are being increasingly connected. Mobile devices and embedded systems carry out many tasks supported by applications which are based on artificial intelligence algorithms with the aim of leading homes to be smarter. One of the purposes of these systems is to connect appliances to the power network, as well as to the internet to monitor consumption data among others. In addition, new interaction ways are emerging to manage all these systems. For example, conversational assistants which allow us to interact by voice with devices at home. In this work, we present GreenMoCA, a system to monitor energy consumption data from connected devices at home with the aim of improving sustainability aspects and reducing such energy consumption, supported by a conversational assistant. This system is able to interact with the user in a natural way, providing information of current energy use and feedback based on previous consumption measures in a Smart Home environment. Finally, we assessed GreenMoCA from a usability and user experience approach on a group of users with positive results. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Memory Retrieval in Ageing Adults through Traditional Music Genres—An Experiment Based on Electroencephalography Signals
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031033 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 323
Abstract
This paper studies the relationship between exposure to traditional musical styles and memories retrieved by Spanish ageing adults living close to the region of Murcia. The objective is to discover alterations in brain activity when memories are generated from listening to rhythms that [...] Read more.
This paper studies the relationship between exposure to traditional musical styles and memories retrieved by Spanish ageing adults living close to the region of Murcia. The objective is to discover alterations in brain activity when memories are generated from listening to rhythms that the participants heard during their youth. Brain region activation is observed after the acquisition, processing and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signals. For this, an experiment is designed, where first each participant responds to the positive and negative affect scales (PANAS) questionnaire to determine his/her affective state. Then, he/she listens to eight ad-hoc composed music pieces of varied styles (twist, swing, fandango, petenera, bolero, habanera, pasodoble and jota murciana). After listening to each composition, the participant is asked if memories have been recalled during the performance, which enables the interaction person–music style into classes “MEMORY-EVOKED” and “NO-MEMORY-EVOKED”. Lastly, after the eight music pieces, the PANAS questionnaire is given again to determine the new emotional state after being exposed to the musical styles. From this experiment, three different studies are introduced. A first within-subject study looks for significant differences in the activation of brain regions between “MEMORY-EVOKED” and “NO-MEMORY-EVOKED” classes by analyzing the EEG recordings corresponding to each complete musical piece lasting 60 s. The second within-subject study decomposes the EEG records of each musical piece into four 15 s segments, and repeats the approach. Finally, a between-subjects study determines if there are significant differences between all “MEMORY-EVOKED” and “NO-MEMORY-EVOKED” segments. The promising results, although preliminary, show that there are significant differences in terms of “MEMORY-EVOKED”/“NO-MEMORY-EVOKED” classes in the prefrontal cortex for alpha, beta, theta and gamma frequency bands by using the spectral power method. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Sensing Architecture Based on Head-Worn Inertial Sensors to Study Drivers’ Visual Patterns
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031034 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Most studies on driving behaviors use video-cameras and simulators. It involves human observers to code the video data to be later analyzed, which can be a demanding task. We propose a sensing architecture to conduct studies on driving behaviors under naturalistic conditions. It [...] Read more.
Most studies on driving behaviors use video-cameras and simulators. It involves human observers to code the video data to be later analyzed, which can be a demanding task. We propose a sensing architecture to conduct studies on driving behaviors under naturalistic conditions. It includes smart glasses and a classifier algorithm to infer the vehicle’s cockpit’s spot drawing drivers’ visual attention. Thus, our architecture facilitates annotating the collected datasets with codes corresponding to classes of the cockpit’s spots. We have collected data with the sensing architecture from 15 young drivers to study how glances duration and frequency to cockpit’s spots are correlated with driving speed. Our results suggest that the incidence of drivers’ glances at all spots is less on high-speed roads than in low-speed roads. And that even though participants limited their interaction with the audio system, this is the spot that most eye fixation demanded to interact with. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Low-Power Pedestrian Detection System on FPGA
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031035 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Pedestrian detection is one of the key problems in the emerging self-driving car industry. In addition, the Histogram of Gradients (HOG) algorithm proved to provide good accuracy for pedestrian detection. Many research works focused on accelerating HOG algorithm on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) [...] Read more.
Pedestrian detection is one of the key problems in the emerging self-driving car industry. In addition, the Histogram of Gradients (HOG) algorithm proved to provide good accuracy for pedestrian detection. Many research works focused on accelerating HOG algorithm on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) due to its low-power and high-throughput characteristics. In this paper, we present an energy-efficient HOG-based implementation for pedestrian detection system on a low-cost FPGA system-on-chip platform. The hardware accelerator implements the HOG computation and the Support Vector Machine classifier, the rest of the algorithm is mapped to software in the embedded processor. The hardware runs at 50 Mhz (lower frequency than previous works), thus achieving the best pixels processed per clock and the lower power design. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Smart Environments Design on Industrial Automated Greenhouses
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031036 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 339
Abstract
Greenhouse automation carried out with monitoring and control technologies optimizes the cultivation processes in industrial scenarios. In recent years, new trends and technologies have emerged in the agricultural sector. The application of Information and Communication Technologies has clear benefits. Embedded hardware systems development, [...] Read more.
Greenhouse automation carried out with monitoring and control technologies optimizes the cultivation processes in industrial scenarios. In recent years, new trends and technologies have emerged in the agricultural sector. The application of Information and Communication Technologies has clear benefits. Embedded hardware systems development, new communication protocols over the Internet and applied Artificial Intelligence paradigms have increased the services’ capabilities. These technologies can be installed both in new facilities and in facilities that are already functioning. This paper analyses the integration of these paradigms into automated greenhouses. An integration model is proposed and developed in the plant experimental unit installed at the University of Alicante. This unit already has an automated system that controls air conditioning, soil conditions, and irrigation, but these control subsystems are not integrated. In this work, new processing nodes with integrated data are designed to develop new detection, prediction and optimization services. These services increase the performance of the installation and create smart environments in agricultural production. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
On the Use of Fisher Vector Encoding for Voice Spoofing Detection
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031037 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Recently, the vulnerability of automatic speaker recognition systems to spoofing attacks has received significant interest among researchers. A robust speaker recognition system demands not only high recognition accuracy but also robustness to spoofing attacks. Several spoofing and countermeasure challenges have been organized to [...] Read more.
Recently, the vulnerability of automatic speaker recognition systems to spoofing attacks has received significant interest among researchers. A robust speaker recognition system demands not only high recognition accuracy but also robustness to spoofing attacks. Several spoofing and countermeasure challenges have been organized to draw attention to this problem among the speaker recognition communities. Low-level descriptors designed to detect artifacts in spoofed speech are found to be the most effective countermeasures against spoofing attacks. In this work, we used Fisher vector encoding of low-level descriptors extracted from speech signals. The idea behind Fisher vector encoding is to determine the amount of change induced by the descriptors of the signal on a background probability model which is typically a Gaussian mixture model. The Fisher vector encodes the amount of change of the model parameters to optimally fit the new- coming data. For performance evaluation of the proposed approach we carried out spoofing detection experiments on the 2015 edition of automatic speaker verification spoofing and countermeasure challenge (ASVspoof2015) and report results on the evaluation set. As baseline systems, we used the standard Gaussian mixture model and i-vector/PLDA paradigms. For a fair comparison, in all systems, Constant Q cepstral coefficient (CQCC) features were used as low-level descriptors. With the Fisher vector-based approach, we achieved an equal error rate (EER) of 0.1145% on the known attacks, 1.223% on the unknown attacks, and 0.668% on the average. Moreover, with a single decision threshold this approach yielded an EER of 1.05% on the evaluation set. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Evacuation Supporting System Based on IoT Components
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031038 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
The response to natural disasters usually requires evacuation procedures that should be followed in a quick and orderly fashion. While census data provide information on the population distribution during sleeping hours, the evacuation procedure may arrive at any moment of the day, even [...] Read more.
