In this study, the feasibility of a natural peat fiber and finely ground peat powder as a modifier for bitumen was investigated. Initially, the as-received peat material was characterized in detail: the material was ground to various degrees, separated into fiber and powder fractions, and the gradation of the powder fraction as well as the size of the fibers were determined. A possible solubility in bitumen, the moisture content, and the density of both fractions were evaluated, and a limited chemical characterization of the fibers was conducted. Secondly, the rheological behavior of the powder and the fibers when blended with bitumen was evaluated. Additionally, a limited asphalt study was conducted. The rheological data showed the stiffening effects of the powder fraction and the presence of a fiber network, which were obvious as a plateau modulus towards lower frequencies. The fiber network was strain-dependent and showed elastic effects. This was further confirmed by the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCRT) tests. These tests also indicated that the fibers should improve the rutting resistance, although it was not possible to confirm this in asphalt rutting tests. Asphalt drainage tests demonstrated that adding dry peat, whether this is ground or not, is effective in reducing the binder drainage. However, the data also revealed that the amount of added peat fibers and powder should be limited to avoid difficulties in the compaction of these asphalt mixes.
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