Next Issue
Volume 8, March
Previous Issue
Volume 7, September
 
 

Instruments, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Measurement of trapped particles in the Van Allen belts, and in the South Atlantic Anomaly, is interesting to test possible correlations of low-energy particle bursts and strong lithosphere-related phenomena. The Low-Energy Module (LEM) is a compact spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of charged particles’ energy, direction, and composition. It will be launched aboard the NUSES (NeUtrino and Seismic Electromagnetic Signals) space mission. The LEM will measure fluxes of electrons (0.1–7-MeV) and protons (3–50 MeV), monitoring Space Weather along the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Its detection concept resides in the “active collimation”, allowing direction measurements in the sub-MeV energy range, where traditional tracking techniques are spoiled by multiple scattering. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
23 pages, 16388 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing of Side-Coupled Cavity Linac Structures from Pure Copper: A First Concept
by Michael Mayerhofer, Stefan Brenner, Ricardo Helm, Samira Gruber, Elena Lopez, Lukas Stepien, Gerald Gold and Günther Dollinger
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040056 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Compared to conventional manufacturing, additive manufacturing (AM) of radio frequency (RF) cavities has the potential to reduce manufacturing costs and complexity and to enable higher performance. This work evaluates whether normal conducting side-coupled linac structures (SCCL), used worldwide for a wide range of [...] Read more.
Compared to conventional manufacturing, additive manufacturing (AM) of radio frequency (RF) cavities has the potential to reduce manufacturing costs and complexity and to enable higher performance. This work evaluates whether normal conducting side-coupled linac structures (SCCL), used worldwide for a wide range of applications, can benefit from AM. A unit cell geometry (SC) optimized for 75 MeV protons was developed. Downskins with small downskin angles α were avoided to enable manufacturing by laser powder bed fusion without support structures. SCs with different α were printed and post-processed by Hirtisation (R) (an electrochemical process) to minimize surface roughness. The required accuracy for 3 GHz SCCL (medical linacs) is achieved only for α>45. After a material removal of 140 µm due to Hirtisation (R), a quality factor Q0 of 6650 was achieved. This corresponds to 75% of the Q0 simulated by CST®. A 3 GHz SCCL concept consisting of 31 SCs was designed. The effective shunt impedance ZT2 simulated by CST corresponds to 60.13MΩm and is comparable to the ZT2 of SCCL in use. The reduction in ZT2 expected after Hirtisation (R) can be justified in practice by up to 70% lower manufacturing costs. However, future studies will be conducted to further increase Q0. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10991 KiB  
Review
Use of Silicon Photomultipliers in the Detectors of the JEM-EUSO Program
by Francesca Bisconti
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040055 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The JEM-EUSO program aims to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays from space. To achieve this goal, it has realized a series of experiments installed on the ground (EUSO-TA), various on stratospheric balloons (with the most recent one EUSO-SPB2), and inside the International Space [...] Read more.
The JEM-EUSO program aims to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays from space. To achieve this goal, it has realized a series of experiments installed on the ground (EUSO-TA), various on stratospheric balloons (with the most recent one EUSO-SPB2), and inside the International Space Station (Mini-EUSO), in light of future missions such as K-EUSO and POEMMA. At nighttime, these instruments aim to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere measuring fluorescence and Cherenkov light produced by extensive air showers generated both by very high-energy cosmic rays from outside the atmosphere and by neutrino decays. As the two light components differ in duration (order of microseconds for fluorescence light and a few nanoseconds for Cherenkov light) they each require specialized sensors and acquisition electronics. So far, the sensors used for the fluorescence camera are the Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), while for the Cherenkov one, new systems based on Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) have been developed. In this contribution, a brief review of the experiments is followed by a discussion of the tests performed on the optical sensors. Particular attention is paid to the development, test, and calibration conducted on SiPMs, also in view to optimize the geometry, mass, and weight in light of the installation of mass-critical applications such as balloon- and space-borne instrumentation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6072 KiB  
Article
Overview and Commissioning Status of the UCLA MITHRA Facility
by Oliver Williams, Atsushi Fukasawa, Yusuke Sakai, Gerard Andonian, Fabio Bosco, Martina Carillo, Pratik Manwani, Sean O’Tool, Jessica Pan, Monika Yadav and James Rosenzweig
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040054 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Presented here are the first results of commissioning of the S-Band hybrid photoinjector and laser systems at the new accelerator and light source facility, MITHRA, at UCLA. The radiation bunker and capabilities of the facility are described with motivation for detailed measurement of [...] Read more.