The response to natural disasters usually requires evacuation procedures that should be followed in a quick and orderly fashion. While census data provide information on the population distribution during sleeping hours, the evacuation procedure may arrive at any moment of the day, even when people are not at home; e.g., in their daily activities. This particular situation causes preparedness plans based on census information to become minimally effective; therefore, more dynamic and context-aware strategies are required to properly address these evacuation processes. In this paper, an evacuation supporting system, based on IoT-networked devices, is proposed to guide people to safe places or shelters once the alert of an extreme event has been issued. The system is interactive and support crowd-sensing; this allows people to upload information on the state of the routes and the shelters, thus keep an updated status of the evacuation routes. The contribution of the paper is twofold. On one side, an evolutionary algorithm is proposed to provide coverage in a breadcrumb deployment of information posts called witness units. On the other, an application based on geographical information system is presented as an intermediary between the witness units and the users; this application guides people towards safe places or shelters. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
People-as-a-Service Dilemma: Humanizing Computing Solutions in High-Efficiency Applications
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031039 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Next-generation computing solutions, such as cyber-physical systems or Industry 4.0, are focused on increasing efficiency in process execution as much as possible. Removing unproductive delays or keeping infrastructures operating at their total capacity are typical objectives in these future systems. Decoupling infrastructure providers [...] Read more.
Next-generation computing solutions, such as cyber-physical systems or Industry 4.0, are focused on increasing efficiency in process execution as much as possible. Removing unproductive delays or keeping infrastructures operating at their total capacity are typical objectives in these future systems. Decoupling infrastructure providers and service providers using Anything-as-a-Service (XaaS) paradigms is one of the most common approaches to address this challenge. However, many real scenarios not only include machines or controllers but also people and workers. In this case, deploying process execution algorithms and XaaS solutions degenerates in a People-as-a-Service scenario, which poses a critical dilemma: Can highly efficient production scenarios guarantee people’s wellbeing? In this paper, we address this problem and propose a new process execution algorithm based on a novel understanding of efficiency. In this case, a humanized efficiency definition combining traditional efficiency ratios and wellbeing indicators is used to allocate tasks and assign them to different existing workers. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, a simulation scenario including social and physical elements was built. Using this scenario, a first experimental validation was carried out. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
CLASSY: A Conversational Aware Suggestion System
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031040 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Over the last few years, pervasive systems have seen some interesting development. Nevertheless, human–human interaction can also take advantage of those systems by using their ability to perceive the surrounding environment. In this work, we have developed a pervasive system – named CLASSY [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, pervasive systems have seen some interesting development. Nevertheless, human–human interaction can also take advantage of those systems by using their ability to perceive the surrounding environment. In this work, we have developed a pervasive system – named CLASSY – that is aware of the conversational context and suggests documents potentially useful to the users based on an Information Retrieval system, and proposed a new scoring approach that uses semantics and distance based on proximity data in order to classify the relationship between tokens. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Designing a Smart Mobile Health System for Ecological Frailty Assessment in Elderly
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031041 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 355
Abstract
The increasing adoption of mobile computing technology in the health and social domains offers new possibilities, for instance, promoting active aging. Health deterioration in elderly people could be successfully assessed by monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs) through mobile technology. In particular, frailty [...] Read more.
The increasing adoption of mobile computing technology in the health and social domains offers new possibilities, for instance, promoting active aging. Health deterioration in elderly people could be successfully assessed by monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs) through mobile technology. In particular, frailty affects several dimensions (physical, psychological, and social) of human functioning, which are required to perform instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Starting from the definition of a model, this paper proposes the design of an intelligent mobile health system to assess frailty in an ecological way: to automatize the frailty assessment through wearable sensors, unobtrusively in free-living environments, and using machine learning in order to reduce the traditional efforts of clinicians assessing frailty. It supports automatic data collection from sensors and artificial intelligence analysis during the performance of real IADLs by elderly. The proposed system uses mobile/wearable devices, follows a microservices software architecture, and implements machine learning algorithms. A technical validation of the proposal is shown. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Data Exploitation Model in a Health Ecosystem to Support Formal and Informal Caregivers
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031042 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Business interactions are rarely taken into account in the early stages of development of software ecosystems in the health sector, which causes these kinds of solutions to stay as conceptual proposals or be rapidly discontinued after deployment. In the present paper, we describe [...] Read more.
Business interactions are rarely taken into account in the early stages of development of software ecosystems in the health sector, which causes these kinds of solutions to stay as conceptual proposals or be rapidly discontinued after deployment. In the present paper, we describe our approach towards the exploitation of a technological ecosystem focused on learning and knowledge management processes to develop and enhance the caregiving competences of formal and informal caregivers, both at home and in care environments. The definition of the business process has been done using the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) standard, which allows to further include the business model in the definition of the data taxonomy. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Novel Framework for the Holistic Monitoring and Analysis of Human Behaviour
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031043 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Recent technological advances have enabled the continuous and unobtrusive monitoring of human behaviour. However, most of the existing studies focus on detecting human behaviour under the limitation of one behavioural aspect, such as physical behaviour and not addressing human behaviour in a broad [...] Read more.
Recent technological advances have enabled the continuous and unobtrusive monitoring of human behaviour. However, most of the existing studies focus on detecting human behaviour under the limitation of one behavioural aspect, such as physical behaviour and not addressing human behaviour in a broad sense. For this reason, we propose a novel framework that will serve as the principal generator of knowledge on the user’s behaviour. The proposed framework moves beyond the current trends in automatic behaviour analysis by detecting and inferring human behaviour automatically, based on multimodal sensor data. In particular, the framework analyses human behaviour in a holistic approach, focusing on different behavioural aspects at the same time; namely physical, social, emotional and cognitive behaviour. Furthermore, the suggested framework investigates user’s behaviour over different periods, introducing the concept of short-term and long-term behaviours and how these change over time. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Dashboard Meta-Model for Knowledge Management in Technological Ecosystem: A Case Study in Healthcare
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031044 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 343
Abstract
Informal caregivers play an important role in healthcare systems in many countries. They have a high impact on reducing care costs related to dependent persons because their support prevents institutionalization. A technological ecosystem has been defined to support informal caregivers using psychoeducation techniques. [...] Read more.
Informal caregivers play an important role in healthcare systems in many countries. They have a high impact on reducing care costs related to dependent persons because their support prevents institutionalization. A technological ecosystem has been defined to support informal caregivers using psychoeducation techniques. This ecosystem should include a dashboard to support decision-making processes related to the wellbeing of patients and caregivers. A dashboard meta-model was used to obtain a concrete model for the presented context. This meta-model allows defining dashboards adapted to the users’ needs and specific data domains. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Representation of Joint Patterns in HD SEMG: A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031045 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Investigation of joint patterns is one of many ways to detect soft tissue pathology. Functional blockage of the joint is a common clinical term that expresses one of the most common functional disorders in the musculoskeletal system. In this paper, we focus on [...] Read more.
