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Infrastructures, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Pervious portland cement concrete is both energy- and carbon-intensive to manufacture. Like normal [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle On the Theoretical CO2 Sequestration Potential of Pervious Concrete
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010012
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
Pervious concrete, which has recently found new applications in buildings, is both energy- and carbon-intensive to manufacture. However, similar to normal concrete, some of the initial CO2 emissions associated with pervious concrete can be sequestered through a process known as carbonation. In [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete, which has recently found new applications in buildings, is both energy- and carbon-intensive to manufacture. However, similar to normal concrete, some of the initial CO2 emissions associated with pervious concrete can be sequestered through a process known as carbonation. In this work, the theoretical formulation and application of a mathematical model for estimating the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration potential of pervious concrete is presented. Using principles of cement and carbonation chemistry, the model related mixture proportions of pervious concretes to their theoretical in situ CO2 sequestration potential. The model was subsequently employed in a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the percentage of recoverable CO2 emissions—namely, the ratio of in situ sequesterable CO2 to initial cradle-to-gate CO2 emissions—for common pervious concrete mixtures. Results suggest that natural carbonation can recover up to 12% of initial CO2 emissions and that CO2 sequestration potential is maximized for pervious concrete mixtures with (i) lower water-to-cement ratios, (ii) higher compressive strengths, (iii) lower porosities, and (iv) lower hydraulic conductivities. However, LCA results elucidate that mixtures with maximum CO2 sequestration potential (i.e., mixtures with high cement contents and CO2 recoverability) emit more CO2 from a net-emissions perspective, despite their enhanced in situ CO2 sequestration potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Sustainability of Concrete Mixtures)
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Open AccessArticle Resilience-Based Recovery Assessments of Networked Infrastructure Systems under Localized Attacks
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010011
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
To reduce unforeseen disaster risks, infrastructure systems are expected to be resilient. The impact of many natural disasters on networked infrastructures is often observed to follow a localized attack pattern. The localized attack can be demonstrated by the failures of a group of [...] Read more.
To reduce unforeseen disaster risks, infrastructure systems are expected to be resilient. The impact of many natural disasters on networked infrastructures is often observed to follow a localized attack pattern. The localized attack can be demonstrated by the failures of a group of links concentrated in a particular geographical domain which result in adjacent isolated nodes. In this paper, a resilience-based recovery assessment framework is proposed. The framework aims to find the most effective recovery strategy when subjected to localized attacks. The proposed framework was implemented in a lattice network structure inspired by a water distribution network case study. Three different recovery strategies were studied with cost and time constraints incorporated: preferential recovery based on nodal weight (PRNW), periphery recovery (PR), and localized recovery (LR). The case study results indicated that LR could be selected as the most resilient and cost-effective recovery strategy. This paper hopes to aid in the decision-making process by providing a strategic baseline for finding an optimized recovery strategy for localized attack scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Infrastructure Systems)
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Open AccessReview Review on Computer Aided Sewer Pipeline Defect Detection and Condition Assessment
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010010
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Physical and operational inspection of sewer pipelines is critical to sustaining an acceptable level of system serviceability. Emerging inspection tools in addition to developments in sensor and lens technologies have facilitated sewer condition assessment and increased the quality and consistency of provided data. [...] Read more.
Physical and operational inspection of sewer pipelines is critical to sustaining an acceptable level of system serviceability. Emerging inspection tools in addition to developments in sensor and lens technologies have facilitated sewer condition assessment and increased the quality and consistency of provided data. Meanwhile, sewer networks are too vast to be adequately investigated manually so the development of innovative computer vision techniques for automation applications has become an interest point of recent studies. This review paper presents the current state of inspection technology practices in sewer pipelines. An overall inspection tool comparison was conducted and the advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed. This was followed by a comprehensive review of recent studies on visual inspection automation using computer vision and machine learning techniques. Finally, current achievements and limitations of existing automation methods were debated to outline open challenges and future research for both infrastructure management and computer science researchers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consistency between Infrastructure Rating Systems in Measuring Sustainability
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010009
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
To date, several transportation sustainability rating systems (TSRS) have been developed to measure and promote sustainability. However, studies show that these TSRS have not been developed with a consistent sustainability scope. This raises the question of the consistency of these TSRS in measuring [...] Read more.