Presented here are the first results of commissioning of the S-Band hybrid photoinjector and laser systems at the new accelerator and light source facility, MITHRA, at UCLA. The radiation bunker and capabilities of the facility are described with motivation for detailed measurement of beam parameters explained. Following thorough characterization of the photoinjector, a 1.5 m linac is to be installed and experiments up to 30 MeV will begin. These will include experiments in basic plasma physics, space plasma, terahertz production in dielectric structures, and inverse Compton scattering and applications for the X-rays produced. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 12153 KiB  
Article
The PMT Acquisition and Trigger Generation System of the HEPD-02 Calorimeter for the CSES-02 Satellite
by Marco Mese, Antonio Anastasio, Alfonso Boiano, Vincenzo Masone, Giuseppe Osteria, Francesco Perfetto, Beatrice Panico, Valentina Scotti and Antonio Vanzanella
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040053 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
This contribution describes the acquisition and trigger system for the HEPD-02 calorimeter that will be used onboard the CSES-02 satellite for the CSES/Limadou mission. This mission arises from the collaboration between the Chinese Space Agency (CNSA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and [...] Read more.
This contribution describes the acquisition and trigger system for the HEPD-02 calorimeter that will be used onboard the CSES-02 satellite for the CSES/Limadou mission. This mission arises from the collaboration between the Chinese Space Agency (CNSA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and plans the realization of a constellation of satellites which will monitor ionospheric parameters supposed to be related to earthquakes. It will also monitor the solar activity and the interaction with the magnetosphere and will study the cosmic rays in low energy ranges, extending data from PAMELA and AMS. The CSES-02 satellite will be equipped with various instruments, including the High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD-02), which was designed to measure the energy of particles coming from Van Allen belts. Signals from the HEPD-02 are acquired and digitized by an electronic board that also produces the trigger for the experiment. A new generation ASIC (CITIROC) for the amplification, shaping and memorization of signals from PMTs will be used on this board. The new ASIC allows the use of the peak detector feature, optimizing the acquisition of signals with different temporal characteristics. Along with this, new algorithms for trigger generation have been developed, providing trigger pre-scaling, concurrent trigger masks and Gamma Ray Burst detection. Using pre-scaled concurrent triggers will allow the study of very sensitive regions of a satellite’s orbit such as the South Atlantic Anomaly and polar regions and to detect rare events such as GRBs while still monitoring particle bursts. In this contribution, the progress status of this work will be presented along with the measurements and tests made to finalize the flight model of the board. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 6352 KiB  
Article
First Simulations for the EuAPS Betatron Radiation Source: A Dedicated Radiation Calculation Code
by Andrea Frazzitta, Alberto Bacci, Arianna Carbone, Alessandro Cianchi, Alessandro Curcio, Illya Drebot, Massimo Ferrario, Vittoria Petrillo, Marcello Rossetti Conti, Sanae Samsam, Luca Serafini and Andrea Renato Rossi
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040052 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1421
Abstract
X-ray production through betatron radiation emission from electron bunches is a valuable resource for several research fields. The EuAPS (EuPRAXIA Advanced Photon Sources) project, within the framework of EuPRAXIA, aims to provide 1–10 keV photons (X-rays), developing a compact plasma-based system designed to [...] Read more.
X-ray production through betatron radiation emission from electron bunches is a valuable resource for several research fields. The EuAPS (EuPRAXIA Advanced Photon Sources) project, within the framework of EuPRAXIA, aims to provide 1–10 keV photons (X-rays), developing a compact plasma-based system designed to exploit self-injection processes that occur in the highly nonlinear laser-plasma interaction (LWFA) to drive electron betatron oscillations. Since the emitted radiation spectrum, intensity, angular divergence, and possible coherence strongly depend on the properties of the self-injected beam, accurate preliminary simulations of the process are necessary to evaluate the optimal diagnostic device specifications and to provide an initial estimate of the source’s performance. A dedicated tool for these tasks has been developed; electron trajectories from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are currently undergoing numerical analysis through the calculation of retarded fields and spectra for various plasma and laser parameter combinations. The implemented forward approach evaluation of the fields could allow for the integration of the presented scheme into already existing PIC codes. The spectrum calculation is thus performed in detector time, giving a linear complex exponential phase; this feature allows for a semi-analitical Fourier transform evaluation. The code structure and some trajectories analysis results are presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 487 KiB  
Communication
Asymmetric Dual-Grating Dielectric Laser Accelerator Optimization
by Sophie Crisp, Alexander Ody and Pietro Musumeci
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040051 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Although hundreds of keV in energy gain have already been demonstrated in dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs), the challenge of creating structures that can confine electrons for multiple millimeters remains. We focus here on dual gratings with single-sided drive, which have experimentally demonstrated energy [...] Read more.