Investigation of joint patterns is one of many ways to detect soft tissue pathology. Functional blockage of the joint is a common clinical term that expresses one of the most common functional disorders in the musculoskeletal system. In this paper, we focus on HD SEMG signal processing with artificially induced joint blockage using reflective heel pad. Four bipolar electrodes were placed on the muscle vastus medialis and six on the muscle rectus femoris. One proband (male, 46 years) sat on the chair with the knee joint fixed at 70 flexion and hip at 120 between the pelvis and the femur, which corresponds to a relaxed sitting position. HD SEMG signals were recorded during three isometric maximum voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. The first data set of three contractions was measured without heel pad and the second and third data set with using pronation and supination heel pad respectively. Results show that stabilization of the knee is eliminated by fixing the leg in the chair and the muscle vastus medialis has only extension function without using heel pad. Thus, the contraction begins with activation of the muscle rectus femoris, which only has an extension function and then the muscle vastus medialis is added to the contraction. If we use the heel pad, the muscle vastus medialis stabilizes the knee and the contraction begins simultaneously with the musle rectus femoris. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Semi-Automated Sleep EEG Scoring with Active Learning and HMM-Based Deletion of Ambiguous Instances
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031046 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 255
Abstract
Sleep scoring is an important tool for physicians. Assigning of segments of long biomedical signal into sleep stages is, however, a very time consuming, tedious and expensive task which is performed by an expert. Automatic sleep scoring is not well accepted in clinical [...] Read more.
Sleep scoring is an important tool for physicians. Assigning of segments of long biomedical signal into sleep stages is, however, a very time consuming, tedious and expensive task which is performed by an expert. Automatic sleep scoring is not well accepted in clinical practice because of low interactivity and unacceptable error, which is often caused by inter-patient variability. This is solved by proposing a semi-automatic approach, where parts of the signal are selected for manual labeling by active learning and the resulting classifier is used for automatic labeling of the remaining signal. The active learning is disturbed by noisy ambiguous data instances caused by continuous character of the sleep stage transitions and a removal of such transitional instances from the training set prior to active learning can improve the efficiency of the method. This paper proposes to use the hidden Markov model for the detection of the transitional instances. It shows experimentally on 35 sleep EEG recordings that such a method significantly improves the semi-automatic method. A complete methodology for semi-automatic sleep scoring is proposed and evaluated, which can be better accepted as a decision support tool for sleep scoring experts. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Design and Feasibility Evaluation of Self-Reporting Application for Indoor Air Quality and Health Measures
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031047 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 405
Abstract
Indoor air quality (IAQ) plays an important role in human health as people spend the majority of their time indoors. A self-reporting application was developed to collect long-term perceived IAQ data and symptoms caused by poor IAQ immediately at the onset of symptoms. [...] Read more.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) plays an important role in human health as people spend the majority of their time indoors. A self-reporting application was developed to collect long-term perceived IAQ data and symptoms caused by poor IAQ immediately at the onset of symptoms. The feasibility of the application was tested in a real-world environment by four teachers in two school buildings for 18 weeks. The participants received two questionnaire notifications per day to answer IAQ, symptoms, productivity, stress, sleep, and pupil concentration/restlessness related questions. They were also able to report those issues any other time. During the pilot, the participants answered 569 questionnaires in the application. They found the application to be usable and useful, however, the frequency of questionnaire notifications became heavy, because the perceived IAQ did not change much. The feasibility study showed the potential of the self-reporting application to capture perceived IAQ and symptoms, promptly enabling fast reaction to possible problems in IAQ. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Tracking and Minimization of Adverse Events in the Patient Care Process while in a Hospital Emergency Service Area
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031048 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The aim of this work was to integrate and computerize into a single program the most important tasks in the process of prescription, dispensation, and administration of medication to patients during their stay in a hospital center. This will increase quality, efficiency, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to integrate and computerize into a single program the most important tasks in the process of prescription, dispensation, and administration of medication to patients during their stay in a hospital center. This will increase quality, efficiency, and safety in the care process. An interface was also developed that allows for real-time determination of the whereabouts of a patient within the emergency services unit and the implementation of solutions provided by identification technologies, such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), to calculate the location of a patient with more precision and at a reduced cost. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Performance Evaluation of CoAP and MQTT_SN in an IoT Environment
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031049 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
The fast growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has made this technology one of the most promising paradigms of recent years. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the most important challenges of the Internet of things. These networks are made up [...] Read more.
The fast growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has made this technology one of the most promising paradigms of recent years. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the most important challenges of the Internet of things. These networks are made up of devices with limited processing power, memory, and energy. The constrained nature of WSNs makes it necessary to have specific restricted protocols to work in these environments. In this paper, we present an energy consumption and network traffic study of the main IoT application layer protocols, the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), and the version of Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) for sensor networks (MQTT_SN). The simulations presented evaluate the performance of these protocols with different network configurations. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Opera.DL: Deep Learning Modelling for Photovoltaic System Monitoring
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031050 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 321
Abstract
In this paper we present Deep Learning (DL) modelling to forecast the behaviour and energy production of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Using deep learning models rather than following the classical way (analytical models of PV systems) presents an outstanding advantage: context-aware learning for [...] Read more.
In this paper we present Deep Learning (DL) modelling to forecast the behaviour and energy production of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Using deep learning models rather than following the classical way (analytical models of PV systems) presents an outstanding advantage: context-aware learning for PV systems, which is independent of the deployment and configuration parameters of the PV system, its location and environmental conditions. These deep learning models were developed within the Ópera Digital Platform using the data of the UniVer Project, which is a standard PV system that was in place for the last twenty years in the Campus of the University of Jaén (Spain). From the obtained results, we conclude that the combination of CNN and LSTM is an encouraging model to forecast the behaviour of PV systems, even improving the results from the standard analytical model. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
User Experience Comparison of Intelligent Personal Assistants: Alexa, Google Assistant, Siri and Cortana
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031051 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Natural user interfaces are becoming popular. One of the most common natural user interfaces nowadays are voice activated interfaces, particularly smart personal assistants such as Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, and Siri. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of these four smart [...] Read more.
Natural user interfaces are becoming popular. One of the most common natural user interfaces nowadays are voice activated interfaces, particularly smart personal assistants such as Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, and Siri. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of these four smart personal assistants in two dimensions: the correctness of their answers and how natural the responses feel to users. Ninety-two participants conducted the evaluation. Results show that Alexa and Google Assistant are significantly better than Siri and Cortana. However, there is no statistically significant difference between Alexa and Google Assistant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
AUDABLOK: Engaging Citizens in Open Data Refinement through Blockchain
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031052 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 337
Abstract
This work describes how open data and human computation can be brought together through blockchain to foster the collaboration of citizens on the continuous enhancement of open data portals. For that, it contributes with a set of enhancements to the widely adopted data [...] Read more.