To date, several transportation sustainability rating systems (TSRS) have been developed to measure and promote sustainability. However, studies show that these TSRS have not been developed with a consistent sustainability scope. This raises the question of the consistency of these TSRS in measuring the sustainability of transportation projects. This study assesses how three prominent TSRS (Envision, INVEST, and GreenLITES) rate the sustainability performance of transportation projects with the goal of determining if a consistency exists in the way these three TSRS measure sustainability. These three TSRS are applied to five transportation projects. The results showed that these three rating tools assess and reward sustainability practices differently. Additionally, results suggest that it may be easier for a project to get awarded in GreenLITES compared to the other two TSRS. Notwithstanding all of the above, a consistency was noted in all three rating systems in the quality of life/social performance of projects. This study helps to inform stakeholders in the transportation industry on how transportation projects perform when run through each of these rating systems. This will help stakeholders to make informed decisions with respect to choosing one (or more) TSRS to assess their projects with and evaluating the results obtained from such TSRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Case Study of BIM Implementation in Rail Track Rehabilitation
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010008
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an Industry 4.0 methodology that is increasingly used in the domain of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC). BIM emerges as a new methodology, one that is more collaborative and based on parametric three-Dimensional (3D) models, centralizing different types [...] Read more.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an Industry 4.0 methodology that is increasingly used in the domain of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC). BIM emerges as a new methodology, one that is more collaborative and based on parametric three-Dimensional (3D) models, centralizing different types of information of a geometric, physical, and economic nature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the application of the BIM methodology to a rail track rehabilitation case study using a geotextile and geogrid in the ballast layer base. The creation of the 3D and 4D BIM models was performed using various BIM-based tools, which made it possible to achieve the spatial and parametric representation of the rail track and the simulation of the main construction tasks. A new BIM object pertaining to the rail track was created. This paper describes the procedures applied in achieving the BIM models, the limitations involved, and the interoperability between the BIM tools. Additionally, the potential for information extraction with respect to the infrastructure design, construction, and operation, e.g., planning and scheduling, quantities, graphic outputs, and track geometry quality, was demonstrated. It was concluded that the BIM methodology was viable and could be implemented with benefits, despite certain difficulties and limitations, which emphasize the need for further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Information Modelling for Civil Infrastructures)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Infrastructures in 2018
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010007
Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle A Strategic Analysis of Cargolux Airlines International Position in the Global Air Cargo Supply Chain Using Porter’s Five Forces Model
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010006
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this research was to examine Cargolux Airlines International’s, one of the world’s major dedicated all-cargo airlines, strategic position in the global air cargo supply chain. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research approach was used. The data gathered for the [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to examine Cargolux Airlines International’s, one of the world’s major dedicated all-cargo airlines, strategic position in the global air cargo supply chain. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research approach was used. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of Cargolux Airlines International was underpinned using Porter’s Five Forces Model. The study found that Cargolux has developed an extensive portfolio of products that satisfy discrete air cargo market segments’ requirements. The airline has also entered strategic partnership agreements with Emirates SkyCargo, Nippon Cargo Airlines (NCA), and Oman Air, which has enabled the partners to expand their route networks and to better optimize their available air cargo capacities. Cargolux has also established Milan-based Cargo Italia, which focuses on serving the important Italian air cargo market. The airline has also developed a successful two hub strategy in conjunction with one of its major shareholders, Henan Civil Aviation and Investment Company (HNCA). In 2017, Cargolux commenced a journey of transformation with the introduction of the “Cargolux 2025 Strategy”. A limitation of the study was that Cargolux’s annual revenues were not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyze the airline’s revenue performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Evaluation of IoT-Enabled Instrumentation for a Soil-Bentonite Slurry Trench Cutoff Wall
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010005
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we describe our approach and experiences bringing an instrumented soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall into a modern IoT data collection and visualization pipeline. Soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls have long been used to control ground water flow and contaminant transport. [...] Read more.
In this work, we describe our approach and experiences bringing an instrumented soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall into a modern IoT data collection and visualization pipeline. Soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls have long been used to control ground water flow and contaminant transport. A Raspberry Pi computer on site periodically downloads the sensor data over a serial interface from an industrial datalogger and transmits the data wirelessly to a gateway computer located 1.3 km away using a reliable transmission protocol. The resulting time-series data is stored in a MongoDB database and data is visualized in real-time by a custom web application. The system has been in operation for over two years achieving 99.42% reliability and no data loss from the collection, transport, or storage of data. This project demonstrates the successful bridging of legacy scientific instrumentation with modern IoT technologies and approaches to gain timely web-based data visualization facilitating rapid data analysis without negatively impacting data integrity or reliability. The instrumentation system has proven extremely useful in understanding the changes in the stress state over time and could be deployed elsewhere as a means of on-demand slurry trench cutoff wall structural health monitoring for real-time stress detection linked to hydraulic conductivity or adapted for other infrastructure monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Driving Factors Causing Urban Expansion in the Peri-Urban Areas Using Logistic Regression: A Case Study of the Greater Cairo Region
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010004
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
The peri-urban area (PUA) of the Greater Cairo Region (GCR) in Egypt has witnessed a rapid urban expansion during the last few years. This urban expansion has led to the loss of wide, areas of agriculture lands and the annexation of many peripheral [...] Read more.