Although hundreds of keV in energy gain have already been demonstrated in dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs), the challenge of creating structures that can confine electrons for multiple millimeters remains. We focus here on dual gratings with single-sided drive, which have experimentally demonstrated energy modulation numerous times. Using a Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation to find the fields within various DLA structures and correlating these results with particle tracking simulation, we look at the impact of teeth height and width, as well as gap and offset, on the performance of these structures. We find a tradeoff between electron throughput and acceleration; however, we also find that for any given grating geometry, there is a gap and offset that will allow some charge acceleration. For our 780 nm laser wavelength, this results in a 1200 nm optimal gap size for most gratings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
A Configurable 64-Channel ASIC for Cherenkov Radiation Detection from Space
by Andrea Di Salvo, Sara Garbolino, Marco Mignone, Stefan Cristi Zugravel, Angelo Rivetti, Mario Edoardo Bertaina and Pietro Antonio Palmieri
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040050 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
This work presents the development of a 64-channel application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), implemented to detect the optical Cherenkov light from sub-orbital and orbital altitudes. These kinds of signals are generated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and cosmic neutrinos (CNs). The purpose of [...] Read more.
This work presents the development of a 64-channel application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), implemented to detect the optical Cherenkov light from sub-orbital and orbital altitudes. These kinds of signals are generated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and cosmic neutrinos (CNs). The purpose of this front-end electronics is to provide a readout unit for a matrix of silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) to identify extensive air showers (EASs). Each event can be stored into a configurable array of 256 cells where the on-board digitization can take place with a programmable 12-bits Wilkinson analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The sampling, the conversion process, and the main digital logic of the ASIC run at 200 MHz, while the readout is managed by dedicated serializers operating at 400 MHz in double data rate (DDR). The chip is designed in a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology, ensuring a high configurability by selecting the partition of the channels, the resolution in the interval 8–12 bits, and the source of its trigger. The production and testing of the ASIC is planned for the forthcoming months. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2808 KiB  
Article
Analytical Scaling Laws for Radiofrequency-Based Pulse Compression in Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Beamlines
by Paul Denham and Pietro Musumeci
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040049 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
We present an envelope equation-based approach to obtain analytical scaling laws for the shortest pulse length achievable using radiofrequency (RF)-based bunch compression. The derived formulas elucidate the dependencies on the electron beam energy and beam charge and reveal how relativistic energies are strongly [...] Read more.
We present an envelope equation-based approach to obtain analytical scaling laws for the shortest pulse length achievable using radiofrequency (RF)-based bunch compression. The derived formulas elucidate the dependencies on the electron beam energy and beam charge and reveal how relativistic energies are strongly desirable to obtain bunches containing 1 million electrons with single-digit femtosecond pulse lengths. However, the non-linearities associated with the RF curvature and the beam propagation in drift spaces significantly limit the attainability of extreme compression ratios. Therefore, an additional higher frequency RF cavity is implemented, which linearizes the bunch compression, enabling the generation of ultrashort beams in the sub-femtosecond regime. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Opportunities for Bright Beam Generation at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA)
by Emily Frame, Afnan Al Marzouk, Oksana Chubenko, Scott Doran, Philippe Piot, John Power and Eric Wisniewski
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040048 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Bright electron beams have played a critical role in many recent advances in accelerator technology. Producing bright beams via photo-emission is ultimately limited by the mean transverse energy (MTE), which is determined by the photocathode. This paper discusses the opportunity to generate bright [...] Read more.
Bright electron beams have played a critical role in many recent advances in accelerator technology. Producing bright beams via photo-emission is ultimately limited by the mean transverse energy (MTE), which is determined by the photocathode. This paper discusses the opportunity to generate bright electron beams using an upgraded version of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) photo-injector. The focus of this study is to examine the optimal configurations of the AWA photo-injector to produce 100 pC with a ∼100 nm transverse emittance (corresponding to a 5D brightness B51015 A·m2). The numerical optimization of the AWA photo-injector operating point, including realistic electromagnetic field maps, is presented for the different types of photocathodes under consideration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3856 KiB  
Article
Modeling Field Electron Emission from a Flat Au (100) Surface with Density-Functional Theory
by Yiming Li, Joshua Mann and James Rosenzweig
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040047 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Field electron emission, or electron tunneling through a potential energy (PE) barrier under the influence of a strong electrostatic (ES) or radio frequency (RF) field, is of broad interest to the accelerator physics community. For example, it is the source of undesirable dark [...] Read more.