This work describes how open data and human computation can be brought together through blockchain to foster the collaboration of citizens on the continuous enhancement of open data portals. For that, it contributes with a set of enhancements to the widely adopted data management tool Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN), to allow full audit and management of the change requests posed by citizens to datasets in open data portals. User contributions’ sustainability in time is tackled by providing rewards to users through AudaCoins, a currency that rewards citizens according to their refinement contributions, thus encouraging their continuous engagement with city co-creation activities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
3D Technologies to Acquire and Visualize the Human Body for Improving Dietetic Treatment
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031053 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 328
Abstract
This research aims to improve adherence to dietetic-nutritional treatment using state-of-the-art RGB-D sensor and virtual reality (VR) technology. Recent studies show that adherence to treatment can be improved by using multimedia technologies which impact on the body awareness of patients. However, there are [...] Read more.
This research aims to improve adherence to dietetic-nutritional treatment using state-of-the-art RGB-D sensor and virtual reality (VR) technology. Recent studies show that adherence to treatment can be improved by using multimedia technologies which impact on the body awareness of patients. However, there are no studies published to date using 3D data and VR technologies for this purpose. This paper describes a system capable of obtaining the complete 3D model of a body with high accuracy and a realistic visualization for 2D and VR devices to be used for studying the effect of 3D technologies on adherence to obesity treatment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Coordination of Speech Recognition Devices in Intelligent Environments with Multiple Responsive Devices
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031054 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Devices with oral interfaces are enabling new interesting interaction scenarios and ways of interaction in ambient intelligence settings. The use of several of such devices in the same environment opens up the possibility to compare the inputs gathered from each one of them [...] Read more.
Devices with oral interfaces are enabling new interesting interaction scenarios and ways of interaction in ambient intelligence settings. The use of several of such devices in the same environment opens up the possibility to compare the inputs gathered from each one of them and perform a more accurate recognition and processing of user speech. However, the combination of multiple devices presents coordination challenges, as the processing of one voice signal by different speech processing units may result in conflicting outputs and it is necessary to decide which is the most reliable source. This paper presents an approach to rank several sources of spoken input in multi-device environments in order to give preference to the input with the highest estimated quality. The voice signals received by the multiple devices are assessed in terms of their calculated acoustic quality and the reliability of the speech recognition hypotheses produced. After this assessment, each input is assigned a unique score that allows the audio sources to be ranked so as to pick the best to be processed by the system. In order to validate this approach, we have performed an evaluation using a corpus of 4608 audios recorded in a two-room intelligent environment with 24 microphones. The experimental results show that our ranking approach makes it possible to successfully orchestrate an increasing number of acoustic inputs, obtaining better recognition rates than considering a single input, both in clear and noisy settings. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Automatic Detection of Erratic Sensor Observations in Ami Platforms: A Statistical Approach
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031055 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 295
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of data aggregation platforms operating in heterogeneous Ambient Intelligence Environments. In these platforms, device interoperability is a challenge and erratic sensor observations are difficult to be detected. We propose ADES (Automatic Detection of Erratic Sensors), a statistical approach [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of data aggregation platforms operating in heterogeneous Ambient Intelligence Environments. In these platforms, device interoperability is a challenge and erratic sensor observations are difficult to be detected. We propose ADES (Automatic Detection of Erratic Sensors), a statistical approach to detect erratic behavior in sensors and annotate those errors in a semantic platform. To do that, we propose three binary classification systems based on statistical tests for erratic observation detection, and we validate our approach by verifying whether ADES is able to classify sensors by its observations correctly. Results show that the first two classifiers (constant and random observations) had good accuracy rates, and they were able to classify most of the samples. In addition, all of the classifiers obtained a very low false positive rate. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Character Validation Proposal for High-Speed Visual Monitoring of Expiration Codes on Beverage Cans
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031056 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Character recognizers have generally focused on printed text on paper with an emphasis on generality rather than speed. This makes the proposed algorithms not applicable in the context of the very high-speed industrial validation of expiration codes printed on the metal surface of [...] Read more.
Character recognizers have generally focused on printed text on paper with an emphasis on generality rather than speed. This makes the proposed algorithms not applicable in the context of the very high-speed industrial validation of expiration codes printed on the metal surface of a can. The extreme demands of speed and the adverse effects of lighting and movement, among other things, make it necessary to develop an original and specific strategy. The strategy presented in this paper first selects which of the segmented shapes of a printed can are the best candidates for comparison with expected characters. This is followed by a technique based on the comparison of templates (templates matching), which we call “morphologies”, and are represented as bitmaps to take advantage of the hardware capabilities of general-purpose processors. The use of templates has the advantage of avoiding the construction of a feature vector. In an acquisition test in a real industrial plant, we have been able to successfully treat 438 cans in 44 s, with only one validation error in one character, achieving a compromise between speed and quality that is sufficient for industrial validation in the conditions cited. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Smart Education: A Review and Future Research Directions
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031057 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Research and development often move forward based on buzzwords. New terms are coined to summarize new developments, often with several interpretations and without a formal definition. The term Smart Education has been coined to represent a move forward in technology-enhanced education, but what [...] Read more.
Research and development often move forward based on buzzwords. New terms are coined to summarize new developments, often with several interpretations and without a formal definition. The term Smart Education has been coined to represent a move forward in technology-enhanced education, but what is behind it? Does it represent something essentially different from the educational technologies used before? In this paper, we do a systematic literature review to understand how this term is used, what the technologies behind it are, and what promises are made. We conclude that although the term is fuzzy, there are indeed several developments available today that can make educational technologies much more adapted to the learner and therefore underpin the learning in a smarter way. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Visualization Design Dimensions for Data Science in Tourism and Transport
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031058 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 392
Abstract
A taxonomic proposal based on dimensions and items that reflects the preferences in Data Science visualizations for domain users in tourism and road transport is presented. The needs transmitted by domain users are grouped into dimensions esthetics, ecosystem dominance, and interaction. For each [...] Read more.
A taxonomic proposal based on dimensions and items that reflects the preferences in Data Science visualizations for domain users in tourism and road transport is presented. The needs transmitted by domain users are grouped into dimensions esthetics, ecosystem dominance, and interaction. For each item, the bibliographic review necessary to align user and ICT’s (Information and Communications Technology) concerns is carried out. In this proposal, the main conclusion focuses on the need for the visualization environments in Data Sciences to be designed and integrated for each domain, allowing users to interact transparently by guiding their tasks. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Angular Moment and Corrective Forces in Human Walking Processes: Sensor and Actuator Analysis
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031059 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Taking into account the dynamics of a human body in its daily movement, one can study the forces that are generated in its variations with respect to a normal walk. These forces can be reduced, generating an opposite force through some device if [...] Read more.
Taking into account the dynamics of a human body in its daily movement, one can study the forces that are generated in its variations with respect to a normal walk. These forces can be reduced, generating an opposite force through some device if one takes into account that their magnitude is not very large in some cases. This paper outlines results obtained from the sensorization of a human body in uniform movement, and changes in angular velocity and moment of a force produced by different inflections in normal movement. The aim was to calculate the moment of a force thanks to the measured angular velocity, and then study the opposition to this movement by using the produced reaction by the conservation of angular moment (gyroscopic effect). The study was carried out through the positioning of different sensors that were placed to analyze points of interest of the movement. In this study, we were able to appreciate changes in the variables to study up to two orders of magnitude at the generated moment, when the movement went from being uniform, which is equivalent to a walk, to the situation of an inflection, for example, a fall or bending over. With the collected data, the prediction of a fall could be studied and perhaps avoided. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recognition of Gait Activities Using Acceleration Data from A Smartphone and A Wearable Device
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031060 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Activity recognition is an important task in many fields, such as ambient intelligence, pervasive healthcare, and surveillance. In particular, the recognition of human gait can be useful to identify the characteristics of the places or physical spaces, such as whether the person is [...] Read more.