The peri-urban area (PUA) of the Greater Cairo Region (GCR) in Egypt has witnessed a rapid urban expansion during the last few years. This urban expansion has led to the loss of wide, areas of agriculture lands and the annexation of many peripheral villages into the boundary of the GCR. This study analyzed the driving factors causing the urban expansion in the GCR during the period 2007–2017 using the logistic regression model (LRM). Eight independent variables were applied in this model: distance to the nearest urban center, distance to the nearest center of regional services, distance to water streams, distance to the main agglomeration, distance to industrial areas, distance to nearest road, number of urban cells within a 3 × 3 cell window and population density. The analysis was conducted using LOGISTICREG module in Terrset software. This research showed that the population density and distance to the nearest road have the highest regression coefficients, 0.540 and 0.114, respectively, and were the most significant driving factors of urban expansion during the last 10 years (2007–2017). Moreover, based on the results of the LRM, a probability map of urban expansion in the PUA was created, which shows that most urban expansion would be around the existing urban areas and near roads. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) value of 0.93 indicates that the probability map of urban expansion is valid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Cities, Diminishing Space)
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Open AccessArticle Peat Fibers and Finely Ground Peat Powder for Application in Asphalt
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010003
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the feasibility of a natural peat fiber and finely ground peat powder as a modifier for bitumen was investigated. Initially, the as-received peat material was characterized in detail: the material was ground to various degrees, separated into fiber and powder [...] Read more.
In this study, the feasibility of a natural peat fiber and finely ground peat powder as a modifier for bitumen was investigated. Initially, the as-received peat material was characterized in detail: the material was ground to various degrees, separated into fiber and powder fractions, and the gradation of the powder fraction as well as the size of the fibers were determined. A possible solubility in bitumen, the moisture content, and the density of both fractions were evaluated, and a limited chemical characterization of the fibers was conducted. Secondly, the rheological behavior of the powder and the fibers when blended with bitumen was evaluated. Additionally, a limited asphalt study was conducted. The rheological data showed the stiffening effects of the powder fraction and the presence of a fiber network, which were obvious as a plateau modulus towards lower frequencies. The fiber network was strain-dependent and showed elastic effects. This was further confirmed by the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCRT) tests. These tests also indicated that the fibers should improve the rutting resistance, although it was not possible to confirm this in asphalt rutting tests. Asphalt drainage tests demonstrated that adding dry peat, whether this is ground or not, is effective in reducing the binder drainage. However, the data also revealed that the amount of added peat fibers and powder should be limited to avoid difficulties in the compaction of these asphalt mixes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance and Future Trends in Pavement Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Airfield Infrastructure Management Using Network-Level Optimization and Stochastic Duration Modeling
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010002
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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This paper proposes a facility-specific modeling approach to plan maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities on a network of airport runway pavement facilities. The objective of the modeling approach is to minimize system M&R cost while recommending M&R activities for each runway pavement facility [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a facility-specific modeling approach to plan maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities on a network of airport runway pavement facilities. The objective of the modeling approach is to minimize system M&R cost while recommending M&R activities for each runway pavement facility over a planning horizon. To do so, pavement condition forecast is derived from estimating stochastic duration models which capture the inherent uncertainty and dynamics in pavement deterioration and impacts of exogenous factors. Building on the pavement condition forecast, a network optimization-based M&R planning framework is developed which accounts for the interdependence of M&R activities among facilities as reflected in (1) the requirement for aggregate pavement performance and (2) simultaneous implementation of a major M&R action on connected facilities. The budget constraint is also respected. The M&R planning framework with the stochastic duration model-based pavement condition forecast is applied to Chicago O’Hare International Airport. It is found that the proposed approach leads to much reduced M&R cost compared to the state-of-the-practice which does not consider the interdependence of M&R activities among different pavement facilities. On the other hand, accounting for the simultaneous implementation of a major M&R action on connected facilities would substantially increase M&R cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory Study on the Strength Behaviour of Two Laterally Loaded Adobe Walls
Infrastructures 2019, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures4010001
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Adobe is a traditional construction technique found in historic and new construction throughout the world, often in earthquake-prone regions. Adobe structures are particularly susceptible to seismic forces due to their substantial mass and low tensile capacity. In addition, adobe is affected negatively by [...] Read more.
Adobe is a traditional construction technique found in historic and new construction throughout the world, often in earthquake-prone regions. Adobe structures are particularly susceptible to seismic forces due to their substantial mass and low tensile capacity. In addition, adobe is affected negatively by moisture that may penetrate from the ground or through the plaster. This paper describes the preliminary findings of an experimental program to investigate the effect of higher water content in the lower part of the wall on the wall strength behaviour under lateral loading. Lateral load tests were conducted on two quarter-scale adobe walls, one in air-dry condition (Wall 1) and another with greater water content in the lower part (Wall 2). The model walls demonstrated similar behaviour during loading in terms of deflections; however, the higher water content in the lower part had a significant effect on the wall strength. The in-plane (lateral) load capacity of Wall 2 was approximately 74% of the capacity of Wall 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2018 Congress)
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Infrastructures EISSN 2412-3811 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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