Field electron emission, or electron tunneling through a potential energy (PE) barrier under the influence of a strong electrostatic (ES) or radio frequency (RF) field, is of broad interest to the accelerator physics community. For example, it is the source of undesirable dark currents in resonant cavities, providing a limit to high-field operation. Field electron emission can also be applied to quasi-statically model electron emission induced by the electric field in a laser pulse. The classical approach to field electron emission is the Fowler–Nordheim (FN) framework, which incorporates a simplified PE profile and various assumptions. Here, we build a more realistic model using the PE and charge densities derived from a density-functional theory (DFT) calculation. We examine the correction factors associated with each model assumption. Compared to the FN framework, our results can be extended up to 80 GV/m, a limit that has been reached in laser-induced strong field emission scenarios. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 27802 KiB  
Article
Collection of Silicon Detectors Mechanical Properties from Static and Dynamic Characterization Test Campaigns
by Edoardo Mancini, Lorenzo Mussolin, Giulia Morettini, Massimiliano Palmieri, Maria Ionica, Gianluigi Silvestre, Franck Cadoux, Agnese Staffa, Giovanni Ambrosi, Filippo Cianetti, Claudio Braccesi, Lucio Farnesini, Mirco Caprai, Gianluca Scolieri, Roberto Petrucci and Luigi Torre
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040046 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Physics research is constantly pursuing more efficient silicon detectors, often trying to develop complex and optimized geometries, thus leading to non-trivial engineering challenges. Although critical for this optimization, there are few silicon tile mechanical data available in the literature. In an attempt to [...] Read more.
Physics research is constantly pursuing more efficient silicon detectors, often trying to develop complex and optimized geometries, thus leading to non-trivial engineering challenges. Although critical for this optimization, there are few silicon tile mechanical data available in the literature. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, the present work details various mechanical-related aspects of spaceborne silicon detectors. Specifically, this study concerns three experimental campaigns with different objectives: a mechanical characterization of the material constituting the detector (in terms of density, elastic, and failure properties), an analysis of the adhesive effect on the loads, and a wirebond vibrational endurance campaign performed on three different unpotted samples. By collecting and discussing the experimental results, this work aims to fulfill its purpose of providing insight into the mechanical problems associated with this specific application and procuring input data of paramount importance. For the study to be complete, the perspective taken is broader than mere silicon analysis and embraces all related aspects; i.e., the detector–structure adhesive interface and the structural integrity of wirebonds. In summary, this paper presents experimental data on the material properties of silicon detectors, the impact of the adhesive on the gluing stiffness, and unpotted wirebond vibrational endurance. At the same time, the discussion of the results furnishes an all-encompassing view of the design-associated criticalities in experiments where silicon detectors are employed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 14922 KiB  
Article
Charge Resolution Study on AMS-02 Silicon Layer-0 Prototype
by Alessio Ubaldi and Maura Graziani
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040045 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
The work presented in this paper represents a preliminary study on the performance of the new Silicon tracker layer, Layer 0 (L0), that will be installed on top of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), at the end of 2024. AMS-02 is a cosmic [...] Read more.
The work presented in this paper represents a preliminary study on the performance of the new Silicon tracker layer, Layer 0 (L0), that will be installed on top of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), at the end of 2024. AMS-02 is a cosmic ray (CR) detector that has been operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011. Thanks to its nine-layer Silicon tracker, this apparatus can perform high-energy CR measurements with an unprecedented level of statistics and precision. However, high-Z (Z ≥ 15) CR nuclei statistics is strongly affected by fragmentation along the detector: with the installation of the new Silicon layer, it will be possible to achieve new unique high-energy (TeV region) measurements of those nuclei along with increased statistics for all nuclei up to Zinc. To achieve this, a Silicon ladder prototype, which will be part of the final Silicon layer, was exposed to an ion test beam at the super-proton synchrotron (SPS) of CERN to characterize its charge resolution and the readout electronics. Preliminary results have shown a charge resolution of 10 % for nuclei up to Z = 7. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 944 KiB  
Communication
Kernel Density Estimators for Axisymmetric Particle Beams
by Christopher M. Pierce and Young-Kee Kim
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040044 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Bright beams are commonly represented by sampled data in the numerical algorithms used to simulate their properties. However, in these calculations and the analyses of their outputs, the beam’s density is sometimes required and must be calculated from the samples. Axisymmetric beams, which [...] Read more.