Activity recognition is an important task in many fields, such as ambient intelligence, pervasive healthcare, and surveillance. In particular, the recognition of human gait can be useful to identify the characteristics of the places or physical spaces, such as whether the person is walking on level ground or walking down stairs in which people move. For example, ascending or descending stairs can be a risky activity for older adults because of a possible fall, which can have more severe consequences than if it occurred on a flat surface. While portable and wearable devices have been widely used to detect Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), few research works in the literature have focused on characterizing only actions of human gait. In the present study, a method for recognizing gait activities using acceleration data obtained from a smartphone and a wearable inertial sensor placed on the ankle of people is introduced. The acceleration signals were segmented based on the automatic detection of strides, also called gait cycles. Subsequently, a feature vector of the segmented signals was extracted, which was used to train four classifiers using the Naive Bayes, C4.5, Support Vector Machines, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithms. Data was collected from seven young subjects who performed five gait activities: (i) going down an incline, (ii) going up an incline, (iii) walking on level ground, (iv) going down stairs, and (v) going up stairs. The results demonstrate the viability of using the proposed method and technologies in ambient assisted living contexts. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Potential of Open Data to Automatically Create Learning Resources for Smart Learning Environments
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031061 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Smart Education requires bridging formal and informal learning experience. However, how to create contextualized learning resources that support this bridging remains a problem. In this paper, we propose to exploit the open data available in the Web to automatically create contextualized learning resources. [...] Read more.
Smart Education requires bridging formal and informal learning experience. However, how to create contextualized learning resources that support this bridging remains a problem. In this paper, we propose to exploit the open data available in the Web to automatically create contextualized learning resources. Our preliminary results are promising, as our system creates thousands of learning resources related to formal education concepts and physical locations in the student’s local municipality. As part of our future work, we will explore how to integrate these resources into a Smart Learning Environment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Monitoring Older Adults’ Health Information Using Mobile Technology: A Systematic Literature Review
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031062 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Mobile health technologies are becoming more common to assist older people in independent living and self-management of illnesses. Although many mobile health technologies can be beneficial to older users, there remains a dearth of evidence-informed guidance to develop such technologies. The objective of [...] Read more.
Mobile health technologies are becoming more common to assist older people in independent living and self-management of illnesses. Although many mobile health technologies can be beneficial to older users, there remains a dearth of evidence-informed guidance to develop such technologies. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine which types of mobile health technologies have been used to monitor health in older adults, (2) determine whether these devices allow older users to visualize their data and to complement automatically gathered sensor information with subjective information or data from other sources, and (3) determine which health information about older adults is usually monitored. We performed a focused systematic literature review of the ACM Digital Library database, including papers specifically assessing the implementation of mobile health technologies (e.g., wearables), and other mobile computerized equipment for independent older adults. Our results show that the most commonly used device is the smartphone, that the monitored data is usually acceleration, heart rate and position, and that only 30.4% of studies evaluate devices for older adults with older adult participants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Continuous Monitoring of the Ambient Factors via ε-Smooth Support Vector Regression
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031063 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Thanks to the advances of the Internet of Things (IoTs), more and more wireless sensor networks applications have been realized. One of the fundamental but crucial applications is the continuous monitoring of environmental factors including temperature, humidity, illumination, etc. We develop a nonlinear [...] Read more.
Thanks to the advances of the Internet of Things (IoTs), more and more wireless sensor networks applications have been realized. One of the fundamental but crucial applications is the continuous monitoring of environmental factors including temperature, humidity, illumination, etc. We develop a nonlinear regression model which takes spatial and temporal information into account to construct a globally three-dimensional heat map for a closed space based on very sparse sensor deployment. However, fitting the whole-space heat map with a very limited number of sensor observations gives a very poor estimation when we use a nonlinear model. We call it the coverage hole problem. We utilize the uniform experimental design which is well known in industrial statistics to allocate the synthetic sensors. We estimate those synthetic sensor readings on the basis of linear model locally. We then apply ε -SSVR, a nonlinear support vector regression model to fit the globally three-dimensional heat map by combining real sensor and synthetic sensor readings. The numerical results demonstrate our proposed model can enhance the accuracy significantly. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Activity Monitoring of People with Dementia in a Cognitive Stimulation Intervention
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031064 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Commercial activity trackers are increasingly being used to support healthcare research. While their accuracy has been questioned, they do provide more precise information on some parameters relevant to wellbeing than self-report, such as steps walked and sleep duration. Few studies, however, report on [...] Read more.
Commercial activity trackers are increasingly being used to support healthcare research. While their accuracy has been questioned, they do provide more precise information on some parameters relevant to wellbeing than self-report, such as steps walked and sleep duration. Few studies, however, report on the use of these devices with people with dementia. We report the design and preliminary results of a cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia in which participants were monitored using activity trackers. We describe the strategies implemented to promote adoption and adherence of these devices, some of the issues we faced in the study and recommendations for future studies. An analysis of the results show that these devices are useful to show the differences in patterns of activity of the participants and were able to track differences in behavior in the days when the therapy intervention has held. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
User Experience Evaluation of Voice Interfaces: A Preliminary Study of Games for Seniors and the Elderly
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031065 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Maintaining high cognitive activity is vital for the mental health of seniors. Taking part in leisure activities is an exciting and gratifying way to accomplish this, with video games having several advantages for this use. The present study is a work in progress [...] Read more.
Maintaining high cognitive activity is vital for the mental health of seniors. Taking part in leisure activities is an exciting and gratifying way to accomplish this, with video games having several advantages for this use. The present study is a work in progress to develop different digital games with natural voice interfaces that can be easily and pleasantly used by older adults to stimulate their cognitive needs. A Wizard of Oz with two different games was developed to evaluate the user experience perceived when using such applications. Positive results enhance the notion that using digital games powered by natural voice interfaces may appeal to the elderly, while stimulating their cognitive processes, thus fortifying their mental health. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Redesign and Evaluation of AffectiVest, a Wearable Tool to Convey Affection Gestures between Geographically-Separated Grandparents and Grandchildren
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031066 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Motivated by the need to improve communication between grandparents and grandchildren who are geographically separated, this paper presents the redesign and evaluation of AffectiVest, a wearable affective device that allows the transmission of affection gestures between grandparents and grandchildren. The redesign consisted of [...] Read more.
Motivated by the need to improve communication between grandparents and grandchildren who are geographically separated, this paper presents the redesign and evaluation of AffectiVest, a wearable affective device that allows the transmission of affection gestures between grandparents and grandchildren. The redesign consisted of modifying the architecture of AffectiVest to allow wireless connectivity and mobility, and modifying the implementation of the stimuli that represent the affection gestures to make them more similar to the real ones. AffectiVest was evaluated by 10 grandparent-grandchild pairs who interacted using the device for several minutes, actually wearing the device while communicating in a separated environment. The results of the Software Usability Scale (SUS) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on-exit questionnaires, as well as the questionnaire of fidelity of the affection gestures, allowed us to establish that the redesign of the device was successful, since it was perceived by its users as having a high usability, and as being adequate and intuitive at evoking all the affection gestures as real enough. In addition, it allowed identifying a set of specific recommendations from the group of target users regarding the adjustment of the vest and the location of the actuators considering the differences in the size of the users, and the possibility of using the vest while carrying out the activities of daily living. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Quality and Ergonomic Heart Monitoring Device with User-Friendly App for Telemedicine
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031067 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 325
Abstract
During recent decades, the elderly population has grown rapidly, and the number of patients with chronic heart-related diseases has exploded. Many of them (e.g., congestive heart failure, some types of arrhythmia) require close medical supervision, imposing a major burden on healthcare resources in [...] Read more.