Bright beams are commonly represented by sampled data in the numerical algorithms used to simulate their properties. However, in these calculations and the analyses of their outputs, the beam’s density is sometimes required and must be calculated from the samples. Axisymmetric beams, which possess a rotational symmetry and are naturally expressed in polar coordinates, pose a particular challenge to density estimators. The area element in polar coordinates shrinks as the radius becomes small, and weighting the samples to account for their reduced frequency may cause unwelcome artifacts. In this work, we derive analytical expressions for two kernel density estimators, which solve these problems in the spatial coordinates and in the transverse phase space. We show how the kernels can be found by averaging the Gaussian kernel in Cartesian coordinates over the polar angle and demonstrate their use on test problems. These results show that particle beam symmetries can be taken advantage of in density estimation while avoiding artifacts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
Beam Test of the First Prototype of SiPM-on-Tile Calorimeter Insert for the EIC Using 4 GeV Positrons at Jefferson Laboratory
by Miguel Arratia, Bruce Bagby, Peter Carney, Jiajun Huang, Ryan Milton, Sebouh J. Paul, Sean Preins, Miguel Rodriguez and Weibin Zhang
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040043 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
We recently proposed a high-granularity calorimeter insert for the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) that uses plastic scintillator tiles read out by SiPMs. Among its features are an ASIC-away-from-SiPM strategy for reducing cooling requirements and minimizing space use, along with employing 3D-printed frames to reduce [...] Read more.
We recently proposed a high-granularity calorimeter insert for the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) that uses plastic scintillator tiles read out by SiPMs. Among its features are an ASIC-away-from-SiPM strategy for reducing cooling requirements and minimizing space use, along with employing 3D-printed frames to reduce optical crosstalk and dead areas. To evaluate these features, we built a 40-channel prototype and tested it using a 4 GeV positron beam at Jefferson Laboratory. The measured energy spectra and 3D shower shapes are well described by simulations, confirming the effectiveness of the design, construction techniques, and calibration strategy. This constitutes the first use of SiPM-on-tile technology in an EIC detector design. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 557 KiB  
Communication
FAST Low-Energy Beamline Studies: Toward High-Peak 5D Brightness Beams for FAST-GREENS
by Frederick Cropp, Jinhao Ruan, James Santucci, Daniel MacLean, Alex H. Lumpkin, Christopher C. Hall, Jonathan P. Edelen, Alex Murokh, Daniel Broemmelsiek and Pietro Musumeci
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040042 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The FAST beamline is the injector for the planned Gamma-Ray Electron ENhanced Source (GREENS) program, which aims to achieve the demonstration and first application of a high-efficiency, high-average-power free-electron laser at 515 nm. FAST-GREENS requires high 5D peak brightness; transverse normalized projected emittances [...] Read more.
The FAST beamline is the injector for the planned Gamma-Ray Electron ENhanced Source (GREENS) program, which aims to achieve the demonstration and first application of a high-efficiency, high-average-power free-electron laser at 515 nm. FAST-GREENS requires high 5D peak brightness; transverse normalized projected emittances of 3 mm-mrad and a peak current of 600 A are the minimum beam requirements for the FEL to reach the 10% efficiency goal. In this work, studies of the low-energy section of the FAST beamline are presented toward these ends, including preliminary measurements of beam compression and beam emittance. An effort toward developing a high-fidelity simulation model that could be later optimized for FAST-GREENS is presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 16083 KiB  
Article
A Burn-In Apparatus for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Transformer-Coupled Buck Converters
by Ryan Mckenzie, Roger van Rensburg, Seyedali Moeyedi, Edward Nkadimeng, Stanislav Nemecek, Juan Buritica Yate, Haleh Hadavand and Bruce Mellado
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040041 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The upgrade of the A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS (ATLAS) hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Low-Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) forms a part of the Phase-II Upgrade preparations undertaken by the ATLAS experiment for the data taking during the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider era. This paper [...] Read more.
The upgrade of the A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS (ATLAS) hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Low-Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) forms a part of the Phase-II Upgrade preparations undertaken by the ATLAS experiment for the data taking during the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider era. This paper serves to provide a detailed overview of the development of a Burn-in test station for an upgraded LVPS component known as a Brick. The production, quality assurance testing, and all associated apparatus are being jointly undertaken by the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) and the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). These Bricks are radiation-hard transformer-coupled buck converters that function to step-down bulk 200 VDC power to the 10 VDC required by the on-detector electronics. To ensure the high reliability of the Bricks, once installed within the TileCal, a Burn-in test station has been designed and built. The Burn-in station functions to implement a Burn-in procedure on eight Bricks simultaneously. This procedure subjects the Bricks to sub-optimal operating conditions, which function to accelerate their ageing, as well as to stimulate failure mechanisms. This results in elements of the Brick that would fail prematurely within the TileCal failing within the Burn-in station or experience performance degradation that can be detected by follow-up testing effectively screening out the non-performative sub-population. The Burn-in station is of fully custom design in both its hardware and software. The development of the test station will be explored in detail; the preliminary Burn-in procedure to be employed will be provided; the preliminary and final commissioning of the test station will be presented. The paper will culminate in the presentation and discussion of the Burn-in of a V8.4.2 Brick and the future outlook of the project. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5273 KiB  
Article
A Compact Particle Detector for Space-Based Applications: Development of a Low-Energy Module (LEM) for the NUSES Space Mission
by Riccardo Nicolaidis, Francesco Nozzoli, Giancarlo Pepponi and on behalf of the NUSES Collaboration
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040040 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
NUSES is a planned space mission aiming to test new observational and technological approaches related to the study of relatively low-energy cosmic rays, gamma rays, and high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Two scientific payloads will be hosted onboard the NUSES space mission: Terzina and Zirè. [...] Read more.
NUSES is a planned space mission aiming to test new observational and technological approaches related to the study of relatively low-energy cosmic rays, gamma rays, and high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Two scientific payloads will be hosted onboard the NUSES space mission: Terzina and Zirè. Terzina will be an optical telescope readout by SiPM arrays, for the detection and study of Cerenkov light emitted by Extensive Air Showers generated by high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos in the atmosphere. Zirè will focus on the detection of protons and electrons up to a few hundred MeV and to 0.1–10 MeV photons and will include the Low Energy Module (LEM). The LEM will be a particle spectrometer devoted to the observation of fluxes of relatively low-energy electrons in the 0.1–7-MeV range and protons in the 3–50 MeV range along the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) followed by the hosting platform. The detection of Particle Bursts (PBs) in this Physics channel of interest could give new insight into the understanding of complex phenomena such as eventual correlations between seismic events or volcanic activity with the collective motion of particles in the plasma populating van Allen belts. With its compact sizes and limited acceptance, the LEM will allow the exploration of hostile environments such as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the inner Van Allen Belt, in which the anticipated electron fluxes are on the order of 106 to 107 electrons per square centimeter per steradian per second. Concerning the vast literature of space-based particle spectrometers, the innovative aspect of the LEM resides in its compactness, within 10 × 10 × 10 cm3, and in its “active collimation” approach dealing with the problem of multiple scattering at these very relatively low energies. In this work, the geometry of the detector, its detection concept, its operation modes, and the hardware adopted will be presented. Some preliminary results from the Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) will be shown. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Multipulse Optical-Rectification-Based THz Source for Accelerator Applications
by Maximilian Lenz and Pietro Musumeci
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040039 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
THz sources offer the potential for higher frequencies and higher breakdown thresholds in accelerating structures in comparison with conventional RF sources. They also benefit from larger field strengths, field gradients, better beam synchronization and compactness. In this work, we first present the development [...] Read more.
THz sources offer the potential for higher frequencies and higher breakdown thresholds in accelerating structures in comparison with conventional RF sources. They also benefit from larger field strengths, field gradients, better beam synchronization and compactness. In this work, we first present the development of a 49μJ single-cycle THz source centered at 0.6 THz that provides fields over 30 MV/m. With further modifications, multicycle pulses were produced, narrowing the bandwidth of the source and potentially easing the coupling of THz radiation to relativistic electron beams and increasing the usability in other areas of research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Monitoring of Solar Energetic Particles Using the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station
by Andrea Serpolla, Matteo Duranti, Valerio Formato and Alberto Oliva
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040038 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The International Space Station (ISS) orbits at an average altitude of 400 km, in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and is regularly occupied by astronauts. The material of the Station, the residual atmosphere and the geomagnetic field offer a partial protection against the [...] Read more.
The International Space Station (ISS) orbits at an average altitude of 400 km, in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and is regularly occupied by astronauts. The material of the Station, the residual atmosphere and the geomagnetic field offer a partial protection against the cosmic radiation to the crew and the equipment. The solar activity can cause sporadic bursts of particles with energies between ∼10 keV and several GeVs called Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). SEP emissions can last for hours or even days and can represent an actual risk for ISS occupants and equipment. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was installed on the ISS in 2011 and is expected to take data until the decommissioning of the Station itself. The instrument detects cosmic rays continuously and can also be used to monitor SEPs in real-time. A detection algorithm developed for the monitoring measures temporary increases in the trigger rates of AMS, using McIlwain’s L-parameter to characterize different conditions of the data-taking environment. A real-time monitor for SEPs has been realized reading data from the AMS Monitoring Interface (AMI) database and processing them using the custom algorithm that was developed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 619 KiB  
Brief Report
Effects of Plasma Temperature in the Blowout Regime for Plasma Accelerators
by Gevy Jiawei Cao
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040037 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Research on plasma accelerators for high-energy colliders has rapidly progressed over the past few decades. Plasma acceleration with a high repetition rate will enable higher collider luminosity, but results in a heated plasma. This study investigates two phenomena—beam breakup instability and ion motion—in [...] Read more.