During recent decades, the elderly population has grown rapidly, and the number of patients with chronic heart-related diseases has exploded. Many of them (e.g., congestive heart failure, some types of arrhythmia) require close medical supervision, imposing a major burden on healthcare resources in most western economies. Telemedicine is clearly emerging as a viable solution for health care to become sustainable by enabling medical monitoring at home without direct professional help, which would greatly reduce assistance costs. Specifically, continuous or frequent arterial blood pressure (ABP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring are important tools in the follow-up of many of these patients. A multipurpose (e.g. ABP and ECG) monitoring device that requires no medical assistance is highly desirable and would be of great value to patients. One such solution is presented and validated in this work. This paper presents the details of the proposed remote heart self-monitoring system, the testing procedure, and test results. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Close2U: An App for Monitoring Cancer Patients with a Gamification System to Improve the Engagement
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031068 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 369
Abstract
Nowadays, gamification offers several advantages in order to motivate a change in the behavior towards health and wellness. Although it is a relatively new trend, many fields have already realized its potential, and those related to health have also begun to make use [...] Read more.
Nowadays, gamification offers several advantages in order to motivate a change in the behavior towards health and wellness. Although it is a relatively new trend, many fields have already realized its potential, and those related to health have also begun to make use of it. This paper introduces an application developed to improve patient monitoring and motivation through the use of gamification. We have applied the mechanics and dynamics of games in a non-game context, such as the introduction of data for health monitoring, in order to attract the patient. With the use of gamification, we make the introduction of data less tedious and, in addition, increase levels of motivation, as a further benefit. In this work we have conducted a user study aimed at evaluating the usability of gamification. We also studied the resources that encourage patients to use the application and how to increase their motivation and satisfaction. The results show that the app is easy to use. Second, they show that we implemented a scalable and self-recursive system. Finally, these results indicate that our system for resources sharing is a system in which patients feel comfortable when sharing and receiving those resources and they encourage us for further developments and studies based on the feedback received. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Software for Preprocessing Experimental BSPM Signals for a CRT Study
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031069 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 357
Abstract
In this text, we describe the developed system for Body Surface Potential Mapping (BSPM) signals preprocessing and basic processing. The BSPM is based on multichannel ECG measurement with up to hundreds of electrodes in a specific grid on the body surface. The project [...] Read more.
In this text, we describe the developed system for Body Surface Potential Mapping (BSPM) signals preprocessing and basic processing. The BSPM is based on multichannel ECG measurement with up to hundreds of electrodes in a specific grid on the body surface. The project is focused on the signals of patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). These patients are indicated for CRT because of heart failure, and it is necessary to realize the difference in electrical and mechanical heart activity of such patients. The presented software is designed according to the specific conditions of the issue, with respect to minimization of the morphology distortion during filtering and specificity during signal delineation (finding of ECG characteristic points). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Cognitive Load Using EEG when Interacting with Mobile Devices
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031070 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
The study of cognitive responses and processes while using applications is a critical field in human–computer interaction. This paper aims to determine the mental effort required for different typical tasks with smartphones. Mental effort is typically associated with the concept of cognitive load, [...] Read more.
The study of cognitive responses and processes while using applications is a critical field in human–computer interaction. This paper aims to determine the mental effort required for different typical tasks with smartphones. Mental effort is typically associated with the concept of cognitive load, and has been studied by analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Thus, this paper shows the results of analyzing the cognitive load of a set of characteristic tasks on smartphones. To determine the set of tasks to analyze, this paper proposes a taxonomy of smartphone-based actions defined after considering the related proposals in the literature and identifying the significant characteristics of the tasks to classify them. The EEG data was obtained through an experiment with real users doing tasks from the aforementioned taxonomy. The results show significant differences in the cognitive load of each task category and identify those tasks that involve a higher degree of mental effort. The results will be the starting point of the M4S project that aims to contribute to the early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment through monitoring everyday dual-tasking in terms of interaction with smartphones. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Affective Embodied Agents and Their Effect on Decision Making
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031071 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Embodied agents, such as avatars and social robots, are increasingly incorporating a capacity to enact affective states and recognize the mood of their interlocutor. This influences how users perceive these technologies and how they interact with them. We report on an experiment aimed [...] Read more.
Embodied agents, such as avatars and social robots, are increasingly incorporating a capacity to enact affective states and recognize the mood of their interlocutor. This influences how users perceive these technologies and how they interact with them. We report on an experiment aimed at assessing perceived empathy and fairness among individuals interacting with avatars and robots when compared to playing against a computer or a fellow human being. Twenty-one individuals were asked to play the ultimatum game, playing the role of a responder against another person, a computer, an avatar and a robot for a total of 32 games (8 per condition). We hypothesize that affective expressions by avatars and robots influence the emotional state of the users, leading them to irrational behavior by rejecting unfair proposals. We monitored galvanic skin response and heart rate of the players in the period when the offer was made by the proposer until the decision was announced by the responder. Our results show that most fair offers were accepted while most unfair offers were rejected. However, participants rejected more very unfair offers made by people and computers than by the avatars or robots. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Convolutional Neural Network-Based Method for Human Movement Patterns Classification in Alzheimer’s Disease
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031072 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 405
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitutes a neurodegenerative pathology that presents mobility disorders as one of its earliest symptoms. Current smartphones integrate accelerometers that can be used to collect mobility data of Alzheimer’s patients. This paper describes a method that processes these accelerometer data and [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitutes a neurodegenerative pathology that presents mobility disorders as one of its earliest symptoms. Current smartphones integrate accelerometers that can be used to collect mobility data of Alzheimer’s patients. This paper describes a method that processes these accelerometer data and a convolutional neural network (CNN) that classifies the stage of the disease according to the mobility patterns of the patient. The method is applied in a case study with 35 Alzheimer’s patients, in which a classification success rate of 91% was obtained. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A LoRa-Based Communication System for Coordinated Response in an Earthquake Aftermath
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031073 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
The response conducted by emergency units after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, has to be coordinated, fast, and efficient in order to rescue and care for the victims, keeping all the population—and the units themselves—safe amidst the usual chaos. Outages in wireless networks, [...] Read more.
The response conducted by emergency units after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, has to be coordinated, fast, and efficient in order to rescue and care for the victims, keeping all the population—and the units themselves—safe amidst the usual chaos. Outages in wireless networks, as well as fiber- or copper-based landline and Internet connections, are to be expected in these situations, so alternative communication solutions must be considered. To contribute in this duty, we propose a communication system that uses the LoRaWAN architecture to allow citizens to report their status to emergency units and public authorities with simple messages and interaction mechanisms. The purpose of this system is to keep people and first responders connected, and thus improve the capability to coordinate the evacuation activities. To analyze the system performance and capabilities, we model a district of Coquimbo, a harbor town in Chile that houses approximately 28,000 people in 7500 homes, and simulate it with a baseline configuration. We explore several settings for the system in order to determine its characteristics and limitations, to better understand its scalability and portability to other environments, and to outline the remaining challenges to make the system attain specific performance guarantees. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Predicting Health Care Costs Using Evidence Regression
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031074 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 329
Abstract
People’s health care cost prediction is nowadays a valuable tool to improve accountability in health care. In this work, we study if an interpretable method can reach the performance of black-box methods for the problem of predicting health care costs. We present an [...] Read more.