Research on plasma accelerators for high-energy colliders has rapidly progressed over the past few decades. Plasma acceleration with a high repetition rate will enable higher collider luminosity, but results in a heated plasma. This study investigates two phenomena—beam breakup instability and ion motion—in the nonlinear blowout regime in plasma accelerators and how the plasma temperature affects them. It was found that increasing the plasma temperature enhances the beam breakup instability by reducing the blowout radius while suppressing the on-axis ion-density spike caused by ion motion. This imposes a stringent demand on alignment tolerances, but it offers promising prospects for mitigating ion motion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 19831 KiB  
Article
Microwave Photon Emission in Superconducting Circuits
by Alessandro D′Elia, Alessio Rettaroli, Fabio Chiarello, Daniele Di Gioacchino, Emanuele Enrico, Luca Fasolo, Carlo Ligi, Giovanni Maccarrone, Federica Mantegazzini, Benno Margesin, Francesco Mattioli, Simone Tocci, Andrea Vinante and Claudio Gatti
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040036 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Quantum computing requires a novel approach to store data as quantum states, opposite to classical bits. One of the most promising candidates is entangled photons. In this manuscript, we show the photon emission in the range of microwave frequencies of three different types [...] Read more.
Quantum computing requires a novel approach to store data as quantum states, opposite to classical bits. One of the most promising candidates is entangled photons. In this manuscript, we show the photon emission in the range of microwave frequencies of three different types of superconducting circuits, a SQUID, a JPA, and a JTWPA, often used as low-noise parametric amplifiers. These devices can be operated as sources of entangled photons. We report the experimental protocol used to produce and measure microwave radiation from these circuits, as well as data simulations. The collected spectra are obtained by performing single-tone measurements with a direct rf pump on the devices; the output spectra at low powers (below 100 dBm) are well interpreted by the dynamical Casimir model, while at high powers (above 100 dBm) the system is well described by the Autler–Townes fluorescence of a three-level atom. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
Shaping Micro-Bunched Electron Beams for Compact X-ray Free-Electron Lasers with Transverse Gradient Undulators
by River R. Robles and James B. Rosenzweig
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040035 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Laser-modulator-based micro-bunching of electron beams has been applied to many novel operating modes of X-ray free-electron lasers from harmonic generation to attosecond pulse production. Recently, it was also identified as a key enabling technology for the production of a compact XFEL driven by [...] Read more.
Laser-modulator-based micro-bunching of electron beams has been applied to many novel operating modes of X-ray free-electron lasers from harmonic generation to attosecond pulse production. Recently, it was also identified as a key enabling technology for the production of a compact XFEL driven by a relatively low-energy beam. In traditional laser modulator schemes with low-energy and high-current bunches, collective effects limit the possible working points that can be employed, and thus it is difficult to achieve optimal XFEL performance. We propose to utilize transverse longitudinal coupling in a transverse gradient undulator (TGU) to shape micro-bunched electron beams so as to optimize their performance in a compact X-ray free-electron laser. We show that a TGU added to a conventional laser modulator stage enables much more flexibility in the design, allowing one to generate longer micro-bunches less subject to slippage effects and even lower the slice emittance of the micro-bunches. We present a theoretical analysis of laser-based micro-bunching with an added TGU, simulation of compression with collective effects in such systems, and finally XFEL simulations demonstrating the gains in peak power enabled by the TGU. Although we focus on the application to compact XFELs, what we propose is a general phase space manipulation that may find utility in other applications as well. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
Attosecond Pulses from Ionization Injection Wakefield Accelerators
by Paolo Tomassini, Vojtech Horny and Domenico Doria
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040034 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
High-quality ionization injection methods for wakefield acceleration driven by lasers or charged beams (LWFA/PWFA) can be optimized so as to generate high-brightness electron beams with tuneable duration in the attosecond range. We present a model of the minimum bunch duration obtainable with low-emittance [...] Read more.