People’s health care cost prediction is nowadays a valuable tool to improve accountability in health care. In this work, we study if an interpretable method can reach the performance of black-box methods for the problem of predicting health care costs. We present an interpretable regression method based on the Dempster-Shafer theory, using the Evidence Regression model and a discount function based on the contribution of each dimension. Optimal parameters are learned using gradient descent. The k-nearest neighbors’ algorithm was also used to speed up computations. With the transparency of the evidence regression model, it is possible to create a set of rules based on a patient’s vicinity. When making a prediction, the model gives a set of rules for such a result. We used Japanese health records from Tsuyama Chuo Hospital to test our method, which includes medical checkups, exam results, and billing information from 2016 to 2017. We compared our model to an Artificial Neural Network and Gradient Boosting method. Our results showed that our transparent model outperforms the Artificial Neural Network and Gradient Boosting with an R 2 of 0 . 44 . Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Use of Robots for Play by Children with Cerebral Palsy
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031075 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Free play is of great benefit for children’s physical and cognitive development, especially for younger ages. However, children with motor restrictions cannot engage in free play like their peers because they face strong challenges to manipulate and interact with their environment. This lack [...] Read more.
Free play is of great benefit for children’s physical and cognitive development, especially for younger ages. However, children with motor restrictions cannot engage in free play like their peers because they face strong challenges to manipulate and interact with their environment. This lack of play opportunities may hinder proper cognitive development, along with several other problems such as decreased social skills or low self-esteem. In recent years several studies have discussed the use of robots to provide children with motor disabilities more opportunities for free play. This paper gives an overview of recent studies regarding the use of robots for play by children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). We also propose a work framework composed by a bi-manual articulated robot to further expand those children’s play opportunities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Augmented Reality for Emergency Situations in Buildings with the Support of Indoor Localization
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031076 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Augmented reality is showing a continuous evolution due to the increasing number of smart glasses that are being used for different applications (e.g. training, marketing, industry, risk avoidance, etc.). In this paper, we present an implementation that uses augmented reality (AR) for emergency [...] Read more.
Augmented reality is showing a continuous evolution due to the increasing number of smart glasses that are being used for different applications (e.g. training, marketing, industry, risk avoidance, etc.). In this paper, we present an implementation that uses augmented reality (AR) for emergency situations in smart buildings by means of indoor localization through the use of sub-GHz beacons. This also includes the mapping of emergency elements in the three-dimensional building, together with some example cases. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Where Google Maps Doesn’t Go: Mobility Decisions of People in Underserved Neighborhoods
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031077 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 550
Abstract
There are currently many applications to assist in navigating urban spaces. However, in underserved regions where even the most essential urban infrastructure is lacking, these applications are not appropriate either because the zone has not been properly mapped, or because important information such [...] Read more.
There are currently many applications to assist in navigating urban spaces. However, in underserved regions where even the most essential urban infrastructure is lacking, these applications are not appropriate either because the zone has not been properly mapped, or because important information such as informal routes or semantic knowledge about the region is not considered. Based on a contextual study, we implemented a system to run crowdsensing campaigns with the neighbors and document their mobility decisions; the system also included functionalities to map and analyze the collected geolocated information. An important finding was that the actual routes taken during their daily mobility differ from the routes suggested by typical navigation applications. This also helped to inform the design of a system to provide navigation aids considering the specific context of the region. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Mastering Interactions with Internet of Things Platforms through the IoTVar Middleware
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031078 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The rising popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to a plethora of highly heterogeneous, geographically dispersed devices. In recent years, IoT platforms have been used to provide a variety of services to applications such as device discovery, context management, and [...] Read more.
The rising popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to a plethora of highly heterogeneous, geographically dispersed devices. In recent years, IoT platforms have been used to provide a variety of services to applications such as device discovery, context management, and data analysis. However, the lack of standardization currently means that each IoT platform comes with its own abstractions, APIs, and interactions. As a consequence, programming the interactions between an application and an IoT platform is often time consuming, error prone, and depends on the developers’ level of knowledge about the IoT platform. To address these issues, we propose offering to application developers on the client side the possibility to declare variables that are automatically mapped to sensors and whose values are transparently updated with sensor observations. For this purpose, we introduce IoTVar, a middleware between IoT applications and platforms. In IoTVar, all the necessary interactions with IoT platforms are managed by proxies. This paper presents IoTVar integrated with the FIWARE platform, which is used for developing IoT Future Internet applications. We also report results of some experiments performed to evaluate IoTVar, showing IoTVar reduces the effort required to declare and manage IoT variables and its impact in terms of CPU, memory, and energy. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Intelligent System for the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers by Monitoring Postural Changes with Wearable Inertial Sensors
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031079 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 426
Abstract
Pressure ulcers affect the quality of life and health level of patients while causing a cost increase for the health system. Despite all of this, there is no monitoring system for this disease, even though it is very common in hospitalized patients. To [...] Read more.
Pressure ulcers affect the quality of life and health level of patients while causing a cost increase for the health system. Despite all of this, there is no monitoring system for this disease, even though it is very common in hospitalized patients. To resolve this issue, in this work, we present a prototype for monitoring and caring of pressure ulcers, through an intelligent system based on wearable inertial devices. The system detects the position of patients with reduced mobility while in bed, walking, or standing; providing, to medical staff and caregivers, useful information by means of mobile devices, in particular: (i) A historical record of body activity and (ii) notifications when a single position persists for a prolonged period of time. The following contributions are presented in this paper. Firstly, a technological survey of healthcare systems applied to pressure ulcers is presented. Secondly, an architecture and a methodology for modelling wearable inertial sensors for classifying body position are proposed. Finally, experimental tests with real cases were conducted to evaluate machine learning approaches and to validate the position estimation of the case study developed with four participants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Query-By-Committee Framework Used for Semi-Automatic Sleep Stages Classification
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031080 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Active learning is very useful for classification problems where it is hard or time-consuming to acquire classes of data in order to create a subset for training a classifier. The classification of over-night polysomnography records to sleep stages is an example of such [...] Read more.
Active learning is very useful for classification problems where it is hard or time-consuming to acquire classes of data in order to create a subset for training a classifier. The classification of over-night polysomnography records to sleep stages is an example of such application because an expert has to annotate a large number of segments of a record. Active learning methods enable us to iteratively select only the most informative instances for the manual classification so the total expert’s effort is reduced. However, the process is able to be insufficiently initialised because of a large dimensionality of polysomnography (PSG) data, so the fast convergence of active learning is at risk. In order to prevent this threat, we have proposed a variant of the query-by-committee active learning scenario which take into account all features of data so it is not necessary to reduce a feature space, but the process is quickly initialised. The proposed method is compared to random sampling and margin uncertainty sampling which is another well-known active learning method. It was shown that, during crucial first iteration of the process, the provided variant of query-by-committee acquired the best results among other strategies in most cases. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The PRISMA: A Visual Feedback Display for Learning Scenarios
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031081 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Ambient displays can play an important role in the teaching process guiding students to perform learning activities in public spaces. In the last years, automated feedback is becoming popular due to the proliferation of sensors, actuators, mobile devices, and networks. The contribution of [...] Read more.
Ambient displays can play an important role in the teaching process guiding students to perform learning activities in public spaces. In the last years, automated feedback is becoming popular due to the proliferation of sensors, actuators, mobile devices, and networks. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) first, we present the implementation of an ambient display designed to provide feedback in learning scenarios using different actuators; (2) second, we present the results of a survey to investigate how adequate might be Bluetooth technology to sense and attract students to perform a learning activity. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
FOX: A Flexible and Heterogeneus Mixed User Model to Address Sustainable Behaviour in Smart Environments
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031082 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Addressing how human behaviour can be taken into account when designing for sustainability is an emerging topic in the development of pro-environmental person-centred smart systems. Indeed, user diversity and categorisation in the context of sustainable behaviour was already studied by some scholars in [...] Read more.
Addressing how human behaviour can be taken into account when designing for sustainability is an emerging topic in the development of pro-environmental person-centred smart systems. Indeed, user diversity and categorisation in the context of sustainable behaviour was already studied by some scholars in recent literature. However, the complexity of the individual present some open challenges that still have to be further investigated. In this work, behavioural theories and user characterisation are analysed together to better understand the human factors when trying to influence sustainable lifestyles and actions. Then, theoretical frameworks are combined and mapped in a novel user meta-model, coined FOX, that classifies the individual dynamically taking into account its heterogeneity and diversity. The dimensions involved in the FOX proposal are explained by describing the categorisation of each dimension. Besides, an example of the potential application of the model is exposed to better contextualise the work presented. Finally, controversial aspects and emerging ideas of the proposal are equally discussed throughout the paper as well as we discuss the use of FOX model to inform the design of behaviour change interventions related to sustainability. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Living in Virtual and Real Worlds: A Didactic Experience
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031083 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 391
Abstract
During the last decade some technologies have achieved the necessary maturity to allow the widespread emergence of Virtual Worlds; many people are living an alternative life in them. One objective of this paper is to argue that the blending of real and virtual [...] Read more.
During the last decade some technologies have achieved the necessary maturity to allow the widespread emergence of Virtual Worlds; many people are living an alternative life in them. One objective of this paper is to argue that the blending of real and virtual worlds has been happening for centuries, and in fact is the mark of “civilization”. This project presents a proposal to improve student motivation in the classroom, through a new form of recreation of a mixed reality environment. To this end, two applications have been created that work together between the real environment and the virtual environment: these applications are called “Virtual Craft” and “Virtual Touch”. Virtual Craft is related with the real world and Virtual Touch is related with the virtual world. These applications are in constant communication with each other, since both students and teachers carry out actions that influence the real or virtual world. A gamification mechanics was used in the recreated environment, in order to motivate the students to carry out the activities assigned by the teacher. For the evaluation of the proposal, a pilot experiment with Virtual Craft was carried out in a Secondary Educational Center in Valls (Spain). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Prof. Watson: A Pedagogic Conversational Agent to Teach Programming in Primary Education
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031084 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Teaching programming in Primary Education has recently attracted a great deal of research interest. One global trend is using multimedia languages such as Scratch. However, it was our belief that by using Pedagogic Conversational Agents that dialog with the students, they have to [...] Read more.
Teaching programming in Primary Education has recently attracted a great deal of research interest. One global trend is using multimedia languages such as Scratch. However, it was our belief that by using Pedagogic Conversational Agents that dialog with the students, they have to think how to solve given problems and to write the code to solve them. In particular, the MECOPROG methodology was applied to design the student-agent dialog in Prof. Watson. An experiment with 19 students (11–12 years old) was carried out proving the viability of the approach, which shed some light into alternative procedures to teach programming in Primary Education. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Microservice-Based Framework for Developing Internet of Things and People Applications
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031085 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 380
Abstract
The Internet of things (IoT) is characterized by billions of heterogeneous, distributed, and intelligent objects—both from the digital and the physical worlds—running applications and services. Objects are connected through heterogeneous platforms providing support for the collection and management of data that need to [...] Read more.
The Internet of things (IoT) is characterized by billions of heterogeneous, distributed, and intelligent objects—both from the digital and the physical worlds—running applications and services. Objects are connected through heterogeneous platforms providing support for the collection and management of data that need to be understood. Since IoT systems are composed by a variety of objects and services, a key aspect for engineering them is their architecture. The new paradigm called Internet of people (IoP) is not unaware of this need. In IoP, humans play an important role so that design considering aspects as context becomes critical for making the most of these applications. This work presents a context-aware, serverless, microservice-based, and cloud-centric framework for the Internet of things and people (IoT-P) applications that extends the three-layer classic IoT reference architecture. It integrates most of the aspects considered by the architecture of IoT solutions emerging from different perspectives, being also domain independent. This work focuses on the application paradigm of IoT neglected by most proposals. This framework, combined with a previous work, offers a higher separation of concerns (SoC) degree than other proposals, by splitting the application layer into different sublayers or subsystems based on their responsibilities and tracing atomic components to serverless microservices, to facilitate the design, development, and deployment of IoT-P applications. An IoT-P application in the healthcare domain is presented to illustrate how this framework can be put into practice. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
On the Identification of Several Key Issues on OER Discovery for Smart Learning Environments
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031086 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The best Open Educational Resources (OER) for each final user can be hard to find. OER come from lots of sources, in many different formats, conforming to a diverse logical structure and each user may present different objectives depending on their role in [...] Read more.
The best Open Educational Resources (OER) for each final user can be hard to find. OER come from lots of sources, in many different formats, conforming to a diverse logical structure and each user may present different objectives depending on their role in the teaching/learning process and their context. Previous attempts have only focused on one kind of technologies. A new approach that embraces diversity, may gain from the potential synergies of sharing resources in the development of the final recommendation system and the exploitation of the data. In this work, we aim at identifying the main challenges facing the field of OER recommendation, for a potential architecture model. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Fire Science Living Lab for Flashover Prediction
Proceedings 2019, 31(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019031087 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 491
Abstract
There is a huge demand for new techniques and technologies to tackle life-threatening in fire emergencies. Enclosure fires are a type of emergency involving firefighters whose lives are sometimes put at risk. In any confined fire, the emergency team may encounter two types [...] Read more.
There is a huge demand for new techniques and technologies to tackle life-threatening in fire emergencies. Enclosure fires are a type of emergency involving firefighters whose lives are sometimes put at risk. In any confined fire, the emergency team may encounter two types of combustion environments, ventilated or under-ventilated. The rapidly changing behaviour of this scenario depends on multiple factors such as enclosure size, ventilation, or type and quantity of fuel involved. However, the difficulty of handling this situation coupled with the potential for human error, even if there is undivided attention to the task in hand, remains an unresolved challenge for firefighters today. New technologies based in Thermal Imaging Cameras can help firefighters to prevent this situation. Fire Science Living Lab is presented as a solution to test new technologies for this area. This papers shows a resume about the process to develop a prediction system in a living lab for one of the most dangerous situation for firefighters, flashover. Full article
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