High-quality ionization injection methods for wakefield acceleration driven by lasers or charged beams (LWFA/PWFA) can be optimized so as to generate high-brightness electron beams with tuneable duration in the attosecond range. We present a model of the minimum bunch duration obtainable with low-emittance ionization injection schemes by spotting the roles of the ionization pulse duration, of the wakefield longitudinal shape and of the delay of the ionization pulse position with respect to the node of the accelerating field. The model is tested for the resonant multi-pulse ionization injection (ReMPI) scheme, showing that bunches having a length of about 300 as can be obtained with an ionization pulse having a duration of 30 fs FWHM. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Effect of Molybdenum Coatings on the Accelerating Cavity Quality Factor
by Pablo Vidal García, Stefano Sarti, Martina Carillo, Lucia Giuliano, Augusto Marcelli, Bruno Spataro, Andrea Alimenti, Kostiantyn Torokhtii, Enrico Silva and Nicola Pompeo
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040033 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
In this work, a detailed parametric study assessing the impact of low-conductivity coatings on the radio-frequency accelerating cavity quality factor and resonance frequency shift is presented. In particular, this study is aimed at proving the feasibility of molybdenum oxides deposited on copper to [...] Read more.
In this work, a detailed parametric study assessing the impact of low-conductivity coatings on the radio-frequency accelerating cavity quality factor and resonance frequency shift is presented. In particular, this study is aimed at proving the feasibility of molybdenum oxides deposited on copper to reduce the dark current in high-gradient applications due to its intrinsically high work function. In order to compute the effective surface impedance of the resulting layered structure, a transmission line-based approach is adopted. The present analysis demonstrates the potential effectiveness of molybdenum thin-films, which only slightly affects the accelerating cavity quality factor, with very low sensitivity to thickness and resistivity inhomogeneities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 11271 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost Hyperspectral Imaging Device for Portable Remote Sensing
by Eleftheria Maria Pechlivani, Athanasios Papadimitriou, Sotirios Pemas, Nikolaos Giakoumoglou and Dimitrios Tzovaras
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040032 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging has revolutionized various scientific fields by enabling a detailed analysis of objects and materials based on their spectral signatures. However, the high cost and complexity of commercial hyperspectral camera systems limit their accessibility to researchers and professionals. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging has revolutionized various scientific fields by enabling a detailed analysis of objects and materials based on their spectral signatures. However, the high cost and complexity of commercial hyperspectral camera systems limit their accessibility to researchers and professionals. In this paper, a do-it-yourself (DIY) hyperspectral camera device that offers a cost-effective and user-friendly alternative to hyperspectral imaging is presented. The proposed device leverages off-the-shelf components, commercially available hardware parts, open-source software, and novel calibration techniques to capture and process hyperspectral imaging data. The design considerations, hardware components, and construction process are discussed, providing a comprehensive guide for building the device. Furthermore, the performance of the DIY hyperspectral camera is investigated through experimental evaluations with a multi-color 3D-printed box in order to validate its sensitivities to red, green, blue, orange and white colors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 422 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Topuz et al. DOME: Discrete Oriented Muon Emission in GEANT4 Simulations. Instruments 2022, 6, 42
by Ahmet Ilker Topuz, Madis Kiisk and Andrea Giammanco
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040031 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muography, Applications in Cosmic-Ray Muon Imaging)
Show Figures

Figure 2

16 pages, 1394 KiB  
Review
Moving from Raman Spectroscopy Lab towards Analytical Applications: A Review of Interlaboratory Studies
by Elena-Andreea Rusu and Monica Baia
Instruments 2023, 7(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments7040030 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Is Raman spectroscopy applicable for analytical purposes? Although Raman spectroscopy is a commonly used technique for analyzing sample characteristics and has numerous benefits, it still has several significant limitations that hinder the current tendency to produce the same results regardless of location, equipment, [...] Read more.
Is Raman spectroscopy applicable for analytical purposes? Although Raman spectroscopy is a commonly used technique for analyzing sample characteristics and has numerous benefits, it still has several significant limitations that hinder the current tendency to produce the same results regardless of location, equipment, or operator. Overcoming these drawbacks may help to further the development of personalized medicine, diagnosis and treatment, the development of work protocols, and the pursuit of consistent and repeatable performance across all fields. Interlaboratory studies are currently the best way to do this. In this study, we reviewed the interlaboratory studies on Raman spectroscopy conducted to highlight the importance of moving to quantitative analysis in controlled environments. The advantages of Raman spectroscopy, including its high molecular specificity, short spectrum acquisition time, and excellent component identification capabilities, were clearly stated in all experiments. The Raman spectroscopy lab is taking small steps toward analytical applications by figuring out how to accurately predict concentrations in the relevant range of concentrations, developing and verifying the technology, and producing homogenous samples for those investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Devices Instrumentation and Applications II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop